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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Evaluation Of The Impact Of A Personalised Post-Donation Sms On The Retention Of Whole Blood Donors [Accepted Manuscript], Carley N. Gemelli, Alison Carver, Alana Garn, Stephen T. Wright, Tanya E. Davison Mar 2018

Evaluation Of The Impact Of A Personalised Post-Donation Sms On The Retention Of Whole Blood Donors [Accepted Manuscript], Carley N. Gemelli, Alison Carver, Alana Garn, Stephen T. Wright, Tanya E. Davison

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

BACKGROUND: Short messaging service (SMS) is routinely used by blood collection agencies to remind donors about appointments but has been applied less frequently in interventions to increase return behavior. This study aimed to investigate whether receipt of a personalized postdonation SMS promoted donor retention. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A postdonation SMS was sent to 2605 whole blood donors who had donated at one of six donor centers in Australia from April to July 2015 and left without making a forward appointment. Once their donation was dispatched to ahospital or facility an SMS was sent informing the donor of the hospital ...


Self-Compassion Moderates The Link Between Perfectionism And Depression Link In Both Adolescence And Adulthood, Madeleine Ferrari, Keong Yap, Nicole Scott, Danielle A. Einstein, Joseph Ciarrochi Feb 2018

Self-Compassion Moderates The Link Between Perfectionism And Depression Link In Both Adolescence And Adulthood, Madeleine Ferrari, Keong Yap, Nicole Scott, Danielle A. Einstein, Joseph Ciarrochi

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Psychological practitioners often seek to directly change the form or frequency of clients' maladaptive perfectionist thoughts, because such thoughts predict future depression. Indirect strategies, such as self-compassion interventions, that seek to change clients' relationships to difficult thoughts, rather than trying to change the thoughts directly could be just as effective. This study aimed to investigate whether self-compassion moderated, or weakened, the relationship between high perfectionism and high depression symptoms in both adolescence and adulthood.

Methods: The present study utilised anonymous self-report questionnaires to assess maladaptive perfectionism, depression, and self-compassion across two samples covering much of the lifespan. Questionnaires were ...


What Strategies Do Desk-Based Workers Choose To Reduce Sitting Time And How Well Do They Work? Findings From A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial, Samantha K. Stephens, Elizabeth G. Eakin, Bronwyn K. Clark, Elizabeth A. H. Winkler, Neville Owen, Anthony D. Lamontagne, Marj Moodie, Sheleigh P. Lawler, David W. Dunstan, Genevieve N. Healy Jan 2018

What Strategies Do Desk-Based Workers Choose To Reduce Sitting Time And How Well Do They Work? Findings From A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial, Samantha K. Stephens, Elizabeth G. Eakin, Bronwyn K. Clark, Elizabeth A. H. Winkler, Neville Owen, Anthony D. Lamontagne, Marj Moodie, Sheleigh P. Lawler, David W. Dunstan, Genevieve N. Healy

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Large amounts of sitting at work have been identified as an emerging occupational health risk, and findings from intervention trials have been reported. However, few such reports have examined participant-selected strategies and their relationships with behaviour change. Methods: The Stand Up Victoria cluster-randomised controlled trial was a workplace-delivered intervention comprising organisational, environmental and individual level behaviour change strategies aimed at reducing sitting time in desk-based workers. Sit-stand workstations were provided, and participants (n = 134; intervention group only) were guided by health coaches to identify strategies for the ‘Stand Up’, ‘Sit Less’, and ‘Move More’ intervention targets, including how long ...


Targeting Reductions In Sitting Time To Increase Physical Activity And Improve Health [Accepted Manuscript], Sarah K. Keadle, David E. Conroy, Matthew P. Buman, David Wayne Dunstan, Charles E. Matthews Aug 2017

Targeting Reductions In Sitting Time To Increase Physical Activity And Improve Health [Accepted Manuscript], Sarah K. Keadle, David E. Conroy, Matthew P. Buman, David Wayne Dunstan, Charles E. Matthews

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

New evidence suggests that reductions in sedentary behavior may increase physical activity and improve health. These findings point to new behavioral targets for intervention and new ways to think about intervening to increase overall physical activity in the population. This report provides a knowledge update reflecting the rapid accumulation of new evidence related to sedentary behavior and health among adults. Recent observational studies suggest that leveraging the time-inverse relationship between sedentary and active behaviors by replacing sitting with standing, light- or moderate-intensity activity can have important health benefits, particularly among less active adults. Clinical studies are providing evidence of the ...


Mindfulness And Acceptance Approaches To Sporting Performance Enhancement: A Systematic Review [Accepted Manuscript], Michael Noetel, Joseph Ciarrochi, Brooke Van Zanden, Chris Lonsdale Jan 2017

Mindfulness And Acceptance Approaches To Sporting Performance Enhancement: A Systematic Review [Accepted Manuscript], Michael Noetel, Joseph Ciarrochi, Brooke Van Zanden, Chris Lonsdale

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background

Mindfulness and experiential acceptance approaches have been suggested as a method of promoting athletic performance by optimally managing the interplay among attention, cognition, and emotion. Our aim was to systematically review the evidence for these approaches in the sporting domain.

Methods

Studies of any design exploring mindfulness and acceptance in athletic populations were eligible for inclusion. We completed searches of PsycINFO, Scopus, MEDLINE, and SPORTDiscus in May, 2016. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool, and we synthesised the evidence using the GRADE criteria.

Results

Sixty-six studies (n = 3,908) met inclusion ...


Intervening To Reduce Workplace Sitting: Mediating Role Of Social-Cognitive Constructs During A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial, Nyssa Hadgraft, Elizabeth A.H. Winkler, Genevieve N. Healy, Brigid M. Lynch, Maike Neuhaus, Elizabeth Eakin, David Dunstan, Neville Owen, Brianna S. Fjeldsoe Jan 2017

Intervening To Reduce Workplace Sitting: Mediating Role Of Social-Cognitive Constructs During A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial, Nyssa Hadgraft, Elizabeth A.H. Winkler, Genevieve N. Healy, Brigid M. Lynch, Maike Neuhaus, Elizabeth Eakin, David Dunstan, Neville Owen, Brianna S. Fjeldsoe

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: The Stand Up Victoria multi-component intervention successfully reduced workplace sitting time in both the short (three months) and long (12 months) term. To further understand how this intervention worked, we aimed to assess the impact of the intervention on four social-cognitive constructs, and examined whether these constructs mediated intervention effects on workplace sitting time at 3 and 12 months post-baseline. Methods: Two hundred and thirty one office-based workers (14 worksites, single government employer) were randomised to intervention or control conditions by worksite. The intervention comprised organisational, environmental, and individual level elements. Participant characteristics and social-cognitive constructs (perceived behavioural control ...


Nutrition And Physical Activity In The Prevention And Treatment Of Sarcopenia: Systematic Review, Charlotte Beaudart, A. Dawson, S. C. Shaw, Nicholas C. Harvey, John Kanis, Neil Binkley, Jean Yves Reginster, R. Chapurlat, D. C. Chan, O. Bruyère, Rene Rizzoli, Cyrus Cooper, Elaine M. Dennison Jan 2017

Nutrition And Physical Activity In The Prevention And Treatment Of Sarcopenia: Systematic Review, Charlotte Beaudart, A. Dawson, S. C. Shaw, Nicholas C. Harvey, John Kanis, Neil Binkley, Jean Yves Reginster, R. Chapurlat, D. C. Chan, O. Bruyère, Rene Rizzoli, Cyrus Cooper, Elaine M. Dennison

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

This systematic review summarizes the effect of combined exercise and nutrition intervention on muscle mass and muscle function. A total of 37 RCTs were identified. Results indicate that physical exercise has a positive impact on muscle mass and muscle function in subjects aged 65 years and older. However, any interactive effect of dietary supplementation appears to be limited. Introduction: In 2013, Denison et al. conducted a systematic review including 17 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to explore the effect of combined exercise and nutrition intervention to improve muscle mass, muscle strength, or physical performance in older people. They concluded that further ...


Minimising Impairment: Protocol For A Multicentre Randomised Controlled Trial Of Upper Limb Orthoses For Children With Cerebral Palsy, Christine Imms, Margaret Wallen, Catherine M. Elliott, Brian Hoare, Melinda Joy Randall, Susan Greaves, Brooke Adair, Elizabeth Jane Bradshaw, Robert Carter, Francesca Orsini, Sophy T. F. Shih, Dinah S. Reddihough Jan 2016

Minimising Impairment: Protocol For A Multicentre Randomised Controlled Trial Of Upper Limb Orthoses For Children With Cerebral Palsy, Christine Imms, Margaret Wallen, Catherine M. Elliott, Brian Hoare, Melinda Joy Randall, Susan Greaves, Brooke Adair, Elizabeth Jane Bradshaw, Robert Carter, Francesca Orsini, Sophy T. F. Shih, Dinah S. Reddihough

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Upper limb orthoses are frequently prescribed for children with cerebral palsy (CP) who have muscle overactivity predominantly due to spasticity, with little evidence of long-term effectiveness. Clinical consensus is that orthoses help to preserve range of movement: nevertheless, they can be complex to construct, expensive, uncomfortable and require commitment from parents and children to wear. This protocol paper describes a randomised controlled trial to evaluate whether long-term use of rigid wrist/hand orthoses (WHO) in children with CP, combined with usual multidisciplinary care, can prevent or reduce musculoskeletal impairments, including muscle stiffness/tone and loss of movement range, compared ...


Minimising Impariment: Protocol For A Multicentre Randomised Controlled Trial Of Upper Limb Orthoses For Children With Cerebral Palsy, Christine Imms, Margaret Wallen, Catherine Elliott, Brian Hoare, Melinda Joy Randall, Susan Greaves, Brooke Adair, Elizabeth Bradshaw, Rob Carter, Francesca Orsini, Sophy T. F. Shih, Dinah S. Reddihough Jan 2016

Minimising Impariment: Protocol For A Multicentre Randomised Controlled Trial Of Upper Limb Orthoses For Children With Cerebral Palsy, Christine Imms, Margaret Wallen, Catherine Elliott, Brian Hoare, Melinda Joy Randall, Susan Greaves, Brooke Adair, Elizabeth Bradshaw, Rob Carter, Francesca Orsini, Sophy T. F. Shih, Dinah S. Reddihough

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Upper limb orthoses are frequently prescribed for children with cerebral palsy ( CP ) who have muscle overactivity predominantly due to spasticity, with little evidence of long-term effectiveness. Clinical consensus is that orthoses help to preserve range of movement: nevertheless, they can be complex to construct, expensive, uncomfortable and require commitment from parents and children to wear. This protocol paper describes a randomised controlled trial to evaluate whether long-term use of rigid wrist/hand orthoses ( WHO ) in children with CP, combined with usual multidisciplinary care, can prevent or reduce musculoskeletal impairments, including muscle stiffness/tone and loss of movement range, compared ...


Adoption And Maintenance Of Gym-Based Strength Training In The Community Setting In Adults With Excess Weight Or Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Megan Teychenne, Kylie Ball, Jo Salmon, Rob M. Daly, David A. Crawford, Parneet Sethi, Michelle Jorna, David Wayne Dunstan Jan 2015

Adoption And Maintenance Of Gym-Based Strength Training In The Community Setting In Adults With Excess Weight Or Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Megan Teychenne, Kylie Ball, Jo Salmon, Rob M. Daly, David A. Crawford, Parneet Sethi, Michelle Jorna, David Wayne Dunstan

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Abstract Background: Participant adoption and maintenance is a major challenge in strength training (ST) programs in the community-setting. In adults who were overweight or with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), the aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a standard ST program (SST) to an enhanced program (EST) on the adoption and maintenance of ST and cardio-metabolic risk factors and muscle strength. Methods: A 12-month cluster-randomized controlled trial consisting of a 6-month adoption phase followed by a 6-month maintenance phase. In 2008–2009, men and women aged 40–75 years (n = 318) with T2DM (n = 117) or a ...


The Dutch Obesity Intervention In Teenagers (Doit) Cluster Controlled Implementation Trial: Intervention Effects And Mediators And Moderators Of Adiposity And Energy Balance-Related Behaviours, Femke Van Nassau, Amika S. Singh, Ester Cerin, Jo Salmon, Willem Van Mechelen, Johannes Brug, Mai J. M. Chinapaw Jan 2014

The Dutch Obesity Intervention In Teenagers (Doit) Cluster Controlled Implementation Trial: Intervention Effects And Mediators And Moderators Of Adiposity And Energy Balance-Related Behaviours, Femke Van Nassau, Amika S. Singh, Ester Cerin, Jo Salmon, Willem Van Mechelen, Johannes Brug, Mai J. M. Chinapaw

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: The Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers ( DOiT ) programme is an evidence-based obesity prevention programme tailored to adolescents attending the first two years of prevocational education in the Netherlands. The initial programme showed promising results during an effectiveness trial. The programme was adapted and prepared for nationwide dissemination. To gain more insight into the process of translating evidence-based approaches into ‘real world’ ( i.e., ‘natural’ ) conditions, our research aims were to evaluate the impact of the DOiT-implementation programme on adolescents’ adiposity and energy balance-related behaviours during natural dissemination and to explore the mediating and moderating factors underlying the DOiT intervention ...


Reading And Language Intervention For Children At Risk Of Dyslexia: A Randomised Controlled Trial, Fiona J. Duff, Charles Hulme, Katy Grainger, Samantha J. Hardwick, Jeremy N.V. Miles, Margaret J. Snowling Jan 2014

Reading And Language Intervention For Children At Risk Of Dyslexia: A Randomised Controlled Trial, Fiona J. Duff, Charles Hulme, Katy Grainger, Samantha J. Hardwick, Jeremy N.V. Miles, Margaret J. Snowling

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Intervention studies for children at risk of dyslexia have typically been delivered preschool, and show short-term effects on letter knowledge and phoneme awareness, with little transfer to literacy. Methods: This randomised controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of a reading and language intervention for 6-year-old children identified by research criteria as being at risk of dyslexia (n = 56), and their school-identified peers (n = 89). An Experimental group received two 9-week blocks of daily intervention delivered by trained teaching assistants; the Control group received 9 weeks of typical classroom instruction, followed by 9 weeks of intervention. Results: Following mixed effects regression ...


Using Social Marketing To Create Communities For Our Children And Adolescents That Do Not Model And Encourage Drinking [Accepted Manuscript], Sandra C. Jones Jan 2014

Using Social Marketing To Create Communities For Our Children And Adolescents That Do Not Model And Encourage Drinking [Accepted Manuscript], Sandra C. Jones

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Our children and adolescents are growing up in environments that support, and even, encourage (excessive) drinking. Thus, if we are to address the problem of underage drinking our focus needs to move beyond eliciting behavior change among children and adolescents to changing underlying community attitudes, social norms, and the environment itself. This review sought to examine the evidence base surrounding ‘community-based’ interventions designed to address underage drinking; to determine the extent to which ‘community’ interventions have thus far targeted the broader community and gone beyond behavior-focused strategies and endeavored to change social and physical environments. The review found surprisingly few ...