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Australian Catholic University

2019

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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Sport And Physical Activity For Youth With Intellectual Disability: An Analysis Of Determinants And Outcomes, Nathanial J. Kapsal Jun 2019

Sport And Physical Activity For Youth With Intellectual Disability: An Analysis Of Determinants And Outcomes, Nathanial J. Kapsal

Theses

Introduction: Extensive research has supported the physical and psychosocial health benefits of physical activity among typically developing youth. These benefits include higher quality of life, lower risk of disease, higher levels of psychological and emotional well-being, greater school engagement, greater motor skills, more frequent prosocial behaviours, and enhanced self-concept. Compared to their typically developing peers, youth with intellectual disability participate less frequently in physical activity, tend to be less fit, have poorer motor control, and worse mental health. Many studies examining sport and physical activity for youth with disability have focused on a limited range of outcomes or interventions, have ...


Measuring Community Walking In Stroke Survivors Using Physiotherapists’ Perspectives And The International Classification Of Functioning, Health And Disability (Icf) Framework, Neelam Nayak May 2019

Measuring Community Walking In Stroke Survivors Using Physiotherapists’ Perspectives And The International Classification Of Functioning, Health And Disability (Icf) Framework, Neelam Nayak

Theses

Community walking is a multifactorial task and an important functional goal for stroke survivors. Measuring community walking is challenging because there is not a good understanding of what is considered successful community walking or how this could be measured. Physiotherapists currently use a range of measures to assess community walking. Furthermore, the factors contributing to community walking that are captured by these measures are not yet well understood. This thesis, comprising two studies, explores these gaps. The first study is a qualitative exploration of physiotherapists’ perspectives of community walking measurement in stroke survivors. Physiotherapists experienced in stroke rehabilitation were recruited ...


An Evaluation Of A Model Of Care For Children With Serious Illnesses And Their Families In New Zealand, Cynthia Ward Apr 2019

An Evaluation Of A Model Of Care For Children With Serious Illnesses And Their Families In New Zealand, Cynthia Ward

Theses

Background: Due to advances in knowledge and medical technology, many neonates and children survive pre-term birth and serious illness. They are cared for by their families, predominantly their parents, in the family home. While there is a high demand on health services to provide care to the seriously ill child, the highest burden of care falls on the child’s family. The impact of the child’s complex and highly technical care needs on the family unit is often not understood. Although health service providers can provide high quality care, at times, they do not fully comprehend the issues of ...


Socioemotional Functioning In Youth With Borderline Personality Disorder, Elizabeth Pizarro-Campagna Mar 2019

Socioemotional Functioning In Youth With Borderline Personality Disorder, Elizabeth Pizarro-Campagna

Theses

This thesis makes an original contribution to our understanding of socioemotional functioning in borderline personality disorder (BPD) by critically examining social cognition and emotion regulation BPD research from a developmental perspective. It also extends on previous research, making a novel and important contribution to our understanding of sociocognitive functioning and emotion regulation ability in youth with first presentation BPD. This was achieved via two critical narrative reviews of the existing literature and two empirical studies, which examined aspects of social cognition and emotion regulation considered key to interpersonal functioning in BPD. The empirical studies assessed, 1) unconscious simulation processes, a ...


A Model Of Art Therapy For Aboriginal Children Within The Preschool, Shiri Hergass Feb 2019

A Model Of Art Therapy For Aboriginal Children Within The Preschool, Shiri Hergass

Theses

This research sets out to formally develop the Seasonal Model of Art Therapy, to observe and test it in action, and to address the research question, which examines ways to support educators working with children who have experienced trauma, using art therapy groups in preschools. Case study methodology was utilised, to systematise the approach and to assist in fully articulating its aims, purposes and procedure, ultimately for dissemination to art therapy teams and educators. In addition, the thesis provides a systematic and somewhat exhaustive survey of contributory theories and related research in the literature, which serves towards providing a rationale ...


How Well Do Seniors Estimate Distance To Food? The Accuracy Of Older Adults' Reported Proximity To Local Grocery Stores, Benjamin W. Chrisinger, Abby C. King, Jenna Hua, Brian E. Saelens, Lawrence D. Frank, Terry L. Conway, Kelli L. Cain, James F. Sallis Jan 2019

How Well Do Seniors Estimate Distance To Food? The Accuracy Of Older Adults' Reported Proximity To Local Grocery Stores, Benjamin W. Chrisinger, Abby C. King, Jenna Hua, Brian E. Saelens, Lawrence D. Frank, Terry L. Conway, Kelli L. Cain, James F. Sallis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

(1) Background: Findings from observational studies of relations between neighborhood environments and health outcomes underscore the importance of both objective and perceived experiences of those environments. A clearer understanding of the factors associated with discrepancies between these two assessment approaches is needed to tailor public health interventions to specific populations. This study examined how individual and neighborhood characteristics affect perceptions of supermarket distance, particularly when perceptions do not match objective measures. (2) Methods: Participants were older adults (n = 880) participating in the Senior Neighborhood Quality of Life Study in the Seattle/King County, WA or Baltimore/Washington, DC regions. Two ...


Joint Physical-Activity/Screen-Time Trajectories During Early Childhood: Socio-Demographic Predictors And Consequences On Health-Related Quality-Of-Life And Socio-Emotional Outcomes, Borja Del Pozo Cruz, Francisco Perales, Phil Parker, Chris Lonsdale, Michael Noetel, Kylie D. Hesketh, Taren Sanders Jan 2019

Joint Physical-Activity/Screen-Time Trajectories During Early Childhood: Socio-Demographic Predictors And Consequences On Health-Related Quality-Of-Life And Socio-Emotional Outcomes, Borja Del Pozo Cruz, Francisco Perales, Phil Parker, Chris Lonsdale, Michael Noetel, Kylie D. Hesketh, Taren Sanders

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Understanding the early roots of physical activity and sedentary behaviors is critical to developing intervention programs that promote healthy lifestyle habits in infants and children. There is, however, no evidence on how these behaviors cluster and develop together during early childhood. The aim of this study was to identify single and joint longitudinal trajectories in physical activity and screen time amongst children aged 0 to 9 years, their social-demographic predictors and their prospective health-related quality-of-life and socio-emotional outcomes. Methods: Three waves of data from The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, a national study tracking two cohorts every 2 years ...


Modeling Human Rna Spliceosome Mutations In The Mouse: Not All Mice Were Created Equal [Accepted Manuscript], Jane Jialu Xu, Monique F. Smeets, Shuh Ying Tan, Meaghan Wall, Louise E. Purton, Carl R. Walkley Jan 2019

Modeling Human Rna Spliceosome Mutations In The Mouse: Not All Mice Were Created Equal [Accepted Manuscript], Jane Jialu Xu, Monique F. Smeets, Shuh Ying Tan, Meaghan Wall, Louise E. Purton, Carl R. Walkley

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and related myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPNs) are clonal stem cell disorders, primarily affecting patients over 65 years of age. Mapping of the MDS and MDS/MPN genome identified recurrent heterozygous mutations in the RNA splicing machinery, with the SF3B1, SRSF2, and U2AF1 genes being frequently mutated. To better understand how spliceosomal mutations contribute to MDS pathogenesis in vivo, numerous groups have sought to establish conditional murine models of SF3B1, SRSF2, and U2AF1 mutations. The high degree of conservation of hematopoiesis between mice and human and the well-established phenotyping and genetic modification approaches make murine models an ...


Envisioning Progress And Perils: Musings On The Future Of Motivation Research In A Rapidly Evolving World [Accepted Manuscript], Richard Ryan, Emma Bradshaw Jan 2019

Envisioning Progress And Perils: Musings On The Future Of Motivation Research In A Rapidly Evolving World [Accepted Manuscript], Richard Ryan, Emma Bradshaw

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

This final chapter reflects on the rich contributions within this Handbook of Human Motivation on diverse topics including self-regulation, biological mechanisms, awareness, defensiveness and oppression, and the facilitation of engagement, learning, and behavior change. These processes are examined within broad theoretical frameworks, as well as in specific domains such as close relationships, physical activity, work, education, and psychotherapy. Building on these contributions, the chapter projects forward in time to ask the question of whether future scientists and practitioners will think these authors from the early 21st century were asking the right questions. The chapter includes speculation on how developments in ...


Patterns Of Objectively Assessed Sedentary Time And Physical Activity Among Japanese Workers: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study, Satoshi Kurita, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Neville Owen, Koichiro Oka Jan 2019

Patterns Of Objectively Assessed Sedentary Time And Physical Activity Among Japanese Workers: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study, Satoshi Kurita, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Neville Owen, Koichiro Oka

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives: To examine patterns of sedentary behaviour and physical activity, among Japanese workers with differing occupational activity types. Design: A cross-sectional observational study in 2013–2015. Setting: Two local communities in Japan. Participants: Full-time workers aged 40–64 years (n=345; 55% men) and who lived in two cities. Main outcome measures: From accelerometer data for 7 days, mean overall sedentary time, prolonged bouts of sedentary time and light-and moderate-to vigorous-intensity of physical activity (LPA and MVPA) as a proportion of accelerometer wear time and number of breaks per sedentary hour were identified for four time periods: working hours, workdays ...


Do Physical Activity Social Cohesion, And Loneliness Mediate The Association Between Time Spent Visiting Green Space And Mental Health?, Magdalena M. Van Den Berg, Mireille Van Poppel, Irene Van Kamp, Annemarie Ruijsbroek, Margarita Triguero-Mas, Christopher Gidlow, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Regina Gražulevičiene, Willem Van Mechelen, Hanneke Kruize, Jolanda Maas Jan 2019

Do Physical Activity Social Cohesion, And Loneliness Mediate The Association Between Time Spent Visiting Green Space And Mental Health?, Magdalena M. Van Den Berg, Mireille Van Poppel, Irene Van Kamp, Annemarie Ruijsbroek, Margarita Triguero-Mas, Christopher Gidlow, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Regina Gražulevičiene, Willem Van Mechelen, Hanneke Kruize, Jolanda Maas

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

This cross-sectional study investigated whether physical activity, social cohesion, and loneliness mediate the association between time spent visiting green spaces and perceived mental health and vitality. Questionnaire data were collected from 3,948 residents from 124 neighborhoods across four European cities. Multilevel linear regression analysis revealed positive, but weak, associations between time spent visiting green space and Medical Outcome Study Short Form (SF-36) mental health and vitality score, which suggest small mental health benefits. Single mediation analyses showed that different indicators of physical activity (total, during leisure time, and walking during leisure time), social cohesion, and loneliness were mediators. Multiple ...


Pubertal Timing And Adult Fracture Risk In Men: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Liesbeth Vandenput, Jenny M. Kindblom, Maria Bygdell, Maria Nethander, Claes Ohlsson Jan 2019

Pubertal Timing And Adult Fracture Risk In Men: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Liesbeth Vandenput, Jenny M. Kindblom, Maria Bygdell, Maria Nethander, Claes Ohlsson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Puberty is a critical period for bone mass accrual, and late puberty in boys is associated with reduced bone mass in adult men. The role of variations in pubertal timing within the normal range for adult fracture risk in men is, however, unknown. We, therefore, assessed the association between age at peak height velocity (PHV), an objective measure of pubertal timing, and fracture risk in adult men. Methods and findings: In the BMI Epidemiology Study Gothenburg, 31,971 Swedish men born between January 1, 1945, and December 31, 1961, with detailed growth data (height and weight) available from centrally ...


Dyslexia And Developmental Language Disorder: Comorbid Disorders With Distinct Effects On Reading Comprehension, Margaret J. Snowling, Marianna E. Hayiou-Thomas, Hannah M. Nash, Charles Hulme Jan 2019

Dyslexia And Developmental Language Disorder: Comorbid Disorders With Distinct Effects On Reading Comprehension, Margaret J. Snowling, Marianna E. Hayiou-Thomas, Hannah M. Nash, Charles Hulme

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Background: Reading comprehension draws on both decoding and linguistic comprehension, and poor reading comprehension can be the consequence of a deficit in either of these skills. Methods: Using outcome data from the longitudinal Wellcome Language and Reading Project, we identified three groups of children at age 8 years: children with dyslexia (N = 21) who had deficits in decoding but not oral language, children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD; N = 38) whose decoding skills were in the normal range, and children who met criteria for both dyslexia and DLD (N = 29). Results: All three groups had reading comprehension difficulties at the ...


Personalized Medicine And Hospitalization For Heart Failure: If We Understand It, We May Be Successful In Treating It, Faheem A. Ahmad, Mark C. Petrie, John J. V. Mcmurray, Ninian N. Lang Jan 2019

Personalized Medicine And Hospitalization For Heart Failure: If We Understand It, We May Be Successful In Treating It, Faheem A. Ahmad, Mark C. Petrie, John J. V. Mcmurray, Ninian N. Lang

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Randomized trials in patients with hospitalized heart failure (HHF) continue to frustrate the cardiology community. Promising haemodynamic, structural and biomarker findings from phase 2 studies consistently fail to deliver substantive benefits in larger outcome trials. What underlies these recurrent failures? Why are persistently high readmission and post‐discharge mortality rates not being reduced? Challenging any pre‐conceived ideas about the existence of a ‘typical’ acutely decompensated heart failure patient is fundamental, as is the adoption of a carefully personalized approach. These individuals come from a remarkably heterogeneous group. Surely precise phenotyping should translate to a more successful therapeutic approach?


A Trial To Evaluate The Effect Of The Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitor Dapagliflozin On Morbidity And Mortality In Patients With Heart Failure And Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (Dapa-Hf), John J. V. Mcmurray, David L. Demets, Silvio E. Inzucchini, Lars Køber, Mikhail N. Kosiborod, Anna M. Langkilde, Felipe A. Martinez, Olof Bengtsson, Piotr P. Ponikowski, Marc S. Sabatine, Mikaela Sjöstrand, Scott D. Solomon Jan 2019

A Trial To Evaluate The Effect Of The Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitor Dapagliflozin On Morbidity And Mortality In Patients With Heart Failure And Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (Dapa-Hf), John J. V. Mcmurray, David L. Demets, Silvio E. Inzucchini, Lars Køber, Mikhail N. Kosiborod, Anna M. Langkilde, Felipe A. Martinez, Olof Bengtsson, Piotr P. Ponikowski, Marc S. Sabatine, Mikaela Sjöstrand, Scott D. Solomon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Sodium–glucose co‐transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been shown to reduce the risk of incident heart failure hospitalization in individuals with type 2 diabetes who have, or are at high risk of, cardiovascular disease. Most patients in these trials did not have heart failure at baseline and the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on outcomes in individuals with established heart failure (with or without diabetes) is unknown. Design and methods The Dapagliflozin And Prevention of Adverse‐outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA‐HF) is an international, multicentre, parallel group, randomized, double‐blind, study in patients with chronic heart failure ...


Effect Of Abaloparatide On Vertebral,Nonvertebral, Major Osteoporotic And Clinical Fractures In A Subset Of Postmenopausal Women At Increased Risk Of Fracture By Frax Probability, Eugene V. Mccloskey, Lorraine Fitzpatrick, M.-Y. Hu, G. Williams, John A. Kanis Jan 2019

Effect Of Abaloparatide On Vertebral,Nonvertebral, Major Osteoporotic And Clinical Fractures In A Subset Of Postmenopausal Women At Increased Risk Of Fracture By Frax Probability, Eugene V. Mccloskey, Lorraine Fitzpatrick, M.-Y. Hu, G. Williams, John A. Kanis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Summary We evaluated the efficacy of abaloparatide in women who were at increased risk for fracture, based on CHMP recommended risk thresholds, at the Abaloparatide Comparator Trial In Vertebral Endpoints (ACTIVE) study baseline. Among patients at high risk based on FRAX probabilities, 18 months of abaloparatide significantly decreased risk for all fracture endpoints compared with placebo. Purpose Abaloparatide, a novel anabolic agent for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, significantly reduced the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in the ACTIVE study compared with placebo. In this post hoc analysis, we evaluated abaloparatide’s efficacy in a subset of women in ...


Increased Autophagy In Ephrinb2-Deficient Osteocytes Is Associated With Elevated Secondary Mineralization And Brittle Bone, Christina Vrahnas, Martha Blank, Toby A. Dite, Liliana Tatarczuch, Niloufar Ansari, Blessing Crimeen-Irwin, Huynh Nguyen, Mark R. Forwood, Yifang Hu, Mike Ikegame, Keith R. Bambery, Cyril Petibois, Eleanor J. Mackie, Mark J. Tobin, Gordon K. Smyth, Jonathan S. Oakhill, T. John Martin, Natalie A. Sims Jan 2019

Increased Autophagy In Ephrinb2-Deficient Osteocytes Is Associated With Elevated Secondary Mineralization And Brittle Bone, Christina Vrahnas, Martha Blank, Toby A. Dite, Liliana Tatarczuch, Niloufar Ansari, Blessing Crimeen-Irwin, Huynh Nguyen, Mark R. Forwood, Yifang Hu, Mike Ikegame, Keith R. Bambery, Cyril Petibois, Eleanor J. Mackie, Mark J. Tobin, Gordon K. Smyth, Jonathan S. Oakhill, T. John Martin, Natalie A. Sims

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Mineralized bone forms when collagen-containing osteoid accrues mineral crystals. This is initiated rapidly (primary mineralization), and continues slowly (secondary mineralization) until bone is remodeled. The interconnected osteocyte network within the bone matrix differentiates from bone-forming osteoblasts; although osteoblast differentiation requires EphrinB2, osteocytes retain its expression. Here we report brittle bones in mice with osteocyte-targeted EphrinB2 deletion. This is not caused by low bone mass, but by defective bone material. While osteoid mineralization is initiated at normal rate, mineral accrual is accelerated, indicating that EphrinB2 in osteocytes limits mineral accumulation. No known regulators of mineralization are modified in the brittle cortical ...


Personal Assessment Of The External Exposome During Pregnancy And Childhood In Europe [Accepted Manuscript], David Donaire Gonzalez, Ariadna Curto, Antònia Valentin, Sandra Andrusaityte, Xavier Basagaña, Maribel Casas, Leda Chatzi, Jeroen De Bont, Montserrat De Castro, Audrius Dedele, Berit Granum, Regina Grazuleviciene, Mariza Kampouri, Sarah Lyon-Caen, Cyntia B. Manzano-Salgado, Gunn Marit Aasvang, Rosemary R. C. Mceachan, Carin Helena Meinhard-Kjellstad, Eirini Michalaki, Pau Pañella, Inga Petraviciene, Per E. Schwarze, Rémy Slama, Oliver Robinson, Ibon Tamayo-Uria, Marina Vafeiadi, Dagmar Waiblinger, John Wright, Martine Vrijheid Jan 2019

Personal Assessment Of The External Exposome During Pregnancy And Childhood In Europe [Accepted Manuscript], David Donaire Gonzalez, Ariadna Curto, Antònia Valentin, Sandra Andrusaityte, Xavier Basagaña, Maribel Casas, Leda Chatzi, Jeroen De Bont, Montserrat De Castro, Audrius Dedele, Berit Granum, Regina Grazuleviciene, Mariza Kampouri, Sarah Lyon-Caen, Cyntia B. Manzano-Salgado, Gunn Marit Aasvang, Rosemary R. C. Mceachan, Carin Helena Meinhard-Kjellstad, Eirini Michalaki, Pau Pañella, Inga Petraviciene, Per E. Schwarze, Rémy Slama, Oliver Robinson, Ibon Tamayo-Uria, Marina Vafeiadi, Dagmar Waiblinger, John Wright, Martine Vrijheid

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The human exposome affects child development and health later in life, but its personal external levels, variability, and correlations are largely unknown. We characterized the personal external exposome of pregnant women and children in eight European cities. Panel studies included 167 pregnant women and 183 children (aged 6–11 years). A personal exposure monitoring kit composed of smartphone, accelerometer, ultraviolet (UV) dosimeter, and two air pollution monitors were used to monitor physical activity (PA), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, traffic-related noise, UV-B radiation, and natural outdoor environments (NOE). 77% of women performed the adult recommendation of ≥150 min ...


The Muscle Protein Synthetic Response To Whey Protein Ingestion Is Greater In Middle-Aged Women When Compared With Men [Accepted Manuscript], Astrid M. H. Horstman, Imre W. K. Kouw, Jan-Willem Van Dijk, Henrike M. Hamer, Bart B. L. Groen, Janneau Van Kranenburg, Stefan H. M. Gorissen, Luc J. C. Van Loon Jan 2019

The Muscle Protein Synthetic Response To Whey Protein Ingestion Is Greater In Middle-Aged Women When Compared With Men [Accepted Manuscript], Astrid M. H. Horstman, Imre W. K. Kouw, Jan-Willem Van Dijk, Henrike M. Hamer, Bart B. L. Groen, Janneau Van Kranenburg, Stefan H. M. Gorissen, Luc J. C. Van Loon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Rationale: Muscle mass maintenance is largely regulated by the postprandial rise in muscle protein synthesis rates. It remains unclear whether postprandial protein handling differs between women and men. Methods: Healthy men (43 ± 3 years; body mass index, 23.4 ± 0.4 kg/m2; n = 12) and women (46 ± 2 years; body mass index, 21.3 ± 0.5 kg/m2; n = 12) received primed continuous infusions of L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine and L-[ring-3,5-2H2]-tyrosine and ingested 25 g intrinsically L-[1-13C]-phenylalanine–labeled whey protein. Blood samples and muscle biopsies were collected to assess dietary protein digestion and amino acid ...


Fornix White Matter Glia Damage Causes Hippocampal Gray Matter Damage During Age-Dependent Limbic Decline, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, Jilu P. Mole, Rebecca Sims, Fabrizio Fasano, John Evans, Derek K. Jones, John P. Aggleton, Roland J. Baddeley Jan 2019

Fornix White Matter Glia Damage Causes Hippocampal Gray Matter Damage During Age-Dependent Limbic Decline, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, Jilu P. Mole, Rebecca Sims, Fabrizio Fasano, John Evans, Derek K. Jones, John P. Aggleton, Roland J. Baddeley

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Aging leads to gray and white matter decline but their causation remains unclear. We explored two classes of models of age and dementia risk related brain changes. The first class of models emphasises the importance of gray matter: age and risk-related processes cause neurodegeneration and this causes damage in associated white matter tracts. The second class of models reverses the direction of causation: aging and risk factors cause white matter damage and this leads to gray matter damage. We compared these models with linear mediation analysis and quantitative MRI indices (from diffusion, quantitative magnetization transfer and relaxometry imaging) of tissue ...


Increased Cortical Porosity And Reduced Trabecular Density Are Not Necessarily Synonymous With Bone Loss And Microstructural Deterioration, Roger M. Zebaze, Elizabeth J. Atkinson, Yu Peng, Minh Bui, Ali Ghasem-Zadeh, Sundeep Khosla, Ego Seeman Jan 2019

Increased Cortical Porosity And Reduced Trabecular Density Are Not Necessarily Synonymous With Bone Loss And Microstructural Deterioration, Roger M. Zebaze, Elizabeth J. Atkinson, Yu Peng, Minh Bui, Ali Ghasem-Zadeh, Sundeep Khosla, Ego Seeman

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Absolute values of cortical porosity and trabecular density are used to estimate fracture risk, but these values are the net result of their growth‐related assembly and age‐related deterioration. Because bone loss affects both cortical and trabecular bone, we hypothesized that a surrogate measure of bone fragility should capture the age‐related deterioration of both traits, and should do so independently of their peak values. Accordingly, we developed a structural fragility score (SFS), which quantifies the increment in distal radial cortical porosity and decrement in trabecular density relative to their premenopausal mean values in 99 postmenopausal women with forearm ...


Special Environments: Altitude And Heat, Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Robert F. Chapman, Julien D. Périard Jan 2019

Special Environments: Altitude And Heat, Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Robert F. Chapman, Julien D. Périard

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

High-level athletes are always looking at ways to maximize training adaptations for competition performance, and using altered environmental conditions to achieve this outcome has become increasingly popular by elite athletes. Furthermore, a series of potential nutrition and hydration interventions may also optimize the adaptation to altered environments. Altitude training was first used to prepare for competition at altitude, and it still is today; however, more often now, elite athletes embark on a series of altitude training camps to try to improve sea-level performance. Similarly, the use of heat acclimation/acclimatization to optimize performance in hot/humid environmental conditions is a ...


Distinct Skeletal Muscle Molecular Responses To Pulmonary Rehabilitation In Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Cluster Analysis, Anita E. M. Kneppers, Roy A. M. Haast, Ramon C. J. Langen, Lex B. Verdijk, Pieter A. Leermakers, Harry R. Gosker, Luc J. C. Van Loon, Mitja Lainscak, Annemie M. W. J. Schols Jan 2019

Distinct Skeletal Muscle Molecular Responses To Pulmonary Rehabilitation In Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Cluster Analysis, Anita E. M. Kneppers, Roy A. M. Haast, Ramon C. J. Langen, Lex B. Verdijk, Pieter A. Leermakers, Harry R. Gosker, Luc J. C. Van Loon, Mitja Lainscak, Annemie M. W. J. Schols

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is a cornerstone in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), targeting skeletal muscle to improve functional performance. However, there is substantial inter‐individual variability in the effect of PR on functional performance, which cannot be fully accounted for by generic phenotypic factors. We performed an unbiased integrative analysis of the skeletal muscle molecular responses to PR in COPD patients and comprehensively characterized their baseline pulmonary and physical function, body composition, blood profile, comorbidities, and medication use. Methods Musculus vastus lateralis biopsies were obtained from 51 COPD patients (age 64 ± 1 years, sex 73% men ...


The Effect Of Minimally Invasive Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement On Postoperative Pulmonary And Skeletal Muscle Function [Accepted Manuscript], Hajar Boujemaa, Alaaddin Yilmaz, Boris Robic, Katrien Koppo, Guido Claessen, Ines Frederix, Paul Dendale, Heinz Völler, Luc J. C. Van Loon, Dominique Hansen Jan 2019

The Effect Of Minimally Invasive Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement On Postoperative Pulmonary And Skeletal Muscle Function [Accepted Manuscript], Hajar Boujemaa, Alaaddin Yilmaz, Boris Robic, Katrien Koppo, Guido Claessen, Ines Frederix, Paul Dendale, Heinz Völler, Luc J. C. Van Loon, Dominique Hansen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Suboptimal post‐operative improvements in functional capacity are often observed after minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (mini‐AVR). It remains to be studied how AVR affects the cardiopulmonary and skeletal muscle function during exercise to explain these clinical observations and to provide a basis for improved/tailored post‐operative rehabilitation. Twenty‐two patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) (aortic valve area (AVA) <1.0 cm²) were pre‐operatively compared to 22 healthy controls during submaximal constant‐workload endurance‐type exercise for oxygen uptake (urn:x-wiley:09580670:media:eph12495:eph12495-math-0001), carbon dioxide output (urn:x-wiley:09580670:media:eph12495:eph12495-math-0002), respiratory gas exchange ratio, expiratory volume (urn:x-wiley:09580670:media:eph12495:eph12495-math-0003), ventilatory equivalents for O2 (urn:x-wiley:09580670:media:eph12495:eph12495-math-0004/urn:x-wiley:09580670:media:eph12495:eph12495-math-0005) and CO2 (urn:x-wiley:09580670:media:eph12495:eph12495-math-0006/urn:x-wiley:09580670:media:eph12495:eph12495-math-0007), respiratory rate (RR), tidal volume (Vt), heart rate (HR), oxygen pulse (urn:x-wiley:09580670:media:eph12495:eph12495-math-0008/HR), blood lactate, Borg ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and exercise‐onset urn:x-wiley:09580670:media:eph12495:eph12495-math-0009 kinetics. These exercise tests were repeated at 5 and 21 days after AVR surgery (n = 14), along with echocardiographic examinations. Respiratory exchange ratio and ventilatory equivalents (urn:x-wiley:09580670:media:eph12495:eph12495-math-0010/urn:x-wiley:09580670:media:eph12495:eph12495-math-0011 and urn:x-wiley:09580670:media:eph12495:eph12495-math-0012/urn:x-wiley:09580670:media:eph12495:eph12495-math-0013) were significantly elevated, urn:x-wiley:09580670:media:eph12495:eph12495-math-0014 and urn:x-wiley:09580670:media:eph12495:eph12495-math-0015/HR were significantly lowered, and exercise‐onset urn:x-wiley:09580670:media:eph12495:eph12495-math-0016 kinetics were significantly slower in AS patients vs. healthy controls (P < 0.05). Although the AVA was restored by mini‐AVR in AS patients, urn:x-wiley:09580670:media:eph12495:eph12495-math-0017/urn:x-wiley:09580670:media:eph12495:eph12495-math-0018 and urn:x-wiley:09580670:media:eph12495:eph12495-math-0019/urn:x-wiley:09580670:media:eph12495:eph12495-math-0020 further worsened significantly within 5 days after surgery, accompanied by elevations in Borg RPE, urn:x-wiley:09580670:media:eph12495:eph12495-math-0021 and RR, and lowered Vt. At 21 days after mini‐AVR, exercise‐onset urn:x-wiley:09580670:media:eph12495:eph12495-math-0022 kinetics further slowed significantly (P < 0.05). A decline in pulmonary function was observed early after mini‐AVR surgery, which was followed by a decline in skeletal muscle function in the subsequent weeks of recovery. Therefore, a tailored rehabilitation programme should include training modalities for the respiratory and peripheral muscular system.


Contemporary Nutrition Interventions To Optimize Performance In Middle-Distance Runners, Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim, Jamie Whitfield Jan 2019

Contemporary Nutrition Interventions To Optimize Performance In Middle-Distance Runners, Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim, Jamie Whitfield

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Middle-distance runners utilize the full continuum of energy systems throughout training, and given the infinite competition tactical scenarios, this event group is highly complex from a performance intervention point of view. However, this complexity results in numerous potential periodized nutrition interventions to optimize middle-distance training adaptation and competition performance. Middle-distance race intensity is extreme, with 800- to 5,000-m races being at ∼95% to 130% of VO2max. Accordingly, elite middle-distance runners have primarily Type IIa/IIx fiber morphology and rely almost exclusively on carbohydrate (primarily muscle glycogen) metabolic pathways for producing adenosine triphosphate. Consequently, the principle nutritional interventions that should ...


Differential Patterns Of Disease And Injury In Mozambique: New Perspectives From A Pragmatic, Multicenter, Surveillance Study Of 7809 Emergency Presentations, Ana O. Mocumbi, Bonifácio Cebola, Artur Muloliwa, Federico Sebastião, Samuel J. Sitefane, Naisa Manafe, Igor Dobe, Norberto Lumbandali, Kimberley Keates, Nerolie Stickland, Yih-Kai Chan, Simon Stewart Jan 2019

Differential Patterns Of Disease And Injury In Mozambique: New Perspectives From A Pragmatic, Multicenter, Surveillance Study Of 7809 Emergency Presentations, Ana O. Mocumbi, Bonifácio Cebola, Artur Muloliwa, Federico Sebastião, Samuel J. Sitefane, Naisa Manafe, Igor Dobe, Norberto Lumbandali, Kimberley Keates, Nerolie Stickland, Yih-Kai Chan, Simon Stewart

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background There is a paucity of primary data to understand the overall pattern of disease and injuries as well as related health-service utilization in resource-poor countries in Africa. Objective To generate reliable and robust data describing the pattern of emergency presentations attributable to communicable disease (CD), non-communicable disease (NCD) and injuries in three different regions of Mozambique. Methods We undertook a pragmatic, prospective, multicentre surveillance study of individuals (all ages) presenting to the emergency departments of three hospitals in Southern (Maputo), Central (Beira) and Northern (Nampula) Mozambique. During 24-hour surveillance in the seasonally distinct months of April and October 2016 ...


Dimensionality Reduction Of Diffusion Mri Measures For Improved Tractometry Of The Human Brain, Maxime Chamberland, Erika P. Raven, Sila Genc, Kate Duffy, Maxime Descoteaux, Greg D. Parker, Chantal M. W. Tax, Derek K. Jones Jan 2019

Dimensionality Reduction Of Diffusion Mri Measures For Improved Tractometry Of The Human Brain, Maxime Chamberland, Erika P. Raven, Sila Genc, Kate Duffy, Maxime Descoteaux, Greg D. Parker, Chantal M. W. Tax, Derek K. Jones

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Various diffusion MRI (dMRI) measures have been proposed for characterising tissue microstructure over the last 15 years. Despite the growing number of experiments using different dMRI measures in assessments of white matter, there has been limited work on: 1) examining their covariance along specific pathways; and on 2) combining these different measures to study tissue microstructure. Indeed, it quickly becomes intractable for existing analysis pipelines to process multiple measurements at each voxel and at each vertex forming a streamline, highlighting the need for new ways to visualise or analyse such high-dimensional data. In a sample of 36 typically developing children ...


Environmental, Health, Wellbeing, Social And Equity Effects Of Urban Green Space Interventions: A Meta-Narrative Evidence Synthesis, Ruth F. Hunter, C. Cleland, A. Cleary, Mariël Droomers, Benedict W. Wheeler, D. Sinnett, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, M. Braubach Jan 2019

Environmental, Health, Wellbeing, Social And Equity Effects Of Urban Green Space Interventions: A Meta-Narrative Evidence Synthesis, Ruth F. Hunter, C. Cleland, A. Cleary, Mariël Droomers, Benedict W. Wheeler, D. Sinnett, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, M. Braubach

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background As populations become increasingly urbanised, the preservation of urban green space (UGS) becomes paramount. UGS is not just dedicated recreational space such as public parks, but other types of informal green space are important, for example, street trees and roof gardens. Despite the potential from cross-sectional evidence, we know little about how to design new, or improve or promote existing UGS for health, wellbeing, social and environmental benefits, or known influencing factors such as physical activity. Objectives To perform a meta-narrative review of the evidence regarding the health, wellbeing, social, environmental and equity effects, or known influencing factors of ...


Expanding The Map Of Intrinsic And Extrinsic Aspirations Using Network Analysis And Multidimensional Scaling: Examining Four New Aspirations, Frank Martela, Emma L. Bradshaw, Richard M. Ryan Jan 2019

Expanding The Map Of Intrinsic And Extrinsic Aspirations Using Network Analysis And Multidimensional Scaling: Examining Four New Aspirations, Frank Martela, Emma L. Bradshaw, Richard M. Ryan

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Life goals or aspirations can be distinguished as intrinsic or extrinsic, with different implications for well-being. In this study we used network analysis to reexamine this intrinsic-extrinsic distinction, illustrating how novel candidate aspirations can be mapped along this dimension using innovative methods. We identify four previously unexamined life aspirations, predicting that aspiring for power and social adherence would group with extrinsic goals, whereas aspiring for self-expression and mastery would group with intrinsic goals. In two samples (n = 196; n = 346) we analyze both the original life-goal variables and these novel aspirations using factor analysis, multidimensional scaling, circumplex modeling, and a ...


Expoapp: An Integrated System To Assess Multiple Personal Environmental Exposures, David Donaire-Gonzalez, Antònia Valentín, Erik Van Nunen, Ariadna Curto, Albert Rodriguez, Mario Fernandez-Nieto, Alessio Naccarati, Sonia Tarallo, Ming-Yi Tsai, Nicole M. Probst-Hensch, Roel Vermeulen, Gerard Hoek, Paolo Vineis, John Gulliver, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen Jan 2019

Expoapp: An Integrated System To Assess Multiple Personal Environmental Exposures, David Donaire-Gonzalez, Antònia Valentín, Erik Van Nunen, Ariadna Curto, Albert Rodriguez, Mario Fernandez-Nieto, Alessio Naccarati, Sonia Tarallo, Ming-Yi Tsai, Nicole M. Probst-Hensch, Roel Vermeulen, Gerard Hoek, Paolo Vineis, John Gulliver, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

To assess environmental exposures at the individual level, new assessment methods and tools are required. We developed an exposure assessment system (ExpoApp) for smartphones. ExpoApp integrates: (i) geo-location and accelerometry measurements from a waist attached smartphone, (ii) data from portable monitors, (iii) geographic information systems, and (iv) individual's information. ExpoApp calculates time spent in microenvironments, physical activity level, inhalation rate, and environmental exposures and doses (e.g., green spaces, inhaled ultrafine particles- UFP). We deployed ExpoApp in a panel study of 158 adults from five cities (Amsterdam and Utrecht- the Netherlands, Basel- Switzerland, Norwich- UK, and Torino- Italy) with ...