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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Self-Reported Concussion History And Sensorimotor Tests Predict Head/Neck Injuries [Accepted Manuscript], Julie Anne Hides, Melinda M. Franettovich Smith, M Dilani Mendis, Julia Treleaven, Andrew H. Rotstein, Christopher T. Sexton, Nancy Low Choy, Paul Mccrory Dec 2017

Self-Reported Concussion History And Sensorimotor Tests Predict Head/Neck Injuries [Accepted Manuscript], Julie Anne Hides, Melinda M. Franettovich Smith, M Dilani Mendis, Julia Treleaven, Andrew H. Rotstein, Christopher T. Sexton, Nancy Low Choy, Paul Mccrory

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Sports related concussion (SRC) is a risk for players involved in high impact, collision sports. A history of SRC is a risk factor for future concussions, but the mechanisms underlying this are unknown. Despite evidence that most visible signs and symptoms associated with sports concussion resolve within 7-10 days, it has been proposed that subclinical loss of neuromuscular control and impaired motor functioning may persist and be associated with further injury. Alternatively, indicators of poor sensorimotor performance could be independent risk factors. This study investigated if a history of SRC and/or pre-season sensorimotor performance predicted season head/neck injuries ...


Design, Synthesis And Biological Activity Of 1,2,3-Triazolobenzodiazepine Bet Bromodomain Inhibitors [Accepted Manuscript], Phillip P. Sharp, Jean-Marc Garnier, Tamas Hatfaludi, Zhen Xu, David Segal, Kate E. Jarman, Helene Jousset, Alexandra Garnham, John Feutrill, Anthony Cuzzupe, Peter Hall, Scott Taylor, Carl R. Walkley, Dean Tyler, Mark A. Dawson, Peter Czabotar, Andrew F. Wilks, Stefan Glaser, David C. Huang, Christopher J. Burns Nov 2017

Design, Synthesis And Biological Activity Of 1,2,3-Triazolobenzodiazepine Bet Bromodomain Inhibitors [Accepted Manuscript], Phillip P. Sharp, Jean-Marc Garnier, Tamas Hatfaludi, Zhen Xu, David Segal, Kate E. Jarman, Helene Jousset, Alexandra Garnham, John Feutrill, Anthony Cuzzupe, Peter Hall, Scott Taylor, Carl R. Walkley, Dean Tyler, Mark A. Dawson, Peter Czabotar, Andrew F. Wilks, Stefan Glaser, David C. Huang, Christopher J. Burns

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

A number of diazepines are known to inhibit bromo- and extra-terminal domain (BET) proteins. Their BET inhibitory activity derives from the fusion of an acetyl-lysine mimetic heterocycle onto the diazepine framework. Herein we describe a straightforward, modular synthesis of novel 1,2,3-triazolobenzodiazepines and show that the 1,2,3-triazole acts as an effective acetyl- lysine mimetic heterocycle. Structure-based optimization of this series of compounds led to the development of potent BET bromodomain inhibitors with excellent activity against AF9-MLL-driven leukemic cells, concomitant with a reduction in c-MYC expression. These novel benzodiazepines therefore represent a promising class of therapeutic BET inhibitors


The Efficacy Of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy For Eating Disorders: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis [Accepted Manuscript], Jake Linardon, Tracey Wade, Xochitl De La Piedad Garcia, Leah Brennan Nov 2017

The Efficacy Of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy For Eating Disorders: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis [Accepted Manuscript], Jake Linardon, Tracey Wade, Xochitl De La Piedad Garcia, Leah Brennan

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective: This meta-analysis examined the efficacy of cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT) for eating disorders. Method: Randomized controlled trials of CBT were searched. Seventy-nine trials were included. Results: Therapist-led CBT was more efficacious than inactive (wait-lists) and active (any psychotherapy) comparisons in individuals with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Therapist-led CBT was most efficacious when manualized CBT-BN or its enhanced version was delivered. No significant differences were observed between therapist-led CBT for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder and antidepressants at posttreatment. CBT was also directly compared to other specific psychological interventions, and therapist-led CBT resulted in greater reductions in ...


Omics And Exercise: Global Approaches For Mapping Exercise Biological Networks [Accepted Manuscript], Nolan John Hoffman Oct 2017

Omics And Exercise: Global Approaches For Mapping Exercise Biological Networks [Accepted Manuscript], Nolan John Hoffman

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The application of global “omics” technologies to exercise has introduced new opportunities to map the complexity and interconnectedness of biological networks underlying the tissue-specific responses and systemic health benefits of exercise. This review will introduce major research tracks and recent advancements in this emerging field, as well as critical gaps in understanding the orchestration of molecular exercise dynamics that will benefit from unbiased omics investigations. Furthermore, significant research hurdles that need to be overcome to effectively fill these gaps related to data collection, computation, interpretation, and integration across omics applications will be discussed. Collectively, a cross-disciplinary physiological and omics-based systems ...


Psychotherapy For Bulimia Nervosa On Symptoms Of Depression: A Meta-Analysis Of Randomized Controlled Trials [Accepted Manuscript], Jake Linardon, Tracey Wade, Xochitl De La Piedad Garcia, Leah Brennan Oct 2017

Psychotherapy For Bulimia Nervosa On Symptoms Of Depression: A Meta-Analysis Of Randomized Controlled Trials [Accepted Manuscript], Jake Linardon, Tracey Wade, Xochitl De La Piedad Garcia, Leah Brennan

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective: Depressive symptoms are an important risk factor and consequence of binge eating and purging behavior in bulimia nervosa (BN). Although psychotherapy is effective in reducing symptoms of BN in the short- and long-term, it is unclear whether psychotherapy for BN is also effective in reducing depressive symptoms. This meta-analysis examined the efficacy of psychotherapy for BN on depressive symptoms in the short- and long-term. Method: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on BN that assessed depressive symptoms as an outcome were identified. Twenty-six RCTs were included. Results: Psychotherapy was more efficacious at reducing symptoms of depression at post-treatment (g = 0.47 ...


Dynamics Of White Matter Plasticity Underlying Working Memory Training: Multimodal Evidence From Diffusion Mri And Relaxometry, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, Sonya Foley, Silvia De Santis, Cyril Charron, Adam Hampshire, Karen Caeyenberghs, Derek Kenton Jones Sep 2017

Dynamics Of White Matter Plasticity Underlying Working Memory Training: Multimodal Evidence From Diffusion Mri And Relaxometry, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, Sonya Foley, Silvia De Santis, Cyril Charron, Adam Hampshire, Karen Caeyenberghs, Derek Kenton Jones

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Adaptive working memory (WM) training may lead to cognitive benefits that are associated with white matter plasticity in parietofrontal networks, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We investigated white matter microstructural changes after adaptive WM training relative to a nonadaptive comparison group. Microstructural changes were studied in the superior longitudinal fasciculus, the main parietofrontal connection, and the cingulum bundle as a comparison pathway. MRI-based metrics were the myelin water fraction and longitudinal relaxation rate R1 from multicomponent relaxometry (captured with the mcDESPOT approach) as proxy metrics of myelin, the restricted volume fraction from the composite hindered and restricted model ...


Targeting Reductions In Sitting Time To Increase Physical Activity And Improve Health [Accepted Manuscript], Sarah K. Keadle, David E. Conroy, Matthew P. Buman, David Wayne Dunstan, Charles E. Matthews Aug 2017

Targeting Reductions In Sitting Time To Increase Physical Activity And Improve Health [Accepted Manuscript], Sarah K. Keadle, David E. Conroy, Matthew P. Buman, David Wayne Dunstan, Charles E. Matthews

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

New evidence suggests that reductions in sedentary behavior may increase physical activity and improve health. These findings point to new behavioral targets for intervention and new ways to think about intervening to increase overall physical activity in the population. This report provides a knowledge update reflecting the rapid accumulation of new evidence related to sedentary behavior and health among adults. Recent observational studies suggest that leveraging the time-inverse relationship between sedentary and active behaviors by replacing sitting with standing, light- or moderate-intensity activity can have important health benefits, particularly among less active adults. Clinical studies are providing evidence of the ...


Do Self-Managed Exercises And Strength/Fitness Training Affect Multifidus Muscle Size In Elite Footballers? [Accepted Manuscript], Julie Anne Hides, Jazmin C. Walsh, Melinda M. Franettovich-Smith, M. Dilani Mendis Jul 2017

Do Self-Managed Exercises And Strength/Fitness Training Affect Multifidus Muscle Size In Elite Footballers? [Accepted Manuscript], Julie Anne Hides, Jazmin C. Walsh, Melinda M. Franettovich-Smith, M. Dilani Mendis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Context: Low back pain (LBP) and lower limb injuries are common among Australian Football League (AFL) players. Smaller size of 1 key trunk muscle, the lumbar multifidus (MF), has been associated with LBP and injuries in footballers. The size of the MF muscle has been shown to be modifiable with supervised motor-control training programs. Among AFL players, supervised motor-control training has also been shown to reduce the incidence of lower limb injuries and was associated with increased player availability for games. However, the effectiveness of a self-managed MF exercise program is unknown. Objective: To investigate the effect of self-managed exercises ...


European Society Of Cardiology - Acute Cardiovascular Care Association Position Paper On Safe Discharge Of Acute Heart Failure Patients From The Emergency Department [Accepted Manuscript], Òscar Miró, Frank W. Peacock, John J. Mcmurray, Hector Bueno, Michael Christ, Alan S. Maisel, Louise Cullen, Martin R. Cowie, Salvatore Di Somma, Francisco J. Martin Sanchez, Elke Platz, Josep Masip, Uwe Zeymer, Christiaan Vrints, Susanna Price, Alexandre Mebazaa, Christian Mueller Jun 2017

European Society Of Cardiology - Acute Cardiovascular Care Association Position Paper On Safe Discharge Of Acute Heart Failure Patients From The Emergency Department [Accepted Manuscript], Òscar Miró, Frank W. Peacock, John J. Mcmurray, Hector Bueno, Michael Christ, Alan S. Maisel, Louise Cullen, Martin R. Cowie, Salvatore Di Somma, Francisco J. Martin Sanchez, Elke Platz, Josep Masip, Uwe Zeymer, Christiaan Vrints, Susanna Price, Alexandre Mebazaa, Christian Mueller

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Heart failure is a global public health challenge frequently presenting to the emergency department. After initial stabilization and management, one of the most important decisions is to determine which patients can be safely discharged and which require hospitalization. This is a complex decision that depends on numerous subjective factors, including both the severity of the patient's underlying condition and an estimate of the acuity of the presentation. An emergency department observation period may help select the correct option. Ideally, during an observation period, risk stratification should be carried out using parameters specifically designed for use in the emergency department ...


Exploration Of Food Addiction In People Living With Schizophrenia [Accepted Manuscript], Ivana Goluza, Jay Borhard, Esther Kiarie, Judy Mullan, Nagesh Pai Jun 2017

Exploration Of Food Addiction In People Living With Schizophrenia [Accepted Manuscript], Ivana Goluza, Jay Borhard, Esther Kiarie, Judy Mullan, Nagesh Pai

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The term “food addiction” denotes a concept among researchers and lay consumers as a behavioural phenotype related to excessive food consumption. The concept is in parallel to clinical criteria for substance dependence and may aid in our understanding the psychological factors on weight gain (Hebebrand, Albayrak et al. 2014). While there is a lack of consensus whether the entity of food addiction constitutes as a true and valid addiction (Pai, Vella et al. 2014), the literature on food addiction has grown rapidly due to operationalization of the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for substance dependence to eating behaviours utilising the Yale Food ...


Manipulation Of Muscle Creatine And Glycogen Changes Dxa Estimates Of Body Composition [Accepted Manuscript], Julia L. Bone, Megan L. Ross, Kristyen A. Tomcik, Nikki A. Jeacocke, Will G. Hopkins, Louise M. Burke, Louise M. Burke May 2017

Manipulation Of Muscle Creatine And Glycogen Changes Dxa Estimates Of Body Composition [Accepted Manuscript], Julia L. Bone, Megan L. Ross, Kristyen A. Tomcik, Nikki A. Jeacocke, Will G. Hopkins, Louise M. Burke, Louise M. Burke

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Standardizing a dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) protocol is thought to provide a reliable measurement of body composition.

Purpose: We investigated the effects of manipulating muscle glycogen and creatine content independently and additively on DXA estimates of lean mass.

Method: Eighteen well-trained male cyclists undertook a parallel group application of creatine loading (n = 9) (20 g·d−1 for 5 d loading; 3 g·d−1 maintenance) or placebo (n = 9) with crossover application of glycogen loading (12 v 6 g·kg−1 BM per day for 48 h) as part of a larger study involving a glycogen-depleting exercise protocol. Body ...


Psychometric Properties Of The Weight Self-Stigma Questionnaire (Wssq) Among A Sample Of Overweight/Obese French-Speaking Adolescents [Accepted Manuscript], Christophe Maiano, Annie Aimé, Geneviève Lepage, Aspq Team, Alexandre J. S. Morin Apr 2017

Psychometric Properties Of The Weight Self-Stigma Questionnaire (Wssq) Among A Sample Of Overweight/Obese French-Speaking Adolescents [Accepted Manuscript], Christophe Maiano, Annie Aimé, Geneviève Lepage, Aspq Team, Alexandre J. S. Morin

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Purpose: The Weight Self-Stigma Questionnaire (WSSQ) was recently developed to assess the internalization of weight stigma among English-speaking overweight and obese adults. The objective of the present study was to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a French version of the WSSQ, as well as its applicability to adolescents. Methods: The sample comprised 156 overweight and obese adolescents (81 boys, 75 girls, Mage = 16.31). The factor validity and the convergent validity of the French version of the WSSQ were examined using a confirmatory factor analysis and a structural equation model, respectively. Results: The a priori two-factor structure of ...


Gluteus Medius Activation During Running Is A Risk Factor For Season Hamstring Injuries In Elite Footballers [Accepted Manuscript], Melinda M. Franettovich Smith, Jason Bonacci, Marianne Dilani Mendis, Craig Christie, Andrew Rotstein, Julie Anne Hides Feb 2017

Gluteus Medius Activation During Running Is A Risk Factor For Season Hamstring Injuries In Elite Footballers [Accepted Manuscript], Melinda M. Franettovich Smith, Jason Bonacci, Marianne Dilani Mendis, Craig Christie, Andrew Rotstein, Julie Anne Hides

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

To investigate if size and activation of the gluteal muscles is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in elite AFL players. Design Prospective cohort study. Methods Twenty-six elitemale footballers from a professional Australian Football League (AFL) club participated in the study. At the beginning of the season bilateral gluteus medius (GMED) and gluteus maximus (GMAX) muscle volume was measured from magnetic resonance images and electromyographic recordings of the same muscles were obtained during running. History of hamstring injury in the pre-season and incidence of hamstring injury during the season were determined from club medical data. Results Nine players (35%) incurred ...


Acute Memory And Psychotomimetic Effects Of Cannabis And Tobacco Both 'Joint' And Individually: A Placebo-Controlled Trial, Chandni Hindocha, T. P. Freeman, J. X. Xia, Natacha D. C. Shaban, Helen V. Curran Jan 2017

Acute Memory And Psychotomimetic Effects Of Cannabis And Tobacco Both 'Joint' And Individually: A Placebo-Controlled Trial, Chandni Hindocha, T. P. Freeman, J. X. Xia, Natacha D. C. Shaban, Helen V. Curran

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Cannabis and tobacco have contrasting cognitive effects. Smoking cannabis with tobacco is prevalent in many countries and although this may well influence cognitive and mental health outcomes, the possibility has rarely been investigated in human experimental psychopharmacological research. Method The individual and interactive effects of cannabis and tobacco were evaluated in 24 non-dependent cannabis and tobacco smokers in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 2 (cannabis, placebo) × 2 (tobacco, placebo) crossover design. Verbal memory (prose recall), working memory (WM) performance including maintenance, manipulation and attention (N-back), psychotomimetic, subjective and cardiovascular measures were recorded on each of four sessions. Results Cannabis alone ...


The Relationship Between Salivary C-Reactive Protein And Cognitive Function In Children Aged 11-14 Years: Does Psychopathology Have A Moderating Effect?, Alexis E. Cullen, Ben M. Tappin, Patricia A. Zunszain, Hannah Dickson, Ruth E. Roberts, Naghmeh Nikkheslat, Mizanur Khondoker, Carmine M. Pariante, Helen L. Fisher, Kristin R. Laurens Jan 2017

The Relationship Between Salivary C-Reactive Protein And Cognitive Function In Children Aged 11-14 Years: Does Psychopathology Have A Moderating Effect?, Alexis E. Cullen, Ben M. Tappin, Patricia A. Zunszain, Hannah Dickson, Ruth E. Roberts, Naghmeh Nikkheslat, Mizanur Khondoker, Carmine M. Pariante, Helen L. Fisher, Kristin R. Laurens

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), a non-specific biomarker of systemic bodily inflammation, has been associated with more pronounced cognitive impairments in adults with psychiatric disorders, particularly in the domains of memory and executive function. Whether this association is present in early life (i.e., the time at which the cognitive impairments that characterise these disorders become evident), and is specific to those with emerging psychiatric disorders, has yet to be investigated. To this end, we examined the association between salivary CRP and cognitive function in children aged 11–14 years and explored the moderating effect of psychopathology. The study utilised data ...


The Effects Of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy For Eating Disorders On Quality Of Life: A Meta-Analysis [Accepted Manuscript], Jake Linardon, Leah Brennan Jan 2017

The Effects Of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy For Eating Disorders On Quality Of Life: A Meta-Analysis [Accepted Manuscript], Jake Linardon, Leah Brennan

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective

Meta‐analyses have documented the efficacy of cognitive‐behavioral therapy (CBT) for reducing symptoms of eating disorders. However, it is not known whether CBT for eating disorders can also improve quality of life (QoL). This meta‐analysis therefore examined the effects of CBT for eating disorders on subjective QoL and health‐related quality of life (QoL).

Method

Studies that assessed QoL before and after CBT for eating disorders were searched in the PsycInfo and Medline database. Thirty‐four articles met inclusion criteria. Pooled within and between‐groups Hedge's g were calculated at post‐treatment and follow‐up for ...


Hip Fracture Risk And Safety With Alendronate Treatment In The Oldest-Old, K. F. Axelsson, M. Wallander, Helena Johansson, D. Lundh, Mattias Lorentzon Jan 2017

Hip Fracture Risk And Safety With Alendronate Treatment In The Oldest-Old, K. F. Axelsson, M. Wallander, Helena Johansson, D. Lundh, Mattias Lorentzon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background. There is high evidence for secondary prevention of fractures, including hip fracture, with alendronate treatment, but alendronate’s efficacy to prevent hip fractures in the oldest-old (≥80 years old), the population with the highest fracture risk, has not been studied. Objective. To investigate whether alendronate treatment amongst the oldest-old with prior fracture was related to decreased hip fracture rate and sustained safety. Methods. Using a national database of men and women undergoing a fall risk assessment at a Swedish healthcare facility, we identified 90 795 patients who were 80 years or older and had a prior fracture. Propensity score ...


White Matter Predicts Functional Connectivity In Premanifest Huntington's Disease, Peter Mccolgan, Sarah Gregory, Adeel Razi, Kiran K. Seunarine, Fatma Gargouri, Alexandra Durr, Raymund A. C. Roos, Blair R. Leavitt, Rachael I. Scahill, Chris A. Clark, Sarah J. Tabrizi, Geraint Rees, Allison J. Coleman, J. Decolongon, M. Fan, T. Petkau, Céline Jauffret, Damian Justo, S. Lehericy, Kevin Nigaud, R. Valabregue, A. Schoonderbeek, Ellen P. Hart, D. J. Hensman Moss, H. Crawford, Eileanoir Johnson, Marina Papoutsi, C. Berna, R. Reilmann, N. Weber, J. Stout, I. Labuschagne, B. Landwehrmeyer, M. Orth, H. Johnson Jan 2017

White Matter Predicts Functional Connectivity In Premanifest Huntington's Disease, Peter Mccolgan, Sarah Gregory, Adeel Razi, Kiran K. Seunarine, Fatma Gargouri, Alexandra Durr, Raymund A. C. Roos, Blair R. Leavitt, Rachael I. Scahill, Chris A. Clark, Sarah J. Tabrizi, Geraint Rees, Allison J. Coleman, J. Decolongon, M. Fan, T. Petkau, Céline Jauffret, Damian Justo, S. Lehericy, Kevin Nigaud, R. Valabregue, A. Schoonderbeek, Ellen P. Hart, D. J. Hensman Moss, H. Crawford, Eileanoir Johnson, Marina Papoutsi, C. Berna, R. Reilmann, N. Weber, J. Stout, I. Labuschagne, B. Landwehrmeyer, M. Orth, H. Johnson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives The distribution of pathology in neurodegenerative disease can be predicted by the organizational characteristics of white matter in healthy brains. However, we have very little evidence for the impact these pathological changes have on brain function. Understanding any such link between structure and function is critical for understanding how underlying brain pathology influences the progressive behavioral changes associated with neurodegeneration. Here, we demonstrate such a link between structure and function in individuals with premanifest Huntington's. Methods Using diffusion tractography and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to characterize white matter organization and functional connectivity, we investigate whether characteristic ...


Optimising Child Outcomes From Parenting Interventions: Fathers' Experiences, Preferences And Barriers To Participation, L. A. Tully, Patrycja J. Piotrowska, Daniel A.J. Collins, Kathleen S. Mairet, Nicola Black, Eva R. Kimonis, D. Hawes, C. Moul, Rhoshel Lenroot, Paul Frick, Vicki Anderson, Mark R. Dadds Jan 2017

Optimising Child Outcomes From Parenting Interventions: Fathers' Experiences, Preferences And Barriers To Participation, L. A. Tully, Patrycja J. Piotrowska, Daniel A.J. Collins, Kathleen S. Mairet, Nicola Black, Eva R. Kimonis, D. Hawes, C. Moul, Rhoshel Lenroot, Paul Frick, Vicki Anderson, Mark R. Dadds

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Background: Early childhood interventions can have both immediate and long-term positive effects on cognitive, behavioural, health and education outcomes. Fathers are underrepresented in interventions focusing on the well-being of children. However, father participation may be critical for intervention effectiveness, especially for parenting interventions for child externalising problems. To date, there has been very little research conducted to understand the low rates of father participation and to facilitate the development of interventions to meet the needs of fathers. This study examined fathers experiences of, and preferences for, parenting interventions as well as perceptions of barriers to participation. It also examined how ...


Leaving A Legacy Of Stroke In Europe: A Community Of Dedicated Professionals Is Changing The Face Of Stroke In Europe, Robert Mikulik, Pauli Ylikotila, Risto Roine, Miroslav Brozman, Sandy Middleton Jan 2017

Leaving A Legacy Of Stroke In Europe: A Community Of Dedicated Professionals Is Changing The Face Of Stroke In Europe, Robert Mikulik, Pauli Ylikotila, Risto Roine, Miroslav Brozman, Sandy Middleton

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Time is of the essence in the treatment of acute stroke; however, there are wide variations, across and within countries, in the ability to hospitalize, scan, diagnose, and treat acute stroke patients rapidly within the accepted time window of 4.5 hours. Door-to-needle (DTN) time is an important performance indicator that illustrates the speed and operational efficiency of stoke units. Significant progress is being made; DTNs often exceeded an hour only a few years ago, but can now be achieved in under seven minutes in leading stroke units. This symposium examined the strategies and contributory factors that result in reduced ...


Cluster-Randomized, Crossover Trial Of Head Positioning In Acute Stroke, Craig Anderson, Hisatomi Arima, Pablo Lavados, Laurent Billot, Maree Hackett, Veronica Olavarria, Paula Munoz-Venturelli, Alejandro Brunser, Bin Peng, Liying Cui, Lily Song, Kerrylee Rogers, Sandy Middleton, Joyce Y. Lim, Denise Forshaw, C. Elizabeth Lighbody, Mark Woodward, Octavio Pontes-Neto, H. Asita De Silva, Lin Ruey-Tay, Tay H. Lee, Jeyaraj Pandian, Gillian Mead, Thompson Robinson, Caroline Leigh Watkins Jan 2017

Cluster-Randomized, Crossover Trial Of Head Positioning In Acute Stroke, Craig Anderson, Hisatomi Arima, Pablo Lavados, Laurent Billot, Maree Hackett, Veronica Olavarria, Paula Munoz-Venturelli, Alejandro Brunser, Bin Peng, Liying Cui, Lily Song, Kerrylee Rogers, Sandy Middleton, Joyce Y. Lim, Denise Forshaw, C. Elizabeth Lighbody, Mark Woodward, Octavio Pontes-Neto, H. Asita De Silva, Lin Ruey-Tay, Tay H. Lee, Jeyaraj Pandian, Gillian Mead, Thompson Robinson, Caroline Leigh Watkins

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The role of supine positioning after acute stroke in improving cerebral blood flow and the countervailing risk of aspiration pneumonia have led to variation in head positioning in clinical practice. We wanted to determine whether outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke could be improved by positioning the patient to be lying flat (i.e., fully supine with the back horizontal and the face upwards) during treatment to increase cerebral perfusion. METHODS In a pragmatic, cluster-randomized, crossover trial conducted in nine countries, we assigned 11,093 patients with acute stroke (85% of the strokes were ischemic) to receive care in ...


Effects Of Different Exercise Modalities On Fatigue In Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy: A Year-Long Randomised Controlled Trial, Dennis R. Taaffe, Robert U. Newton, Nigel A. Spry, David Joseph, Suzanne K. Chambers, Robert Alexander Gardiner, Bradley Alan Wall, Prue Cormie, Kate Bolam, Daniel A. Galvao Jan 2017

Effects Of Different Exercise Modalities On Fatigue In Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy: A Year-Long Randomised Controlled Trial, Dennis R. Taaffe, Robert U. Newton, Nigel A. Spry, David Joseph, Suzanne K. Chambers, Robert Alexander Gardiner, Bradley Alan Wall, Prue Cormie, Kate Bolam, Daniel A. Galvao

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Physical exercise mitigates fatigue during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT); however, the effects of different exercise prescriptions are unknown. Objectives: To determine the long-term effects of different exercise modes on fatigue in prostate cancer patients undergoing ADT. Design, setting, and participants: Between 2009 and 2012, 163 prostate cancer patients aged 43–90 y on ADT were randomised to exercise targeting the musculoskeletal system (impact loading + resistance training; ILRT; n = 58), the cardiovascular and muscular systems (aerobic + resistance training; ART; n = 54), or to usual care/delayed exercise (DEL; n = 51) for 12 mo across university-affiliated exercise clinics in Australia. Intervention ...


Prevalence Of Arthritis According To Age, Sex And Socioeconomic Status In Six Low And Middle Income Countries: Analysis Of Data From The World Health Organization Study On Global Ageing And Adult Health (Sage) Wave 1, S. L. Brennan-Olsen, S. Cook, M. T. Leech, S. J. Bowe, P. Kowal, N. Naidoo, I. N. Ackerman, R. S. Page, S. M. Hosking, J. A. Pasco, M. Mohebbi Jan 2017

Prevalence Of Arthritis According To Age, Sex And Socioeconomic Status In Six Low And Middle Income Countries: Analysis Of Data From The World Health Organization Study On Global Ageing And Adult Health (Sage) Wave 1, S. L. Brennan-Olsen, S. Cook, M. T. Leech, S. J. Bowe, P. Kowal, N. Naidoo, I. N. Ackerman, R. S. Page, S. M. Hosking, J. A. Pasco, M. Mohebbi

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: In higher income countries, social disadvantage is associated with higher arthritis prevalence; however, less is known about arthritis prevalence or determinants in low to middle income countries (LMICs). We assessed arthritis prevalence by age and sex, and marital status and occupation, as two key parameters of socioeconomic position (SEP), using data from the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). Methods: SAGE Wave 1 (2007–10) includes nationally-representative samples of older adults (≥50 yrs), plus smaller samples of adults aged 18-49 yrs., from China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa (n = 44,747). Arthritis ...


Effects Of Explicit Cueing And Ambiguity On The Anticipation And Experience Of A Painful Thermal Stimulus, Lincoln M. Tracy, Stephen J. Gibson, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Melita J. Giummarra Jan 2017

Effects Of Explicit Cueing And Ambiguity On The Anticipation And Experience Of A Painful Thermal Stimulus, Lincoln M. Tracy, Stephen J. Gibson, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Melita J. Giummarra

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Many factors can influence the way in which we perceive painful events and noxious stimuli, but less is known about how pain perception is altered by explicit knowledge about the impending sensation. This study aimed to investigate the impact of explicit cueing on anxiety, arousal, and pain experience during the anticipation and delivery of noxious thermal heat stimulations. Fifty-two healthy volunteers were randomised to receive explicit instructions about visual cue-stimulus temperature pairings, or no explicit instructions about the cue-stimulus pairs. A pain anxiety task was used to investigate the effects of explicit cueing on anticipatory anxiety, pain experience and electrophysiological ...


Barriers To Evidence-Based Acute Stroke Care In Ghana: A Qualitative Study On The Perspectives Of Stroke Care Professionals, Leonard Baatiema, Ama De-Graft Aikins, Adem Sav, George Mnatzaganian, Carina K. Y. Chan, Shawn Somerset Jan 2017

Barriers To Evidence-Based Acute Stroke Care In Ghana: A Qualitative Study On The Perspectives Of Stroke Care Professionals, Leonard Baatiema, Ama De-Graft Aikins, Adem Sav, George Mnatzaganian, Carina K. Y. Chan, Shawn Somerset

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective: Despite major advances in research on acute stroke care interventions, relatively few stroke patients benefit from evidence-based care due to multiple barriers. Yet current evidence of such barriers is predominantly from high-income countries. This study seeks to understand stroke care professionals’ views on the barriers which hinder the provision of optimal acute stroke care in Ghanaian hospital settings. Design: A qualitative approach using semistructured interviews. Both thematic and grounded theory approaches were used to analyse and interpret the data through a synthesis of preidentified and emergent themes. Setting: A multisite study, conducted in six major referral acute hospital settings ...


Causal Relationship Between Obesity And Serum Testosterone Status In Men: A Bi-Directional Mendelian Randomization Analysis, Joel Eriksson, Robin Haring, Niels Grarup, Liesbeth Vandenput, Henri Wallaschofski, Erik Lorentzen, Torben Hansen, Dan Mellström, Oluf Pedersen, Matthias Nauck, Mattias Lorentzon, Lise Lotte Nystrup Husemoen, Henry Völzke, Magnus Karlsson, Sebastian E. Baumeister, Allan Linneberg, Claes Ohlsson Jan 2017

Causal Relationship Between Obesity And Serum Testosterone Status In Men: A Bi-Directional Mendelian Randomization Analysis, Joel Eriksson, Robin Haring, Niels Grarup, Liesbeth Vandenput, Henri Wallaschofski, Erik Lorentzen, Torben Hansen, Dan Mellström, Oluf Pedersen, Matthias Nauck, Mattias Lorentzon, Lise Lotte Nystrup Husemoen, Henry Völzke, Magnus Karlsson, Sebastian E. Baumeister, Allan Linneberg, Claes Ohlsson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Context Obesity in men is associated with low serum testosterone and both are associated with several diseases and increased mortality. Objectives Examine the direction and causality of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and serum testosterone. Design Bi-directional Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis on prospective cohorts. Setting Five cohorts from Denmark, Germany and Sweden (Inter99, SHIP, SHIP Trend, GOOD and MrOS Sweden). Participants 7446 Caucasian men, genotyped for 97 BMI-associated SNPs and three testosterone-associated SNPs. Main outcome measures BMI and serum testosterone adjusted for age, smoking, time of blood sampling and site. Results 1 SD genetically instrumented increase in BMI ...


Changes In Body Composition And Metabolic Profile During Interleukin 6 Inhibition In Rheumatoid Arthritis, Anne Tournadre, Bruno Pereira, Fréderic Dutheil, Charlotte Giraud, Daniel Courteix, Vincent Sapin, Thomas Frayssac, Sylvain Mathieu, Sandrine Malochet-Guinamand, Martin Soubrier Jan 2017

Changes In Body Composition And Metabolic Profile During Interleukin 6 Inhibition In Rheumatoid Arthritis, Anne Tournadre, Bruno Pereira, Fréderic Dutheil, Charlotte Giraud, Daniel Courteix, Vincent Sapin, Thomas Frayssac, Sylvain Mathieu, Sandrine Malochet-Guinamand, Martin Soubrier

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by increased mortality associated with cardiometabolic disorders including dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, and cachectic obesity. Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors and interleukin 6 receptor blocker licensed for the treatment of RA decrease inflammation and could thus improve cardiovascular risk, but their effects on body composition and metabolic profile need to be clarified. We investigated the effects of tocilizumab (TCZ), a humanized anti‐interleukin 6 receptor antibody, on body composition and metabolic profile in patients treated for RA. Methods Twenty‐one active RA patients treated with TCZ were included in a 1 year ...


Individual And Combined Effects Of Cannabis And Tobacco On Drug Reward Processing In Non-Dependent Users, Chandni Hindocha, Will Lawn, Tom P. Freeman, H. Valerie Curran Jan 2017

Individual And Combined Effects Of Cannabis And Tobacco On Drug Reward Processing In Non-Dependent Users, Chandni Hindocha, Will Lawn, Tom P. Freeman, H. Valerie Curran

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Rationale: Cannabis and tobacco are often smoked simultaneously in joints, and this practice may increase the risks of developing tobacco and/or cannabis use disorders. Currently, there is no human experimental research on how these drugs interact on addiction-related measures. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate how cannabis and tobacco, each alone and combined together in joints, affected individuals’ demand for cannabis puffs and cigarettes, explicit liking of drug and non-drug-related stimuli and craving. Method: A double-blind, 2 (active cannabis, placebo cannabis) × 2 (active tobacco, placebo tobacco) crossover design was used with 24 non-dependent cannabis and tobacco smokers. They completed ...


Design, Synthesis, And Biological Activity Of 1,2,3-Triazolobenzodiazepine Bet Bromodomain Inhibitors [Accepted Manuscript], Phillip P. Sharp, Jean-Marc Garnier, Tamas Hatfaludi, Zhen Xu, David Segal, Kate E. Jarman, Hélène Jousset, Alexandra Garnham, John T. Feutrill, Anthony Cuzzupe, Peter Hall, Scott Taylor, Carl Walkley, Dean Tyler, Mark A. Dawson, Peter Czabotar, Andrew F. Wilks, Stefan Glaser, David C. S. Huang, Christopher J. Burns Jan 2017

Design, Synthesis, And Biological Activity Of 1,2,3-Triazolobenzodiazepine Bet Bromodomain Inhibitors [Accepted Manuscript], Phillip P. Sharp, Jean-Marc Garnier, Tamas Hatfaludi, Zhen Xu, David Segal, Kate E. Jarman, Hélène Jousset, Alexandra Garnham, John T. Feutrill, Anthony Cuzzupe, Peter Hall, Scott Taylor, Carl Walkley, Dean Tyler, Mark A. Dawson, Peter Czabotar, Andrew F. Wilks, Stefan Glaser, David C. S. Huang, Christopher J. Burns

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

A number of diazepines are known to inhibit bromo- and extra-terminal domain (BET) proteins. Their BET inhibitory activity derives from the fusion of an acetyl-lysine mimetic heterocycle onto the diazepine framework. Herein we describe a straightforward, modular synthesis of novel 1,2,3-triazolobenzodiazepines and show that the 1,2,3-triazole acts as an effective acetyl-lysine mimetic heterocycle. Structure-based optimization of this series of compounds led to the development of potent BET bromodomain inhibitors with excellent activity against leukemic cells, concomitant with a reduction in c-MYC expression. These novel benzodiazepines therefore represent a promising class of therapeutic BET inhibitors.


Longitudinal And Secular Trends In Total Cholesterol Levels And Impact Of Lipid-Lowering Drug Use Among Norwegian Women And Men Born In 1905-1977 In The Population-Based Tromsø Study 1979-2016, Laila Arnesdatter Hopstock, Kaare Harald Bonaa, Anne Elise Eggen, Sameline Grimsgaard, Bjarne K. Jacobsen, Maja-Lisa Loechen, Ellisiv Bøgeberg Mathiesen, Inger Njølstad, Tom Wilsgaard Jan 2017

Longitudinal And Secular Trends In Total Cholesterol Levels And Impact Of Lipid-Lowering Drug Use Among Norwegian Women And Men Born In 1905-1977 In The Population-Based Tromsø Study 1979-2016, Laila Arnesdatter Hopstock, Kaare Harald Bonaa, Anne Elise Eggen, Sameline Grimsgaard, Bjarne K. Jacobsen, Maja-Lisa Loechen, Ellisiv Bøgeberg Mathiesen, Inger Njølstad, Tom Wilsgaard

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives
Elevated blood cholesterol is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Cholesterol level surveillance is necessary to study population disease burden, consider priorities for prevention and intervention and understand the effect of diet, lifestyle and treatment. Previous studies show a cholesterol decline in recent decades but lack data to follow individuals born in different decades throughout life.
Methods
We investigated changes in age-specific and birth cohort-specific total cholesterol (TC) levels in 43 710 women and men born in 1905–1977 (aged 20–95 years at screening) in the population-based Tromsø Study. Fifty-nine per cent of the participants had more ...