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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Autophagy And Protein Turnover Responses To Exercise-Nutrient Interactions In Human Skeletal Muscle, William J. Smiles Jun 2017

Autophagy And Protein Turnover Responses To Exercise-Nutrient Interactions In Human Skeletal Muscle, William J. Smiles

Theses

Skeletal muscle is a dynamic tissue comprising the largest protein reservoir of the human body with a rate of turnover of ~1-2% per day. Protein turnover is regulated by the coordination of intracellular systems regulating protein synthesis and breakdown that converge in a spatiotemporal manner on lysosomal organelles responsible for integrating a variety of contractile and nutritional stimuli. One such system, autophagy, which literally means to ‘self-eat,’ involves capturing of cellular material for deliver to, and disintegration by, the lysosome. The autophagic ‘cargo’ is subsequently recycled for use in synthetic reactions and thus maintenance of protein balance. As a dynamic ...


Design, Synthesis, And Biological Activity Of 1,2,3-Triazolobenzodiazepine Bet Bromodomain Inhibitors [Accepted Manuscript], Phillip P. Sharp, Jean-Marc Garnier, Tamas Hatfaludi, Zhen Xu, David Segal, Kate E. Jarman, Hélène Jousset, Alexandra Garnham, John T. Feutrill, Anthony Cuzzupe, Peter Hall, Scott Taylor, Carl Walkley, Dean Tyler, Mark A. Dawson, Peter Czabotar, Andrew F. Wilks, Stefan Glaser, David C. S. Huang, Christopher J. Burns Jan 2017

Design, Synthesis, And Biological Activity Of 1,2,3-Triazolobenzodiazepine Bet Bromodomain Inhibitors [Accepted Manuscript], Phillip P. Sharp, Jean-Marc Garnier, Tamas Hatfaludi, Zhen Xu, David Segal, Kate E. Jarman, Hélène Jousset, Alexandra Garnham, John T. Feutrill, Anthony Cuzzupe, Peter Hall, Scott Taylor, Carl Walkley, Dean Tyler, Mark A. Dawson, Peter Czabotar, Andrew F. Wilks, Stefan Glaser, David C. S. Huang, Christopher J. Burns

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

A number of diazepines are known to inhibit bromo- and extra-terminal domain (BET) proteins. Their BET inhibitory activity derives from the fusion of an acetyl-lysine mimetic heterocycle onto the diazepine framework. Herein we describe a straightforward, modular synthesis of novel 1,2,3-triazolobenzodiazepines and show that the 1,2,3-triazole acts as an effective acetyl-lysine mimetic heterocycle. Structure-based optimization of this series of compounds led to the development of potent BET bromodomain inhibitors with excellent activity against leukemic cells, concomitant with a reduction in c-MYC expression. These novel benzodiazepines therefore represent a promising class of therapeutic BET inhibitors.


High Quality Of Evidence Is Uncommon In Cochrane Systematic Reviews In Anaesthesia, Critical Care And Emergency Medicine, Aaron Conway, Zachary Conway, Kathleen Soalheira, Joanna Sutherland Jan 2017

High Quality Of Evidence Is Uncommon In Cochrane Systematic Reviews In Anaesthesia, Critical Care And Emergency Medicine, Aaron Conway, Zachary Conway, Kathleen Soalheira, Joanna Sutherland

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: The association between the quality of evidence in systematic reviews and authors' conclusions regarding the effectiveness of interventions relevant to anaesthesia has not been examined. Objective: The objectives of this study were: to determine the proportion of systematic reviews in which the authors made a conclusive statement about the effect of an intervention; to describe the quality of evidence derived from outcomes in reviews that used the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) working group system for grading the quality of evidence; and to identify review characteristics associated with conclusiveness. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of Cochrane systematic reviews ...


Counting On The Mental Number Line To Make A Move: Sensorimotor ('Pen') Control And Numerical Processing, Rebecca Sheridan, Maaike Van Rooijen, Oscar Giles, Faisal Mushtaq, Bert Steenbergen, Mark Mon-Williams, Amanda Waterman Jan 2017

Counting On The Mental Number Line To Make A Move: Sensorimotor ('Pen') Control And Numerical Processing, Rebecca Sheridan, Maaike Van Rooijen, Oscar Giles, Faisal Mushtaq, Bert Steenbergen, Mark Mon-Williams, Amanda Waterman

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Mathematics is often conducted with a writing implement. But is there a relationship between numerical processing and sensorimotor ‘pen’ control? We asked participants to move a stylus so it crossed an unmarked line at a location specified by a symbolic number (1–9), where number colour indicated whether the line ran left–right (‘normal’) or vice versa (‘reversed’). The task could be simplified through the use of a ‘mental number line’ (MNL). Many modern societies use number lines in mathematical education and the brain’s representation of number appears to follow a culturally determined spatial organisation (so better task performance ...


A Guide To Evaluating Linkage Quality For The Analysis Of Linked Data, Katie Harron, James C. Doidge, Hannah E. Knight, Ruth Gilbert, Harvey Goldstein, David A. Cromwell, Jan H. Van Der Meulen Jan 2017

A Guide To Evaluating Linkage Quality For The Analysis Of Linked Data, Katie Harron, James C. Doidge, Hannah E. Knight, Ruth Gilbert, Harvey Goldstein, David A. Cromwell, Jan H. Van Der Meulen

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Linked datasets are an important resource for epidemiological and clinical studies, but linkage error can lead to biased results. For data security reasons, linkage of personal identifiers is often performed by a third party, making it difficult for researchers to assess the quality of the linked dataset in the context of specific research questions. This is compounded by a lack of guidance on how to determine the potential impact of linkage error. We describe how linkage quality can be evaluated and provide widely applicable guidance for both data providers and researchers. Using an illustrative example of a linked dataset of ...


Who Environmental Noise Guidelines For The European Region: A Systematic Review On Environmental Noise And Adverse Birth Outcomes, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Gordana Ristovska, Payam Dadvand Jan 2017

Who Environmental Noise Guidelines For The European Region: A Systematic Review On Environmental Noise And Adverse Birth Outcomes, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Gordana Ristovska, Payam Dadvand

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Introduction: Three recent systematic reviews suggested a relationship between noise exposure and adverse birth outcomes. The aim of this review was to evaluate the evidence for the World Health Organization (WHO) noise guidelines and conduct an updated systematic review of environmental noise, specifically aircraft and road traffic noise and birth outcomes, such as preterm birth, low birth weight, being small for gestational age and congenital malformations. Materials and methods: We reviewed again all the papers on environmental noise and birth outcomes included in the previous three systematic reviews and conducted a systematic search on noise and birth outcomes to update ...


Identifying Patterns Of Item Missing Survey Data Using Latent Groups: An Observational Study, Adrian G. Barnett, Paul Mcelwee, Andrea Nathan, Nicola W. Burton, Gavin Turrell Jan 2017

Identifying Patterns Of Item Missing Survey Data Using Latent Groups: An Observational Study, Adrian G. Barnett, Paul Mcelwee, Andrea Nathan, Nicola W. Burton, Gavin Turrell

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives: To examine whether respondents to a survey of health and physical activity and potential determinants could be grouped according to the questions they missed, known as ‘item missing’. Design: Observational study of longitudinal data. Setting: Residents of Brisbane, Australia. Participants: 6901 people aged 40–65 years in 2007. Materials and methods: We used a latent class model with a mixture of multinomial distributions and chose the number of classes using the Bayesian information criterion. We used logistic regression to examine if participants’ characteristics were associated with their modal latent class. We used logistic regression to examine whether the amount ...


Coping With Unusual Experiences For 12-18 Year Olds (Cues+): A Transdiagnostic Randomised Controlled Trial Of The Effectiveness Of Cognitive Therapy In Reducing Distress Associated With Unusual Experiences In Adolescent Mental Health Services: Study Protocol For A Randomised Controlled Trial, Suzanne Jolley, Sophie Browning, Richard Corrigall, Kristin Laurens, Colette Hirsch, Karen Bracegirdle, Kimberley Gin, F. Muccio, Carine Stewart, Partha Banerjea, Elizabeth Kuipers, Philippa Garety, Majella Byrne, Juliana Onwumere, Evanthia Achilla, Paul Mccrone, Richard Emsley Jan 2017

Coping With Unusual Experiences For 12-18 Year Olds (Cues+): A Transdiagnostic Randomised Controlled Trial Of The Effectiveness Of Cognitive Therapy In Reducing Distress Associated With Unusual Experiences In Adolescent Mental Health Services: Study Protocol For A Randomised Controlled Trial, Suzanne Jolley, Sophie Browning, Richard Corrigall, Kristin Laurens, Colette Hirsch, Karen Bracegirdle, Kimberley Gin, F. Muccio, Carine Stewart, Partha Banerjea, Elizabeth Kuipers, Philippa Garety, Majella Byrne, Juliana Onwumere, Evanthia Achilla, Paul Mccrone, Richard Emsley

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background
Childhood ‘unusual experiences’ (such as hearing voices that others cannot, or suspicions of being followed) are common, but can become more distressing during adolescence, especially for young people in contact with Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). Unusual experiences that are distressing or have adverse life impact (UEDs) are associated with a range of current and future emotional, behavioural and mental health difficulties. Recommendations for psychological intervention are based on evidence from adult studies, with some support from small, pilot, child-specific evaluations. Research is needed to ensure that the recommendations suit children as well as adults. The CUES ...


Wireless Distributed Environmental Sensor Networks For Air Pollution Measurement-The Promise And The Current Reality, David M. Broday, Alexander Arpaci, Alena Bartonova, Nuría Castell-Balaguer, Tom Cole-Hunter, Franck R. Dauge, Barak Fishbain, Rod L. Jones, Karen Galea, Milena Jovasevic-Stojanovic, David Kocman, Tania Martinez-Iñiguez, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Johanna Robinson, Vlasta Svecova, Phong Thai Jan 2017

Wireless Distributed Environmental Sensor Networks For Air Pollution Measurement-The Promise And The Current Reality, David M. Broday, Alexander Arpaci, Alena Bartonova, Nuría Castell-Balaguer, Tom Cole-Hunter, Franck R. Dauge, Barak Fishbain, Rod L. Jones, Karen Galea, Milena Jovasevic-Stojanovic, David Kocman, Tania Martinez-Iñiguez, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Johanna Robinson, Vlasta Svecova, Phong Thai

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The evaluation of the effects of air pollution on public health and human-wellbeing requires reliable data. Standard air quality monitoring stations provide accurate measurements of airborne pollutant levels, but, due to their sparse distribution, they cannot capture accurately the spatial variability of air pollutant concentrations within cities. Dedicated in-depth field campaigns have dense spatial coverage of the measurements but are held for relatively short time periods. Hence, their representativeness is limited. Moreover, the oftentimes integrated measurements represent time-averaged records. Recent advances in communication and sensor technologies enable the deployment of dense grids of Wireless Distributed Environmental Sensor Networks for air ...