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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

The Adibox Study: Adiposity And Bone Metabolism: Effects Of Exercise-Induced Weight Loss In Adolescents With Obesity, Elodie Chaplais Aug 2017

The Adibox Study: Adiposity And Bone Metabolism: Effects Of Exercise-Induced Weight Loss In Adolescents With Obesity, Elodie Chaplais

Theses

Introduction: This program of research targeted the impact of an 8-month weight loss intervention induced by physical activity and nutrition on bone health in adolescents with obesity. The overall aim of this thesis was to examine the impact of a lifestyle weight loss intervention on the bone parameters in adolescents with obesity.

Method: Sixty-five adolescents were recruited: 31 (6 males) adolescents with obesity in the weight loss intervention (age: 13.61 (1.27)), 23 normal weight (NW) adolescents (age: 15.90 (0.43)) and 11 (4 males) adolescents with obesity in another control group (14.02 (1.39)). Primary outcomes ...


Gluteus Medius Activation During Running Is A Risk Factor For Season Hamstring Injuries In Elite Footballers [Accepted Manuscript], Melinda M. Franettovich Smith, Jason Bonacci, Marianne Dilani Mendis, Craig Christie, Andrew Rotstein, Julie Anne Hides Feb 2017

Gluteus Medius Activation During Running Is A Risk Factor For Season Hamstring Injuries In Elite Footballers [Accepted Manuscript], Melinda M. Franettovich Smith, Jason Bonacci, Marianne Dilani Mendis, Craig Christie, Andrew Rotstein, Julie Anne Hides

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

To investigate if size and activation of the gluteal muscles is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in elite AFL players. Design Prospective cohort study. Methods Twenty-six elitemale footballers from a professional Australian Football League (AFL) club participated in the study. At the beginning of the season bilateral gluteus medius (GMED) and gluteus maximus (GMAX) muscle volume was measured from magnetic resonance images and electromyographic recordings of the same muscles were obtained during running. History of hamstring injury in the pre-season and incidence of hamstring injury during the season were determined from club medical data. Results Nine players (35%) incurred ...


Epidemiology Of Hip Fracture And The Development Of Frax In Ukraine, V. V. Povoroznyuk, N. V. Grygorieva, John Kanis, Eugene Mccloskey, Helena Johansson, Nicholas C. Harvey, M. O. Korzh, S. S. Strafun, V. M. Vaida, F. V. Klymovytsky, R. R. Vlasenko, V. S. Forosenko Jan 2017

Epidemiology Of Hip Fracture And The Development Of Frax In Ukraine, V. V. Povoroznyuk, N. V. Grygorieva, John Kanis, Eugene Mccloskey, Helena Johansson, Nicholas C. Harvey, M. O. Korzh, S. S. Strafun, V. M. Vaida, F. V. Klymovytsky, R. R. Vlasenko, V. S. Forosenko

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Summary A country-specific FRAX model has been developed for the Ukraine to replace the Austrian model hitherto used. Comparison of the Austrian and Ukrainian models indicated that the former markedly overestimated fracture probability whilst correctly stratifying risk. Introduction FRAX has been used to estimate osteoporotic fracture risk since 2009. Rather than using a surrogate model, the Austrian version of FRAX was adopted for clinical practice. Since then, data have become available on hip fracture incidence in the Ukraine. Methods The incidence of hip fracture was computed from three regional estimates and used to construct a country-specific FRAX model for the ...


Increased Cortical Porosity Is Associated With Daily, Not Weekly, Administration Of Equivalent Doses Of Teriparatide, Roger Zebaze, Ryoko Takao-Kawabata, Yu Peng, Ali Ghasem Zadeh, Kyoko Hirano, Hiroshi Yamane, Aya Takakura, Yukihiro Isogai, Toshinori Ishizuya, Ego Seeman Jan 2017

Increased Cortical Porosity Is Associated With Daily, Not Weekly, Administration Of Equivalent Doses Of Teriparatide, Roger Zebaze, Ryoko Takao-Kawabata, Yu Peng, Ali Ghasem Zadeh, Kyoko Hirano, Hiroshi Yamane, Aya Takakura, Yukihiro Isogai, Toshinori Ishizuya, Ego Seeman

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Introduction: The pharmacokinetic profile of parathyroid hormone (PTH) determines its effects on bone resorption and formation. When administered intermittently, anabolic effects are favored in comparison with the continuous treatment. Among the intermittent treatment regimens, lower frequency of administration may have a lower effect on bone remodeling. We therefore hypothesized that weekly administration of teriparatide will produce less increase in intracortical remodeling and porosity than reported using daily treatment. Methods: We treated 17 female New Zealand white rabbits aged 6 months for 1 month with teriparatide [human PTH(1-34)] as follows. (i) Vehicle-treated Control (n = 4); (ii) 20 μg/kg daily ...


Striated Muscle Activator Of Rho Signalling (Stars) Is Reduced In Ageing Human Skeletal Muscle And Targeted By Mir-628-5p, Andrew Russell, M. A. Wallace, M. Kalanon, Evelyn Zacharewicz, P. A.D. Gatta, Andrew Garnham, Séverine Lamon Jan 2017

Striated Muscle Activator Of Rho Signalling (Stars) Is Reduced In Ageing Human Skeletal Muscle And Targeted By Mir-628-5p, Andrew Russell, M. A. Wallace, M. Kalanon, Evelyn Zacharewicz, P. A.D. Gatta, Andrew Garnham, Séverine Lamon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Aim: The striated muscle activator of Rho signalling (STARS) is a muscle-specific actin-binding protein. The STARS signalling pathway is activated by resistance exercise and is anticipated to play a role in signal mechan-otransduction. Animal studies have reported a negative regulation of STARS signalling with age, but such regulation has not been investigated in humans. Methods: Ten young (18–30 years) and 10 older (60–75 years) subjects completed an acute bout of resistance exercise. Gene and protein expres-sion of members of the STARS signalling pathway and miRNA expression of a subset of miRNAs, predicted or known to target members of ...


Musculoskeletal Decline And Mortality: Prospective Data From The Geelong Osteoporosis Study, Julie Pasco, Mohammadreza Mohebbi, Kara Holloway, Sharon Brennan-Olsen, Natalie Hyde, Mark Kotowicz Jan 2017

Musculoskeletal Decline And Mortality: Prospective Data From The Geelong Osteoporosis Study, Julie Pasco, Mohammadreza Mohebbi, Kara Holloway, Sharon Brennan-Olsen, Natalie Hyde, Mark Kotowicz

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background We aimed to examine the relationship between musculoskeletal deterioration and all-cause mortality in a cohort of women studied prospectively over a decade. Methods A cohort of 750 women aged 50–94 years was followed for a decade after femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) and appendicular lean mass (ALM) were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, in conjunction with comorbidities, health behaviour data, and other clinical measures. The outcome was all-cause mortality identified from the Australian National Deaths Index. Using Cox proportional hazards models and age as the time variable, mortality risks were estimated according to BMD groups (ideal-BMD ...


Sclerostin Antibodies In Osteoporosis: Latest Evidence And Therapeutic Potential, Michael Mcclung Jan 2017

Sclerostin Antibodies In Osteoporosis: Latest Evidence And Therapeutic Potential, Michael Mcclung

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Sclerostin is an osteocyte-derived glycoprotein that inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling and activation of osteoblast function, thereby inhibiting bone formation. It plays a vital role in the regulation of skeletal growth. In adults, sclerostin secretion is modulated by skeletal loading (increased secretion with immobilization; less with weight bearing) and by hormonal/cytokine actions on the osteocyte. Sclerostin deficiency syndromes in humans and animals are characterized by high bone mass of normal quality. In animal models of osteoporosis, inhibition of sclerostin by monoclonal antibodies induces osteoblast activity and new bone formation, normalizing bone mass and improving bone architecture and strength. In recently ...