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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Omics And Exercise: Global Approaches For Mapping Exercise Biological Networks [Accepted Manuscript], Nolan John Hoffman Oct 2017

Omics And Exercise: Global Approaches For Mapping Exercise Biological Networks [Accepted Manuscript], Nolan John Hoffman

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The application of global “omics” technologies to exercise has introduced new opportunities to map the complexity and interconnectedness of biological networks underlying the tissue-specific responses and systemic health benefits of exercise. This review will introduce major research tracks and recent advancements in this emerging field, as well as critical gaps in understanding the orchestration of molecular exercise dynamics that will benefit from unbiased omics investigations. Furthermore, significant research hurdles that need to be overcome to effectively fill these gaps related to data collection, computation, interpretation, and integration across omics applications will be discussed. Collectively, a cross-disciplinary physiological and omics-based systems ...


Effects Of Explicit Cueing And Ambiguity On The Anticipation And Experience Of A Painful Thermal Stimulus, Lincoln M. Tracy, Stephen J. Gibson, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Melita J. Giummarra Jan 2017

Effects Of Explicit Cueing And Ambiguity On The Anticipation And Experience Of A Painful Thermal Stimulus, Lincoln M. Tracy, Stephen J. Gibson, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Melita J. Giummarra

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Many factors can influence the way in which we perceive painful events and noxious stimuli, but less is known about how pain perception is altered by explicit knowledge about the impending sensation. This study aimed to investigate the impact of explicit cueing on anxiety, arousal, and pain experience during the anticipation and delivery of noxious thermal heat stimulations. Fifty-two healthy volunteers were randomised to receive explicit instructions about visual cue-stimulus temperature pairings, or no explicit instructions about the cue-stimulus pairs. A pain anxiety task was used to investigate the effects of explicit cueing on anticipatory anxiety, pain experience and electrophysiological ...


Barriers To Evidence-Based Acute Stroke Care In Ghana: A Qualitative Study On The Perspectives Of Stroke Care Professionals, Leonard Baatiema, Ama De-Graft Aikins, Adem Sav, George Mnatzaganian, Carina K. Y. Chan, Shawn Somerset Jan 2017

Barriers To Evidence-Based Acute Stroke Care In Ghana: A Qualitative Study On The Perspectives Of Stroke Care Professionals, Leonard Baatiema, Ama De-Graft Aikins, Adem Sav, George Mnatzaganian, Carina K. Y. Chan, Shawn Somerset

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective: Despite major advances in research on acute stroke care interventions, relatively few stroke patients benefit from evidence-based care due to multiple barriers. Yet current evidence of such barriers is predominantly from high-income countries. This study seeks to understand stroke care professionals’ views on the barriers which hinder the provision of optimal acute stroke care in Ghanaian hospital settings. Design: A qualitative approach using semistructured interviews. Both thematic and grounded theory approaches were used to analyse and interpret the data through a synthesis of preidentified and emergent themes. Setting: A multisite study, conducted in six major referral acute hospital settings ...


Causal Relationship Between Obesity And Serum Testosterone Status In Men: A Bi-Directional Mendelian Randomization Analysis, Joel Eriksson, Robin Haring, Niels Grarup, Liesbeth Vandenput, Henri Wallaschofski, Erik Lorentzen, Torben Hansen, Dan Mellström, Oluf Pedersen, Matthias Nauck, Mattias Lorentzon, Lise Lotte Nystrup Husemoen, Henry Völzke, Magnus Karlsson, Sebastian E. Baumeister, Allan Linneberg, Claes Ohlsson Jan 2017

Causal Relationship Between Obesity And Serum Testosterone Status In Men: A Bi-Directional Mendelian Randomization Analysis, Joel Eriksson, Robin Haring, Niels Grarup, Liesbeth Vandenput, Henri Wallaschofski, Erik Lorentzen, Torben Hansen, Dan Mellström, Oluf Pedersen, Matthias Nauck, Mattias Lorentzon, Lise Lotte Nystrup Husemoen, Henry Völzke, Magnus Karlsson, Sebastian E. Baumeister, Allan Linneberg, Claes Ohlsson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Context Obesity in men is associated with low serum testosterone and both are associated with several diseases and increased mortality. Objectives Examine the direction and causality of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and serum testosterone. Design Bi-directional Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis on prospective cohorts. Setting Five cohorts from Denmark, Germany and Sweden (Inter99, SHIP, SHIP Trend, GOOD and MrOS Sweden). Participants 7446 Caucasian men, genotyped for 97 BMI-associated SNPs and three testosterone-associated SNPs. Main outcome measures BMI and serum testosterone adjusted for age, smoking, time of blood sampling and site. Results 1 SD genetically instrumented increase in BMI ...


Design, Synthesis, And Biological Activity Of 1,2,3-Triazolobenzodiazepine Bet Bromodomain Inhibitors [Accepted Manuscript], Phillip P. Sharp, Jean-Marc Garnier, Tamas Hatfaludi, Zhen Xu, David Segal, Kate E. Jarman, Hélène Jousset, Alexandra Garnham, John T. Feutrill, Anthony Cuzzupe, Peter Hall, Scott Taylor, Carl Walkley, Dean Tyler, Mark A. Dawson, Peter Czabotar, Andrew F. Wilks, Stefan Glaser, David C. S. Huang, Christopher J. Burns Jan 2017

Design, Synthesis, And Biological Activity Of 1,2,3-Triazolobenzodiazepine Bet Bromodomain Inhibitors [Accepted Manuscript], Phillip P. Sharp, Jean-Marc Garnier, Tamas Hatfaludi, Zhen Xu, David Segal, Kate E. Jarman, Hélène Jousset, Alexandra Garnham, John T. Feutrill, Anthony Cuzzupe, Peter Hall, Scott Taylor, Carl Walkley, Dean Tyler, Mark A. Dawson, Peter Czabotar, Andrew F. Wilks, Stefan Glaser, David C. S. Huang, Christopher J. Burns

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

A number of diazepines are known to inhibit bromo- and extra-terminal domain (BET) proteins. Their BET inhibitory activity derives from the fusion of an acetyl-lysine mimetic heterocycle onto the diazepine framework. Herein we describe a straightforward, modular synthesis of novel 1,2,3-triazolobenzodiazepines and show that the 1,2,3-triazole acts as an effective acetyl-lysine mimetic heterocycle. Structure-based optimization of this series of compounds led to the development of potent BET bromodomain inhibitors with excellent activity against leukemic cells, concomitant with a reduction in c-MYC expression. These novel benzodiazepines therefore represent a promising class of therapeutic BET inhibitors.


Randomized Controlled Trial Of A Family-Orientated Self-Management Program To Improve Self-Efficacy, Glycemic Control, And Quality Of Life Among Thai Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes, Nutchanath Wichit, George Mnatzaganian, Mary Courtney, Paula Schulz, Maree Johnson Jan 2017

Randomized Controlled Trial Of A Family-Orientated Self-Management Program To Improve Self-Efficacy, Glycemic Control, And Quality Of Life Among Thai Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes, Nutchanath Wichit, George Mnatzaganian, Mary Courtney, Paula Schulz, Maree Johnson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Aims: We evaluated a theoretically-derived family-oriented intervention aimed to improve self-efficacy, self-management, glycemic control and quality of life in individuals living with Type 2 diabetes in Thailand. Methods: In a single-blinded randomized controlled trial, 140 volunteer individuals with Type 2 diabetes, recruited from a diabetes clinic in rural Thailand, were randomly allocated to intervention and control arms. Those in the intervention arm received routine care plus a family-oriented program that included education classes, group discussions, a home visit, and a telephone follow-up while the control arm only received routine care. Improvement in outcomes over time (baseline, Week 3, and Week ...


Within-Person Associations Of Young Adolescents' Physical Activity Across Five Primary Locations: Is There Evidence Of Cross-Location Compensation?, Jordan Carlson, Tarrah B. Mitchell, Brian Saelens, Vincent S. Staggs, Jacqueline Kerr, Lawrence Frank, Jasper Schipperijn, Terry Conway, Karen Glanz, James Chapman, Kelli Cain, Jim Sallis Jan 2017

Within-Person Associations Of Young Adolescents' Physical Activity Across Five Primary Locations: Is There Evidence Of Cross-Location Compensation?, Jordan Carlson, Tarrah B. Mitchell, Brian Saelens, Vincent S. Staggs, Jacqueline Kerr, Lawrence Frank, Jasper Schipperijn, Terry Conway, Karen Glanz, James Chapman, Kelli Cain, Jim Sallis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Youth are active in multiple locations, but it is unknown whether more physical activity in one location is associated with less in other locations. This cross-sectional study examines whether on days with more physical activity in a given location, relative to their typical activity in that location, youth had less activity in other locations (i.e., within-person associations/compensation). Methods Participants were 528 adolescents, ages 12 to 16 (M = 14.12, SD = 1.44, 50% boys, 70% White non-Hispanic). Accelerometer and Global Positioning System devices were used to measure the proportion of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA ...


Low Serum Dheas Predicts Increased Fracture Risk In Older Men: The Mros Sweden Study, Claes Ohlsson, Maria Nethander, Andreas Kindmark, Östen Ljunggren, Mattias Lorentzon, Björn E. Rosengren, Magnus K. Karlsson, Dan Mellström, Liesbeth Vandenput Jan 2017

Low Serum Dheas Predicts Increased Fracture Risk In Older Men: The Mros Sweden Study, Claes Ohlsson, Maria Nethander, Andreas Kindmark, Östen Ljunggren, Mattias Lorentzon, Björn E. Rosengren, Magnus K. Karlsson, Dan Mellström, Liesbeth Vandenput

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The adrenal‐derived hormones dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS) are the most abundant circulating hormones and their levels decline substantially with age. DHEAS is considered an inactive precursor, which is converted into androgens and estrogens via local metabolism in peripheral target tissues. The predictive value of serum DHEAS for fracture risk is unknown. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the associations between baseline DHEAS levels and incident fractures in a large cohort of older men. Serum DHEAS levels were analyzed with mass spectrometry in the population‐based Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study in Sweden (n = 2568 ...


Evidence Of Compensatory Joint Kinetics During Stair Ascent And Descent In Parkinson's Disease [Accepted Manuscript], Zachary Conway, Peter A. Silburn, Tim Blackmore, Michael H. Cole Jan 2017

Evidence Of Compensatory Joint Kinetics During Stair Ascent And Descent In Parkinson's Disease [Accepted Manuscript], Zachary Conway, Peter A. Silburn, Tim Blackmore, Michael H. Cole

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Stair ambulation is a challenging activity of daily life that requires larger joint moments than walking. Stabilisation of the body and prevention of lower limb collapse during this task depends upon adequately-sized hip, knee and ankle extensor moments. However, people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) often present with strength deficits that may impair their capacity to control the lower limbs and ultimately increase their falls risk. Objective: To investigate hip, knee and ankle joint moments during stair ascent and descent and determine the contribution of these joints to the body’s support in people with PD. Methods: Twelve PD ...


Team Sport Athletes' Perceptions And Use Of Recovery Strategies: A Mixed-Methods Survey Study, Fiona Crowther, Rebecca Sealey, Melissa Crowe, Andrew Edwards, Shona Halson Jan 2017

Team Sport Athletes' Perceptions And Use Of Recovery Strategies: A Mixed-Methods Survey Study, Fiona Crowther, Rebecca Sealey, Melissa Crowe, Andrew Edwards, Shona Halson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: A variety of recovery strategies are used by athletes, although there is currently no research that investigates perceptions and usage of recovery by different competition levels of team sport athletes. Methods: The recovery techniques used by team sport athletes of different competition levels was investigated by survey. Specifically this study investigated if, when, why and how the following recovery strategies were used: active land-based recovery (ALB), active water-based recovery (AWB), stretching (STR), cold water immersion (CWI) and contrast water therapy (CWT). Results: Three hundred and thirty-one athletes were surveyed. Fifty-seven percent were found to utilise one or more recovery ...


Sedentary Time In Older Men And Women: An International Consensus Statement And Research Priorities, Shilpa Dogra, Maureen C. Ashe, Stuart J. H. Biddle, Wendy J. Brown, Mathew P. Buman, Sebastien Chastin, Paul A. Gardiner, Shigeru Inoue, Barbara J. Jefferis, Koichiro Oka, Neville Owen, Luis B. Sardinha, Dawn A. Skelton, Takemi Sugiyama, Jennifer L. Copeland Jan 2017

Sedentary Time In Older Men And Women: An International Consensus Statement And Research Priorities, Shilpa Dogra, Maureen C. Ashe, Stuart J. H. Biddle, Wendy J. Brown, Mathew P. Buman, Sebastien Chastin, Paul A. Gardiner, Shigeru Inoue, Barbara J. Jefferis, Koichiro Oka, Neville Owen, Luis B. Sardinha, Dawn A. Skelton, Takemi Sugiyama, Jennifer L. Copeland

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Sedentary time is a modifiable determinant of poor health, and in older adults, reducing sedentary time may be an important first step in adopting and maintaining a more active lifestyle. The primary purpose of this consensus statement is to provide an integrated perspective on current knowledge and expert opinion pertaining to sedentary behaviour in older adults on the topics of measurement, associations with health outcomes, and interventions. A secondary yet equally important purpose is to suggest priorities for future research and knowledge translation based on gaps identified. A five-step Delphi consensus process was used. Experts in the area of sedentary ...


Counting On The Mental Number Line To Make A Move: Sensorimotor ('Pen') Control And Numerical Processing, Rebecca Sheridan, Maaike Van Rooijen, Oscar Giles, Faisal Mushtaq, Bert Steenbergen, Mark Mon-Williams, Amanda Waterman Jan 2017

Counting On The Mental Number Line To Make A Move: Sensorimotor ('Pen') Control And Numerical Processing, Rebecca Sheridan, Maaike Van Rooijen, Oscar Giles, Faisal Mushtaq, Bert Steenbergen, Mark Mon-Williams, Amanda Waterman

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Mathematics is often conducted with a writing implement. But is there a relationship between numerical processing and sensorimotor ‘pen’ control? We asked participants to move a stylus so it crossed an unmarked line at a location specified by a symbolic number (1–9), where number colour indicated whether the line ran left–right (‘normal’) or vice versa (‘reversed’). The task could be simplified through the use of a ‘mental number line’ (MNL). Many modern societies use number lines in mathematical education and the brain’s representation of number appears to follow a culturally determined spatial organisation (so better task performance ...


Sedentary Behaviour Research Network (Sbrn): Terminology Consensus Project Process And Outcome, Mark S. Tremblay, Salomé Aubert, Joel D. Barnes, Travis J. Saunders, Valerie Carson, Amy E. Latimer-Cheung, Sebastien F. M. Chastin, Teatske M. Altenburg, Mai J. M. Chinapaw, Sbrn Terminology Consensus Project Participants, Borja Del Pozo Cruz, Jill Hnatiuk Jan 2017

Sedentary Behaviour Research Network (Sbrn): Terminology Consensus Project Process And Outcome, Mark S. Tremblay, Salomé Aubert, Joel D. Barnes, Travis J. Saunders, Valerie Carson, Amy E. Latimer-Cheung, Sebastien F. M. Chastin, Teatske M. Altenburg, Mai J. M. Chinapaw, Sbrn Terminology Consensus Project Participants, Borja Del Pozo Cruz, Jill Hnatiuk

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: The prominence of sedentary behavior research in health science has grown rapidly. With this growth there is increasing urgency for clear, common and accepted terminology and definitions. Such standardization is difficult to achieve, especially across multi-disciplinary researchers, practitioners, and industries. The Sedentary Behavior Research Network (SBRN) undertook a Terminology Consensus Project to address this need. Method: First, a literature review was completed to identify key terms in sedentary behavior research. These key terms were then reviewed and modified by a Steering Committee formed by SBRN. Next, SBRN members were invited to contribute to this project and interested participants reviewed ...


Cross-Cultural Validation Of The Short Form Of The Physical Self-Inventory (Psi-S) [Accepted Manuscript], Alexandre J.S. Morin, Christophe Maiano, L. Francesca Scalas, F. Hülya Aşçı,, Wissal Boughattas, Sami Abid, Nicolas Mascret, Feyza Meryem Kara, Daniela Fadda, Michel Probst Jan 2017

Cross-Cultural Validation Of The Short Form Of The Physical Self-Inventory (Psi-S) [Accepted Manuscript], Alexandre J.S. Morin, Christophe Maiano, L. Francesca Scalas, F. Hülya Aşçı,, Wissal Boughattas, Sami Abid, Nicolas Mascret, Feyza Meryem Kara, Daniela Fadda, Michel Probst

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The study examined the cross-cultural validity of the short form of the Physical Self-Inventory (PSI-S) among samples of adolescents speaking French, Dutch, Turkish, Italian, and Arab. A total of 4,867 adolescents (1,173 Belgian Flemish, 598 French, 1,222 Italian, 643 Turkish, 646 Kuwaiti, and 585 Tunisian) completed the original PSI-S version, and a revised version including a positively worded reformulation of the 3 negatively worded PSI-S items. The results supported the factor validity and reliability of revised PSI-S version across all cultural groups, and its superiority when compared to the original version. Compared with confirmatory factor analyses, relying ...


Reach: Study Protocol Of A Randomised Trial Of Rehabilitation Very Early In Congenital Hemiplegia, Roslyn N. Boyd, Jenny Ziviani, Leanne Sakzewski, Iona Novak, Nadia Badawi, Kerstin Pannek, Catherine Elliott, Susan Greaves, Andrea Guzzetta, Koa Whittingham, Jane Valentine, Cathy Morgan, Margaret Wallen, Ann-Christin Eliasson, Lisa Findlay, Robert Ware, Simona Fiori, Stephen Rose Jan 2017

Reach: Study Protocol Of A Randomised Trial Of Rehabilitation Very Early In Congenital Hemiplegia, Roslyn N. Boyd, Jenny Ziviani, Leanne Sakzewski, Iona Novak, Nadia Badawi, Kerstin Pannek, Catherine Elliott, Susan Greaves, Andrea Guzzetta, Koa Whittingham, Jane Valentine, Cathy Morgan, Margaret Wallen, Ann-Christin Eliasson, Lisa Findlay, Robert Ware, Simona Fiori, Stephen Rose

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives: Congenital hemiplegia is the most common form of cerebral palsy (CP). Children with unilateral CP show signs of upper limb asymmetry by 8 months corrected age (ca) but are frequently not referred to therapy until after 12 months ca. This study compares the efficacy of infant-friendly modified constraint-induced movement therapy (Baby mCIMT) to infant friendly bimanual therapy (Baby BIM) on upper limb, cognitive and neuroplasticity outcomes in a multisite randomised comparison trial. Methods and analysis: 150 infants (75 in each group), aged between 3 and 6 months ca, with asymmetric brain injury and clinical signs of upper extremity asymmetry ...


Sedentary Behavior As A Risk Factor For Cognitive Decline? A Focus On The Influence Of Glycemic Control In Brain Health, Michael Wheeler, Paddy C. Dempsey, Megan S. Grace, Kathryn A. Ellis, Paul A. Gardiner, Daniel Green, David Dunstan Jan 2017

Sedentary Behavior As A Risk Factor For Cognitive Decline? A Focus On The Influence Of Glycemic Control In Brain Health, Michael Wheeler, Paddy C. Dempsey, Megan S. Grace, Kathryn A. Ellis, Paul A. Gardiner, Daniel Green, David Dunstan

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Cognitive decline leading to dementia represents a global health burden. In the absence of targeted pharmacotherapy, lifestyle approaches remain the best option for slowing the onset of dementia. However, older adults spend very little time doing moderate to vigorous exercise and spend a majority of time in sedentary behavior. Sedentary behavior has been linked to poor glycemic control and increased risk of all-cause mortality. Here, we explore a potential link between sedentary behavior and brain health. We highlight the role of glycemic control in maintaining brain function and suggest that reducing and replacing sedentary behavior with intermittent light-intensity physical activity ...


Automated Ecological Assessment Of Physical Activity: Advancing Direct Observation, Jordan A. Carlson, Bo Liu, Jim Sallis, Jacqueline Kerr, J. A. Hipp, Vincent S. Staggs, Amy Papa, Kelsey Dean, Nuno M. Vasconcelos Jan 2017

Automated Ecological Assessment Of Physical Activity: Advancing Direct Observation, Jordan A. Carlson, Bo Liu, Jim Sallis, Jacqueline Kerr, J. A. Hipp, Vincent S. Staggs, Amy Papa, Kelsey Dean, Nuno M. Vasconcelos

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Technological advances provide opportunities for automating direct observations of physical activity, which allow for continuous monitoring and feedback. This pilot study evaluated the initial validity of computer vision algorithms for ecological assessment of physical activity. The sample comprised 6630 seconds per camera (three cameras in total) of video capturing up to nine participants engaged in sitting, standing, walking, and jogging in an open outdoor space while wearing accelerometers. Computer vision algorithms were developed to assess the number and proportion of people in sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous activity, and group-based metabolic equivalents of tasks (MET)-minutes. Means and standard deviations ...


Considerations When Using The Activpal Monitor In Field Based Research With Adult Populations, Charlotte L. Edwardson, Elizabeth A. H. Winkler, Danielle H. Bodicoat, Tom Yates, Melanie J. Davies, David W. Dunstan, Genevieve N. Healy Jan 2017

Considerations When Using The Activpal Monitor In Field Based Research With Adult Populations, Charlotte L. Edwardson, Elizabeth A. H. Winkler, Danielle H. Bodicoat, Tom Yates, Melanie J. Davies, David W. Dunstan, Genevieve N. Healy

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Research indicates that high levels of sedentary behavior (sitting or lying with low energy expenditure) are adversely associated with health. A key factor in improving our understanding of the impact of sedentary behavior (and patterns of sedentary time accumulation) on health is the use of objective measurement tools that collect date and time-stamped activity information. One such tool is the activPAL monitor. This thigh-worn device uses accelerometer-derived information about thigh position to determine the start and end of each period spent sitting/lying, standing, and stepping, as well as stepping speed, step counts, and postural transitions. The activPAL is increasingly ...


Feasibility Of Presurgical Exercise In Men With Prostate Cancer Undergoing Prostatectomy, Favil Singh, Robert U. Newton, Michael K. Baker, Nigel A. Spry, Dennis R. Taaffe, Jeffery Thavaseelan, Daniel A. Galvão Jan 2017

Feasibility Of Presurgical Exercise In Men With Prostate Cancer Undergoing Prostatectomy, Favil Singh, Robert U. Newton, Michael K. Baker, Nigel A. Spry, Dennis R. Taaffe, Jeffery Thavaseelan, Daniel A. Galvão

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Prostatectomy is associated with short- and long-term morbidity, which includes attenuation of muscle function and deterioration of lean body mass. Physical function is a known predictor of morbidity and mortality, with initial evidence indicating that presurgical exercise is associated with fewer postsurgical complications and shorter hospitalization. The aim was to determine the feasibility of a supervised presurgical exercise program for prostate cancer (PCa) patients scheduled for prostatectomy. Methods: Ten men (68+6.4 years old) with localized PCa undertook a 6-week resistance and aerobic exercise program prior surgery. Training was undertaken twice weekly and patients were assessed at baseline ...


Changes In Physical Activity And Sedentary Behavior Associated With An Exercise Intervention In Depressed Adults, Björg Helgadottir, Neville Owen, David Dunstan, Örjan Ekblom, Mats A. Hallgren, Yvonne Forsell Jan 2017

Changes In Physical Activity And Sedentary Behavior Associated With An Exercise Intervention In Depressed Adults, Björg Helgadottir, Neville Owen, David Dunstan, Örjan Ekblom, Mats A. Hallgren, Yvonne Forsell

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Exercise is beneficial for depression, but less is known about its impact on post-intervention physical activity and sedentary behavior. The aim of this paper was to determine the extent to which participation in light-, moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise intervention influenced habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns in depressed adults. Methods: Accelerometer data was collected pre- and post-intervention from depressed participants randomized to one of three 12-week intervention groups: light (n ¼ 21), moderate (n ¼ 25) and vigorous (n ¼ 22) exercise. Mixed models examined changes in time spent sedentary and in light and moderateto- vigorous physical activity ...


Validity Of The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (Gpaq) In Bangladesh, Shirin Jahan Mumu, Liaquat Ali, Anthony Barnett, Dafna Merom Jan 2017

Validity Of The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (Gpaq) In Bangladesh, Shirin Jahan Mumu, Liaquat Ali, Anthony Barnett, Dafna Merom

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Feasible and cost-effective as well as population specific instruments for monitoring physical activity (PA) levels are needed for the management and prevention of non-communicable diseases. The WHO-endorsed Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) has been widely used in developing countries, but the evidence base for its validity, particularly for rural populations, is still limited. The aim of the study was to validate GPAQ among rural and urban residents in Bangladesh. Methods A total of 162 healthy participants of both genders aged 18–60 years were recruited from Satia village (n = 97) and Dhaka City (n = 65). Participants were invited to ...


Validation Of The Regicor Short Physical Activity Questionnaire For The Adult Population, Luis Molina, Manuel Sarmiento, Judith Penafiel, David Donaire, Judith Garcia-Aymerich, Miguel Angel Gomez-Sanchez, Mireia Ble, Sonia Ruiz, Albert Frances, Helmut Schröder, Jaume Marrugat, Roberto Elosua Jan 2017

Validation Of The Regicor Short Physical Activity Questionnaire For The Adult Population, Luis Molina, Manuel Sarmiento, Judith Penafiel, David Donaire, Judith Garcia-Aymerich, Miguel Angel Gomez-Sanchez, Mireia Ble, Sonia Ruiz, Albert Frances, Helmut Schröder, Jaume Marrugat, Roberto Elosua

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective To develop and validate a short questionnaire to estimate physical activity (PA) practice and sedentary behavior for the adult population. Methods The short questionnaire was developed using data from a cross-sectional population-based survey (n = 6352) that included the Minnesota leisure-time PA questionnaire. Activities that explained a significant proportion of the variability of population PA practice were identified. Validation of the short questionnaire included a cross-sectional component to assess validity with respect to the data collected by accelerometers and a longitudinal component to assess reliability and sensitivity to detect changes (n = 114, aged 35 to 74 years). Results Six types ...


Genome-Wide Physical Activity Interactions In Adiposity ― A Meta-Analysis Of 200,452 Adults, Mariaelisa Graff, Robert A. Scott, Anne E. Justice, Kristin L. Young, Mary F. Feitosa, Llilda Barata, Thomas W. Winkler, Audrey Y. Chu, Anubha Mahajan, David Hadley, Luting Xue, Tsegaselassie Workalemahu, Nancy L. Heard-Costa, Marcel Den Hoed, Tarunveer S. Ahluwalia, Qibin Qi, Julius S. Ngwa, Frida Renström, Lydia Quaye, John D. Eicher, James E. Hayes, Marilyn Cornelis, Zoltan Kutalik, Elise Lim, Jian'an Luan, E. Huffman, Weihua Zhang, Wei Zhao, Paula J. Griffin, Mattias Lorentzon Jan 2017

Genome-Wide Physical Activity Interactions In Adiposity ― A Meta-Analysis Of 200,452 Adults, Mariaelisa Graff, Robert A. Scott, Anne E. Justice, Kristin L. Young, Mary F. Feitosa, Llilda Barata, Thomas W. Winkler, Audrey Y. Chu, Anubha Mahajan, David Hadley, Luting Xue, Tsegaselassie Workalemahu, Nancy L. Heard-Costa, Marcel Den Hoed, Tarunveer S. Ahluwalia, Qibin Qi, Julius S. Ngwa, Frida Renström, Lydia Quaye, John D. Eicher, James E. Hayes, Marilyn Cornelis, Zoltan Kutalik, Elise Lim, Jian'an Luan, E. Huffman, Weihua Zhang, Wei Zhao, Paula J. Griffin, Mattias Lorentzon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Physical activity (PA) may modify the genetic effects that give rise to increased risk of obesity. To identify adiposity loci whose effects are modified by PA, we performed genome-wide interaction meta-analyses of BMI and BMI-adjusted waist circumference and waist-hip ratio from up to 200,452 adults of European (n = 180,423) or other ancestry (n = 20,029). We standardized PA by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable where, on average, 23% of participants were categorized as inactive and 77% as physically active. While we replicate the interaction with PA for the strongest known obesity-risk locus in the FTO gene, of ...


Influence Of Recovery Strategies Upon Performance And Perceptions Following Fatiguing Exercise: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Fiona Crowther, Rebecca Sealey, Melissa Crowe, Andrew Edwards, Shona Halson Jan 2017

Influence Of Recovery Strategies Upon Performance And Perceptions Following Fatiguing Exercise: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Fiona Crowther, Rebecca Sealey, Melissa Crowe, Andrew Edwards, Shona Halson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Despite debate regarding their effectiveness, many different post-exercise recovery strategies are used by athletes. This study compared five post-exercise recovery strategies (cold water immersion, contrast water immersion, active recovery, a combined cold water immersion and active recovery and a control condition) to determine which is most effective for subsequent short-term performance and perceived recovery. Methods: Thirty-four recreationally active males undertook a simulated team-game fatiguing circuit followed by the above recovery strategies (randomized, 1 per week). Prior to the fatiguing exercise, and at 1, 24 and 48 h post-exercise, perceptual, flexibility and performance measures were assessed. Results: Contrast water immersion ...


The Effect Of Aerobic Exercise On Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor In People With Neurological Disorders: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Christopher P. Mackay, Suzanne S. Kuys, Sandra G. Brauer Jan 2017

The Effect Of Aerobic Exercise On Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor In People With Neurological Disorders: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Christopher P. Mackay, Suzanne S. Kuys, Sandra G. Brauer

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective. To determine the effect of aerobic exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in people with neurological disorders. Data Sources. Six electronic databases (CINAHL, PubMed, Cochrane, PsycINFO, SportDiscus, and Web of Science) were searched until the end of December 2016. Study Selection. Experimental or observational studies of people with neurological disorders who undertook an exercise intervention with BDNF as an outcome measure. The search strategy yielded 984 articles. Data Extraction. Study data were independently extracted from each article. Methodological quality of studies was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. A meta-analysis was planned based on the assessment ...


Consensus On Measurement Properties And Feasibility Of Performance Tests For The Exercise And Sport Sciences: A Delphi Study, Samuel J. Robertson, Peter Kremer, Brad Aisbett, Jacqueline Tran, Ester Cerin Jan 2017

Consensus On Measurement Properties And Feasibility Of Performance Tests For The Exercise And Sport Sciences: A Delphi Study, Samuel J. Robertson, Peter Kremer, Brad Aisbett, Jacqueline Tran, Ester Cerin

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background
Performance tests are used for multiple purposes in exercise and sport science. Ensuring that a test displays an appropriate level of measurement properties for use within a population is important to ensure confidence in test findings. The aim of this study was to obtain subject matter expert consensus on the measurement and feasibility properties that should be considered for performance tests used in the exercise and sport sciences and how these should be defined. This information was used to develop a checklist for broader dissemination.
Methods
A two-round Delphi study was undertaken including 33 exercise scientists, academics and sport ...


Rewriting The Transcriptome: Adenosine-To-Inosine Rna Editing By Adars, Carl Walkley, Jin Billy Li Jan 2017

Rewriting The Transcriptome: Adenosine-To-Inosine Rna Editing By Adars, Carl Walkley, Jin Billy Li

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

One of the most prevalent forms of post-transcritpional RNA modification is the conversion of adenosine nucleosides to inosine (A-to-I), mediated by the ADAR family of enzymes. The functional requirement and regulatory landscape for the majority of A-to-I editing events are, at present, uncertain. Recent studies have identified key in vivo functions of ADAR enzymes, informing our understanding of the biological importance of A-to-I editing. Large-scale studies have revealed how editing is regulated both in cis and in trans. This review will explore these recent studies and how they broaden our understanding of the functions and regulation of ADAR-mediated RNA editing.


Protein Recoding By Adar1-Mediated Rna Editing Is Not Essential For Normal Development And Homeostasis, Jacki E. Heraud-Farlow, Alistair M. Chalk, Sandra Linder, Qin Li, Scott Taylor, Joshua M. White, Lokman Pang, Brian J. Liddicoat, Ankita Gupte, Jin Billy Li, Carl Walkley Jan 2017

Protein Recoding By Adar1-Mediated Rna Editing Is Not Essential For Normal Development And Homeostasis, Jacki E. Heraud-Farlow, Alistair M. Chalk, Sandra Linder, Qin Li, Scott Taylor, Joshua M. White, Lokman Pang, Brian J. Liddicoat, Ankita Gupte, Jin Billy Li, Carl Walkley

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background
Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing of dsRNA by ADAR proteins is a pervasive epitranscriptome feature. Tens of thousands of A-to-I editing events are defined in the mouse, yet the functional impact of most is unknown. Editing causing protein recoding is the essential function of ADAR2, but an essential role for recoding by ADAR1 has not been demonstrated. ADAR1 has been proposed to have editing-dependent and editing-independent functions. The relative contribution of these in vivo has not been clearly defined. A critical function of ADAR1 is editing of endogenous RNA to prevent activation of the dsRNA sensor MDA5 (Ifih1). Outside of this ...


Feasibility And Effect Of Home-Based Therapy Programmes For Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Protocol For A Systematic Review, L. W. M. E. Beckers, M. L. A. P. Schnackers, Y. J. Janssen-Potten, J. Kleijnen, B. Steenbergen Jan 2017

Feasibility And Effect Of Home-Based Therapy Programmes For Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Protocol For A Systematic Review, L. W. M. E. Beckers, M. L. A. P. Schnackers, Y. J. Janssen-Potten, J. Kleijnen, B. Steenbergen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Introduction: Given the promising advantages of upper extremity home-based programmes in children with cerebral palsy (CP), a systematic review of the available literature on this topic is warranted. The purpose of the systematic review described in this protocol is to investigate currently available home-based occupational therapy and physiotherapy programmes regarding both their feasibility and effect. Methods and analysis: This protocol describes a systematic review, developed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015. Studies will be included in which primary data are collected, participants are children aged < 18 years with any type of CP and the intervention of interest is a home-based occupational therapy or physiotherapy intervention. Comparators of interest are: no therapy, care as usual, centre-based occupational therapy or physiotherapy, an alternative home-based programme and a medical intervention. Studies will be included that report either on feasibility (ie, acceptability, demand, implementation, practicality, adaptation, expansion or integration) or on efficacy/effectiveness (ie, child-related upper extremity outcomes within all International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health levels or parent-related/caregiver-related outcomes on the psychological and social domain). Relevant studies will be identified by searching the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PEDro, OTSeeker and CPCI-S as well as the trial registers ICTRP and CENTRAL, the reference lists of included records and by circulating a bibliography of the included records to authors of included studies. There will be no restrictions on language or year of publication. The search strategy consists of terms related to the population and intervention. Data will be extracted in duplicate using a digital data extraction form. Ethics and dissemination: The proposed study does not involve collection of primary data. Accordingly, no ethical approval is required. The authors will disseminate the findings of this systematic review through publication in a peer-reviewed journal and conference presentation(s). Trial registration number: CRD42016043743; pre-results.


Feasibility Of Motor Imagery Training For Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Pilot Study, Imke L. J. Adams, Bouwein Smits-Engelsman, Jessica M. Lust, Peter H. Wilson, Bert Steenbergen Jan 2017

Feasibility Of Motor Imagery Training For Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Pilot Study, Imke L. J. Adams, Bouwein Smits-Engelsman, Jessica M. Lust, Peter H. Wilson, Bert Steenbergen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) experience movement difficulties that may be linked to processes involved in motor imagery (MI). This paper discusses recent advances in theory that underpin the use of MI training for children with DCD. This knowledge is translated in a new MI training protocol which is compared with the cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance (CO-OP). Children meeting DSM-5 criteria for DCD were assigned to MI (n = 4) or CO-OP (n = 4) interventions and completed nine treatment sessions, including homework exercises. Results were positive, with two children in the MI group and three in the CO-OP ...