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Language As A Resource For Improving Health: Using Swahili-Based Concepts In Responding To Infant Hiv, Jean Burke Dec 2012

Language As A Resource For Improving Health: Using Swahili-Based Concepts In Responding To Infant Hiv, Jean Burke

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

This article addresses the importance of recognising how language can structure understandings and behaviour in public health. It will be demonstrated by reference to community responses to HIV transmission to infants in Central Tanzania, using Swahili words and concepts to understand behaviour around infant feeding and improved wellbeing of children and their mothers. These examples are drawn from the findings of a qualitative study conducted in Tanzania in which data analysis was guided by the grounded theory principle of using natural language, supplemented by Swahili concepts developed and used by respondents themselves once their importance for deeper understanding was realised ...


Healthcare Associated Infection Surveillance: Examining Influences On Reliable And Valid Data Collection And Analysis, Brett Mitchell Oct 2012

Healthcare Associated Infection Surveillance: Examining Influences On Reliable And Valid Data Collection And Analysis, Brett Mitchell

Theses

Healthcare settings are dangerous places. Individuals who receive healthcare may be subject to unintended harm as a consequence. One potential adverse event is a ‘healthcare associated infection’. This contemporary term refers to any infection which is acquired in healthcare facilities or any infection that occurs as a result of healthcare interventions. This thesis is concerned with the topic of healthcare associated infections. The effects of healthcare associated infections are felt not only by individual patients through increased morbidity and mortality but also by health services faced with higher costs associated with infections. The prevention of infection requires a multifaceted approach ...


'Worlds Apart': Patients' And Nurses' Perspectives Of Factors That Impact On Nursing Care Of Patients With Pulmonary Tuberculosis In Australia And Malawi, Jean Pilirani Mukasa Sep 2012

'Worlds Apart': Patients' And Nurses' Perspectives Of Factors That Impact On Nursing Care Of Patients With Pulmonary Tuberculosis In Australia And Malawi, Jean Pilirani Mukasa

Theses

Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health threat, which is affecting a third of the world’s population and is reportedly the second most common illness causing death worldwide, secondary to HIV/AIDS. The developing world is mostly vulnerable, with factors like poverty, malnutrition, overcrowding, poor access to healthcare services, impact of HIV/AIDS and limited or lack of diagnostic facilities and trained healthcare personnel — all compounding the extent of this global epidemiology. This research was an exploratory enquiry on patients’ and nurses’ perceptions of factors that impact on TB care in Australia and Malawi. The main aim of this ...


An Exploration Of The Previous Teaching And Learning Experiences Of Overseas Educated Nurses From China, Korea And India, Carmel Rita Adnams Sep 2012

An Exploration Of The Previous Teaching And Learning Experiences Of Overseas Educated Nurses From China, Korea And India, Carmel Rita Adnams

Theses

No abstract provided.


Exclusive Breastfeeding Rates Of Women At Discharge, Three And Six Months Postpartum Prior To Bfhi Implementation At A Tertiary Facility: A Prospective Cohort Study, Michelle Kelly Sep 2012

Exclusive Breastfeeding Rates Of Women At Discharge, Three And Six Months Postpartum Prior To Bfhi Implementation At A Tertiary Facility: A Prospective Cohort Study, Michelle Kelly

Theses

Background: Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life is recommended for both short and long term optimal infant and maternal health. There is currently a national focus on improving breastfeeding duration rates, with Australian rates for exclusive breastfeeding at six months postpartum 15.4%, below the national recommendation of 50%. The Baby Friendly Health Initiative (BFHI) promotes The Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding as a benchmark that assists maternity facilities to improve breastfeeding practices and thus breastfeeding rates. This project explored breastfeeding initiation and duration rates of women discharged from a tertiary hospital in Australia prior to achieving ...


Efficacy Of Whole-Body Vibration On Exercise Tolerance And Functional Performance On The Lower Limbs Of People With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Trentham Phillip Furness Aug 2012

Efficacy Of Whole-Body Vibration On Exercise Tolerance And Functional Performance On The Lower Limbs Of People With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Trentham Phillip Furness

Theses

Aims: The general aim of this research is to advance knowledge of effects of whole-body vibration on exercise tolerance and functional performance of the lower limbs of people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a community setting. Achieving the general aim of this research would determine efficacy of a whole-body vibration intervention to: (1) avoid exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that add to physical inactivity and, (2) improve performance of activities of daily living of people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. To meet the general aim of this research, specific aims were to: (1) establish validity of a WBV ...


Doing The Simple Things Well [Accepted Manuscript], Sandy Middleton Jun 2012

Doing The Simple Things Well [Accepted Manuscript], Sandy Middleton

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Nursing is a core discipline in health care delivery. Our trial, discussed below, has provided compelling high level evidence that ‘careful attention to aspects of nursing and general care appears to generate large benefits


The Lived Experience Of Older Adults Participating In A Social Support Network Group, Regina Mary Mcdonald Jun 2012

The Lived Experience Of Older Adults Participating In A Social Support Network Group, Regina Mary Mcdonald

Theses

Introduction: This thesis explored the experiences of older people participating in social support groups using a mixed method design of qualitative and quantitative paradigms with the qualitative design taking the primary data collection role. Social support commonly refers to the availability, or actual provision of relationships, information and assistance. Instrumental support constitutes a range of services that may include domestic services, shopping, and transport. Alternatively, expressive support assists in maintaining a level of independent functioning and reduces social isolation by having contact with others. However, most support services often focus on physical functioning and disability only, and do not address ...


Understanding The Experiences Of Mothers Who Are Breastfeeding An Infant With Tongue Tie: A Phenomenological Study, Janet Elizabeth Edmunds Feb 2012

Understanding The Experiences Of Mothers Who Are Breastfeeding An Infant With Tongue Tie: A Phenomenological Study, Janet Elizabeth Edmunds

Theses

In Australia, initial exclusive breastfeeding rates are 92 %, reducing to 14% at six months. One factor that contributes to early breastfeeding cessation is infant tongue tie. It is linked to breastfeeding difficulties and these problems contribute to early breastfeeding cessation. Tongue tie or ankyloglossia is described as a congenital condition with an unusually thickened, tightened or shortened frenulum (membrane or string under the tongue). The frenulum may vary in length, elasticity and placement along the underside of the tongue to the floor of the mouth, which then can affect infants' breastfeeding skills in different ways. Tongue tie has been reported ...


Musculoskeletal Stiffness And Achilles Tendon Mechanical Property Changes Following Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage, Corey William Julian Joseph Feb 2012

Musculoskeletal Stiffness And Achilles Tendon Mechanical Property Changes Following Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage, Corey William Julian Joseph

Theses

This thesis investigated the affect of exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) on musculoskeletal stiffness (MSS), Achilles tendon (AT) stiffness and AT strain. Furthermore, this thesis determined the reliability of a protocol used to measure MSS with the aim to apply this protocol in the investigation of the EIMD associated changes in MSS, AT stiffness and AT strain. Three studies were conducted as part of this thesis.


Enhancing Transparency In Reporting The Synthesis Of Qualitative Research: Entreq, Allison Tong, Kate Flemming, Elizabeth Mcinnes, Sandy Oliver, Jonathon Craig Jan 2012

Enhancing Transparency In Reporting The Synthesis Of Qualitative Research: Entreq, Allison Tong, Kate Flemming, Elizabeth Mcinnes, Sandy Oliver, Jonathon Craig

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background

The syntheses of multiple qualitative studies can pull together data across different contexts, generate new theoretical or conceptual models, identify research gaps, and provide evidence for the development, implementation and evaluation of health interventions. This study aims to develop a framework for reporting the synthesis of qualitative health research.

Methods

We conducted a comprehensive search for guidance and reviews relevant to the synthesis of qualitative research, methodology papers, and published syntheses of qualitative health research in MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and relevant organisational websites to May 2011. Initial items were generated inductively from guides to synthesizing qualitative health research. The ...


Mechanisms And Predictors Of Mitral Regurgitation After High-Risk Myocardial Infarction [Accepted Manuscript], Alessandra Meris, Maria Amigoni, Anil Verma, Jens Jakob Thune, Lars Kober, Eric J. Velazquez, John Mcmurray, Marc A. Pfeffer, Robert M. Califf, Robert A. Levine, Scott Solomon Jan 2012

Mechanisms And Predictors Of Mitral Regurgitation After High-Risk Myocardial Infarction [Accepted Manuscript], Alessandra Meris, Maria Amigoni, Anil Verma, Jens Jakob Thune, Lars Kober, Eric J. Velazquez, John Mcmurray, Marc A. Pfeffer, Robert M. Califf, Robert A. Levine, Scott Solomon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Mitral regurgitation (MR) has been associated with adverse outcomes after myocardial infarction (MI). Without structural valve disease, functional MR has been related to left ventricular (LV) remodeling and geometric deformation of the mitral apparatus. The aims of this study were to elucidate the mechanistic components of MR after high-risk MI and to identify predictors of MR progression during follow-up. Methods The Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction Echo substudy prospectively enrolled 610 patients with LV dysfunction, heart failure, or both after MI. MR at baseline, 1 month, and 20 months was quantified by mapping jet expansion in the left atrium ...


Predictors Of Trips To Food Destinations, Jacqueline Kerr, Lawrence Frank, James F. Sallis, Brian Saelens, Karen Glanz, Jim Chapman Jan 2012

Predictors Of Trips To Food Destinations, Jacqueline Kerr, Lawrence Frank, James F. Sallis, Brian Saelens, Karen Glanz, Jim Chapman

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Food environment studies have focused on ethnic and income disparities in food access. Few studies have investigated distance travelled for food and did not aim to inform the geographic scales at which to study the relationship between food environments and obesity. Further, studies have not considered neighborhood design as a predictor of food purchasing behavior. Methods Atlanta residents (N = 4800) who completed a travel diary and reported purchasing or consuming food at one of five food locations were included in the analyses. A total of 11,995 food-related trips were reported. Using mixed modeling to adjust for clustering of ...


Patterns Of Change In Cognitive Function Over Six Months In Adults With Chronic Heart Failure, Barbara Riegel, Christopher S. Lee, Dale Glaser, Stephen T. Moelter Jan 2012

Patterns Of Change In Cognitive Function Over Six Months In Adults With Chronic Heart Failure, Barbara Riegel, Christopher S. Lee, Dale Glaser, Stephen T. Moelter

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Few investigators have studied cognition over time in adults with heart failure (HF). A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to 279 adults with chronic systolic or diastolic HF at baseline, three and six months. Growth mixture modeling (GMM) was used to model the measure anticipated to be most sensitive, the digit symbol substitution task (DSST). We describe how and why the DSST patterns change over time. Other measures of cognition were examined to identify consistency with the DSST patterns. The sample was predominantly male (63.2%), Caucasian (62.7%), mean age 62 years. The best fit GMM revealed two ...


The Study Protocol Of A Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial Of Family-Mediated Personalised Activities For Nursing Home Residents With Dementia, Eva Van De Ploeg, Cameron J. Camp, Barbara Eppingstall, Susannah J. Runci, Daniel William O'Connor Jan 2012

The Study Protocol Of A Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial Of Family-Mediated Personalised Activities For Nursing Home Residents With Dementia, Eva Van De Ploeg, Cameron J. Camp, Barbara Eppingstall, Susannah J. Runci, Daniel William O'Connor

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Following admission to a nursing home, the feelings of depression and burden that family carers may experience do not necessarily diminish. Additionally, they may experience feelings of guilt and grief for the loss of a previously close relationship. At the same time, individuals with dementia may develop symptoms of depression and agitation (BPSD) that may be related to changes in family relationships, social interaction and stimulation. Until now, interventions to alleviate carer stress and BPSD have treated carers and relatives separately rather than focusing on maintaining or enhancing their relationships. One-to-one structured activities have been shown to reduce BPSD ...


Cross-Sectional Analysis Of Association Between Socioeconomic Status And Utilization Of Primary Total Hip Joint Replacements 2006-7: Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry, Sharon L. Brennan, Tyman Stanford, Anita E. Wluka, Margaret J. Henry, Richard S. Page, Stephen E. Graves, Mark A. Kotowicz, Geoffrey Charles Nicholson, Julie A. Pasco Jan 2012

Cross-Sectional Analysis Of Association Between Socioeconomic Status And Utilization Of Primary Total Hip Joint Replacements 2006-7: Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry, Sharon L. Brennan, Tyman Stanford, Anita E. Wluka, Margaret J. Henry, Richard S. Page, Stephen E. Graves, Mark A. Kotowicz, Geoffrey Charles Nicholson, Julie A. Pasco

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: The utilization of total hip replacement (THR) surgery is rapidly increasing, however few data examine whether these procedures are associated with socioeconomic status (SES) within Australia. This study examined primary THR across SES for both genders for the Barwon Statistical Division (BSD) of Victoria, Australia. Methods: Using the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry data for 2006–7, primary THR with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA) among residents of the BSD was ascertained. The Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage was used to measure SES; determined by matching residential addresses with Australian Bureau of Statistics census data. The data ...


Cardiac Depression Scale : Mokken Scaling In Heart Failure Patients, Chantal F, Ski, David R. Thompson, David L. Hare, Andrew G. Stewart, Roger Watson Jan 2012

Cardiac Depression Scale : Mokken Scaling In Heart Failure Patients, Chantal F, Ski, David R. Thompson, David L. Hare, Andrew G. Stewart, Roger Watson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: There is a high prevalence of depression in patients with heart failure (HF) that is associated with worsening prognosis. The value of using a reliable and valid instrument to measure depression in this population is therefore essential. We validated the Cardiac Depression Scale (CDS) in heart failure patients using a model of ordinal unidimensional measurement known as Mokken scaling.

Findings: We administered in face-to-face interviews the CDS to 603 patients with HF. Data were analysed using Mokken scale analysis. Items of the CDS formed a statistically significant unidimensional Mokken scale of low strength (H<0.40) and high reliability (Rho>0.8).

Conclusions: The CDS ...


Preventing Hypothermia In Elective Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery Patients: A Protocol For A Randomised Controlled Trial, Jeremy Duff, Renatta Di Staso, Kerry Cobbe, Nicole Draper, Simon Tan, Emma Haliday, Sandy Middleton, Lawerence Lam, Kim Walker Jan 2012

Preventing Hypothermia In Elective Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery Patients: A Protocol For A Randomised Controlled Trial, Jeremy Duff, Renatta Di Staso, Kerry Cobbe, Nicole Draper, Simon Tan, Emma Haliday, Sandy Middleton, Lawerence Lam, Kim Walker

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

No abstract provided.


Introduction Of The Tools For Economic Analysis Of Patient Management Interventions In Heart Failure Costing Tool: A User-Friendly Spreadsheet Program To Estimate Costs Of Providing Patient-Centered Interventions., Shelby D. Reed, Yanhong Li, Shital Kamble, Daniel Polsky, Felicia L. Graham, Margaret T. Bowers, Gregory P. Samsa, Sara Paul, Kevin A. Schulman, David J. Whellan, Barbara Riegel Jan 2012

Introduction Of The Tools For Economic Analysis Of Patient Management Interventions In Heart Failure Costing Tool: A User-Friendly Spreadsheet Program To Estimate Costs Of Providing Patient-Centered Interventions., Shelby D. Reed, Yanhong Li, Shital Kamble, Daniel Polsky, Felicia L. Graham, Margaret T. Bowers, Gregory P. Samsa, Sara Paul, Kevin A. Schulman, David J. Whellan, Barbara Riegel

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background—Patient-centered health care interventions, such as heart failure disease management programs, are under increasing pressure to demonstrate good value. Variability in costing methods and assumptions in economic evaluations of such interventions limit the comparability of cost estimates across studies. Valid cost estimation is critical to conducting economic evaluations and for program budgeting and reimbursement negotiations. Methods and Results—Using sound economic principles, we developed the Tools for Economic Analysis of Patient Management Interventions in Heart Failure (TEAM-HF) Costing Tool, a spreadsheet program that can be used by researchers and health care managers to systematically generate cost estimates for economic ...


Low Level Maternal Smoking And Infant Birthweight Reduction: Genetic Contributions Of Gstt1 And Gstm1 Polymorphisms, Asta Danileviciute, Regina Grazuleviciene, Algimantas Paulauskas, Ruta Nadisauskiene, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen Jan 2012

Low Level Maternal Smoking And Infant Birthweight Reduction: Genetic Contributions Of Gstt1 And Gstm1 Polymorphisms, Asta Danileviciute, Regina Grazuleviciene, Algimantas Paulauskas, Ruta Nadisauskiene, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Genetic susceptibility to tobacco smoke might modify the effect of smoking on pregnancy outcomes. Methods: We conducted a case–control study of 543 women who delivered singleton live births in Kaunas (Lithuania), examining the association between low-level tobacco smoke exposure (mean: 4.8 cigarettes/day) during pregnancy, GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms and birthweight of the infant. Multiple linear-regression analysis was performed adjusting for gestational age, maternal education, family status, body mass index, blood pressure, and parity. Subsequently, we tested for the interaction effect of maternal smoking, GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes polymorphisms with birthweight by adding all the product terms ...


Wnt16 Influences Bone Mineral Density, Cortical Bone Thickness, Bone Strength, And Osteoporotic Fracture Risk, Hou-Feng Zheng, Jon H. Tobias, Emma Duncan, David M. Evans, Joel Eriksson, Lavinia Paternoster, Laura M. Yerges-Armstrong, Terho Lehtimäki, Ulrica Bergström, Mika Kähönen, Paul J. Leo, Olli Raitakari, Marika Laaksonen, Geoffrey C. Nicholson, Jorma Viikari, Martin Ladouceur, Leo-Pekka Lehtimäki, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Fernando Rivadeneira, Richard L. Prince, Harri Sievanen, William D. Leslie, Dan Mellström, John A. Eisman, Sofia Movérare-Skrtic, David Goltzman, David A. Hanley, Graeme Jones, Beate St. Pourcain, Yongjun Xiao, Nicholas J. Timpson, George Davey Smith, Ian R. Reid, Susan M. Ring, Philip N. Sambrook, Magnus Karlsson, Elaine M. Dennison, John P. Kemp, Patrick Danoy, Adrian Sayers, Scott G. Wilson, Maria Nethander, Eugene Mccloskey, Liesbeth Vandenput, Richard Eastell, Jeff Liu, Tim Spector, Braxton D. Mitchell, Elizabeth A. Streeten, Robert Brommage, Ulrika Pettersson-Kymmer, Matthew A. Brown, Claes Ohlsson, J. Brent Richards, Mattias Lorentzon Jan 2012

Wnt16 Influences Bone Mineral Density, Cortical Bone Thickness, Bone Strength, And Osteoporotic Fracture Risk, Hou-Feng Zheng, Jon H. Tobias, Emma Duncan, David M. Evans, Joel Eriksson, Lavinia Paternoster, Laura M. Yerges-Armstrong, Terho Lehtimäki, Ulrica Bergström, Mika Kähönen, Paul J. Leo, Olli Raitakari, Marika Laaksonen, Geoffrey C. Nicholson, Jorma Viikari, Martin Ladouceur, Leo-Pekka Lehtimäki, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Fernando Rivadeneira, Richard L. Prince, Harri Sievanen, William D. Leslie, Dan Mellström, John A. Eisman, Sofia Movérare-Skrtic, David Goltzman, David A. Hanley, Graeme Jones, Beate St. Pourcain, Yongjun Xiao, Nicholas J. Timpson, George Davey Smith, Ian R. Reid, Susan M. Ring, Philip N. Sambrook, Magnus Karlsson, Elaine M. Dennison, John P. Kemp, Patrick Danoy, Adrian Sayers, Scott G. Wilson, Maria Nethander, Eugene Mccloskey, Liesbeth Vandenput, Richard Eastell, Jeff Liu, Tim Spector, Braxton D. Mitchell, Elizabeth A. Streeten, Robert Brommage, Ulrika Pettersson-Kymmer, Matthew A. Brown, Claes Ohlsson, J. Brent Richards, Mattias Lorentzon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with cortical bone thickness (CBT) and bone mineral density (BMD) by performing two separate genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses for CBT in 3 cohorts comprising 5,878 European subjects and for BMD in 5 cohorts comprising 5,672 individuals. We then assessed selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for osteoporotic fracture in 2,023 cases and 3,740 controls. Association with CBT and forearm BMD was tested for ∼2.5 million SNPs in each cohort separately, and results were meta-analyzed using fixed effect meta-analysis. We identified a missense SNP (Thr>Ile; rs2707466) located in the ...


Mediating Trust In Complementary And Alternative Medicine Treatment Decision Making, Michelle Black Jan 2012

Mediating Trust In Complementary And Alternative Medicine Treatment Decision Making, Michelle Black

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) comprises of a number of clinically and theoretically distinct therapies and practices, many becoming increasingly incorporated into the health care regimens of Australians. This paper explores the accounts of 16 regular CAM users to explore trust in CAM treatment decision-making. Self-reliant in their health information seeking and experimental i n their use of health treatment, the CAM users in this study exemplify the self-reflexive health consumer of late modernity. This paper shows that trust derives from confidence in the CAM practitioner, and also relates to culturally inscribed beliefs around pain and pleasure. Utilising the sociological ...


What Have We Learned About Patients With Heart Failure And Preserved Ejection Fraction From Dig-Pef, Charm-Preserved, And I-Preserve?, Ross T. Campbell, Pardeep S. Jhund, Davide Castagno, Nathaniel M. Hawkins, Mark C. Petrie, John V.J. Mcmurray Jan 2012

What Have We Learned About Patients With Heart Failure And Preserved Ejection Fraction From Dig-Pef, Charm-Preserved, And I-Preserve?, Ross T. Campbell, Pardeep S. Jhund, Davide Castagno, Nathaniel M. Hawkins, Mark C. Petrie, John V.J. Mcmurray

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Examination of patients with reduced and preserved ejection fraction in the DIG (Digitalis Investigation Group) trials and the CHARM (Candesartan in Heart Failure: Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity) trials provides comparisons of outcomes in each of these types of heart failure. Comparison of the patients in these trials, along with the I-PRESERVE (Irbesartan in Heart Failure with Preserved Systolic Function Trial), with patients of similar age, sex distribution, and comorbidity in trials of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, and atrial fibrillation provides even more interesting insights into the relation between phenotype and rates of death and heart failure ...


Decision Making In Advanced Heart Failure: A Scientific Statement From The American Heart Association, Larry A. Allen, Lynne W. Stevenson, Kathleen L. Grady, Nathan E. Goldstein, Daniel D. Matlock, Robert M. Arnold, Nancy R. Cook, G. Michael Felker, Gary S. Francis, Paul J. Hauptman, Edward P. Havranek, Harlan M. Krumholz, Donna Mancini, Barbara Riegel, John A. Spertus Jan 2012

Decision Making In Advanced Heart Failure: A Scientific Statement From The American Heart Association, Larry A. Allen, Lynne W. Stevenson, Kathleen L. Grady, Nathan E. Goldstein, Daniel D. Matlock, Robert M. Arnold, Nancy R. Cook, G. Michael Felker, Gary S. Francis, Paul J. Hauptman, Edward P. Havranek, Harlan M. Krumholz, Donna Mancini, Barbara Riegel, John A. Spertus

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Shared decision making for advanced heart failure has become both more challenging and more crucial as duration of disease and treatment options have increased. High-quality decisions are chosen from medically reasonable options and are aligned with values, goals, and preferences of an informed patient. The top 10 things to know about decision making in advanced heart failure care are listed in Table 1.


Cognition In Males And Females With Autism: Similarities And Differences, Meng C. Lai, M. V. Lombardo, Amber N. V. Ruigrok, B. Chakrabarti, Sally J. Wheelwright, B. Auyeung, Carrie Allison, Anthony J. Bailey, S. Baron-Cohen, Patrick F. Bolton, E. T. Bullmore, Sarah Carrington, Marco Catani, Michael C. Craig, E. M. Daly, Sean C. L. Deoni, Christine Ecker, Francesca Happé, Julian Henty, Peter Jezzard, Patrick Johnston, Derek Kenton Jones, Anya Madden, Diane Mullins, Clodagh M. Murphy, Declan Murphy, Greg Pasco, Susan A. Sadek, Debbie Spain, Rose Stewart, John Suckling, Steven C. Willia, Simon Baron-Cohen Jan 2012

Cognition In Males And Females With Autism: Similarities And Differences, Meng C. Lai, M. V. Lombardo, Amber N. V. Ruigrok, B. Chakrabarti, Sally J. Wheelwright, B. Auyeung, Carrie Allison, Anthony J. Bailey, S. Baron-Cohen, Patrick F. Bolton, E. T. Bullmore, Sarah Carrington, Marco Catani, Michael C. Craig, E. M. Daly, Sean C. L. Deoni, Christine Ecker, Francesca Happé, Julian Henty, Peter Jezzard, Patrick Johnston, Derek Kenton Jones, Anya Madden, Diane Mullins, Clodagh M. Murphy, Declan Murphy, Greg Pasco, Susan A. Sadek, Debbie Spain, Rose Stewart, John Suckling, Steven C. Willia, Simon Baron-Cohen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The male bias in autism spectrum conditions (ASC) has led to females with ASC being under-researched. This lack of attention to females could hide variability due to sex that may explain some of the heterogeneity within ASC. In this study we investigate four key cognitive domains (mentalizing and emotion perception, executive function, perceptual attention to detail, and motor function) in ASC, to test for similarities and differences between males and females with and without ASC (n = 128 adults; n = 32 per group). In the mentalizing and facial emotion perception domain, males and females with ASC showed similar deficits compared to ...


Cancer Awareness Among Adolescents In Britain: A Cross-Sectional Study, Richard G. Kyle, Liz Forbat, Gill Hubbard Jan 2012

Cancer Awareness Among Adolescents In Britain: A Cross-Sectional Study, Richard G. Kyle, Liz Forbat, Gill Hubbard

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Little is known about adolescents’ cancer awareness and help-seeking behaviour in Britain. This study assessed adolescents’: awareness of cancer symptoms, common cancers, and the relationship between cancer and age; anticipated delay and perceived barriers to seeking medical advice; and examined variation by age, gender, ethnicity and whether individuals knew someone with cancer


Factors Associated With Undiagnosed Obstructive Sleep Apnoea In Hypertensive Primary Care Patients, Anders Brostrom, Ola Sunnergren, Kristofer Arestedt, Peter Johansson, Martin Ulander, Barbara Riegel, Eva Svanborg Jan 2012

Factors Associated With Undiagnosed Obstructive Sleep Apnoea In Hypertensive Primary Care Patients, Anders Brostrom, Ola Sunnergren, Kristofer Arestedt, Peter Johansson, Martin Ulander, Barbara Riegel, Eva Svanborg

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective. In hypertensive primary care patients below 65 years of age, ( i ) to describe the occurrence of undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnoea ( OSA ), and ( ii ) to identify the determinants of moderate/severe OSA. Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Four primary care health centres in Sweden. Patients. 411 consecutive patients ( 52% women ), mean age 57.9 years ( SD 5.9 years ), with diagnosed and treated hypertension ( BP >140/90 ). Main outcome measures. Occurrence of OSA as measured by the apnoea hypopnoea index ( AHI ). Results. Mild ( AHI 5–14.9/h ) and moderate/severe ( AHI > 15/h ) OSA were seen among 29% and 30% of ...


Explaining The Increase Of Diabetes Prevalence And Plasma Glucose In Mauritius, Dianna J. Magliano, Stefan Söderberg, Paul Z. Zimmet, Lei Chen, Noorjehan Joonas, Sudhir Kowlessur, Jose Larhubarbe, Dhanunjaye Gaoneadry, Vassen Pauvaday, Jaakko Tuomilehto, K. George M. M. Alberti, Jonathan E. Shaw Jan 2012

Explaining The Increase Of Diabetes Prevalence And Plasma Glucose In Mauritius, Dianna J. Magliano, Stefan Söderberg, Paul Z. Zimmet, Lei Chen, Noorjehan Joonas, Sudhir Kowlessur, Jose Larhubarbe, Dhanunjaye Gaoneadry, Vassen Pauvaday, Jaakko Tuomilehto, K. George M. M. Alberti, Jonathan E. Shaw

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

OBJECTIVE Secular trends in the epidemiology of diabetes are best described by studying the same population over time, but few such studies exist. Using surveys from Mauritius in 1987 and 2009, we examined 1) the change in the prevalence of diabetes, 2) the extent to which changes in traditional diabetes risk factors explained the increase, and 3) the change in the distribution of plasma glucose levels over time.


Introduction Of The Tools For Economic Analysis Of Patient Management Interventions In Heart Failure Costing Tool : A User-Friendly Spreadsheet Program To Estimate Costs Of Providing Patient-Centered Interventions, Shelby D. Reed, Yanhong Li, Shital Kamble, Daniel E. Polsky, Felicia L. Graham, Margaret T. Bowers, Gregory P. Samsa, Sara C. Paul, Kevin A. Schulman, David J. Whellan, Barbara Riegel Jan 2012

Introduction Of The Tools For Economic Analysis Of Patient Management Interventions In Heart Failure Costing Tool : A User-Friendly Spreadsheet Program To Estimate Costs Of Providing Patient-Centered Interventions, Shelby D. Reed, Yanhong Li, Shital Kamble, Daniel E. Polsky, Felicia L. Graham, Margaret T. Bowers, Gregory P. Samsa, Sara C. Paul, Kevin A. Schulman, David J. Whellan, Barbara Riegel

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Patient-centered health care interventions, such as heart failure disease management programs, are under increasing pressure to demonstrate good value. Variability in costing methods and assumptions in economic evaluations of such interventions limit the comparability of cost estimates across studies. Valid cost estimation is critical to conducting economic evaluations and for program budgeting and reimbursement negotiations.


Cingulum Microstructure Predicts Cognitive Control In Older Age And Mild Cognitive Impairment, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, Derek Kenton Jones, Jessica J. Steventon, Laura Westacott, John P. Aggleton, Michael J. O'Sullivan Jan 2012

Cingulum Microstructure Predicts Cognitive Control In Older Age And Mild Cognitive Impairment, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, Derek Kenton Jones, Jessica J. Steventon, Laura Westacott, John P. Aggleton, Michael J. O'Sullivan

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Cognitive control, an important facet of human cognition, provides flexibility in response to varying behavioral demands. Previous work has focused on the role of prefrontal cortex, notably the anterior cingulate cortex. However, it is now clear that this is one node of a distributed cognitive network. In this emerging network view, structural connections are inherent elements, but their role has not been emphasized. Furthermore, lesion and functional imaging studies have contributed little knowledge about anatomical segregation, functional specialization, and behavioral importance of white matter connections. The relationship between cognitive control and microstructure of connections within the cingulum, a major white ...