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Australian Catholic University

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Dyslexia And Developmental Language Disorder: Comorbid Disorders With Distinct Effects On Reading Comprehension, Margaret J. Snowling, Marianna E. Hayiou-Thomas, Hannah M. Nash, Charles Hulme Jan 2019

Dyslexia And Developmental Language Disorder: Comorbid Disorders With Distinct Effects On Reading Comprehension, Margaret J. Snowling, Marianna E. Hayiou-Thomas, Hannah M. Nash, Charles Hulme

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Background: Reading comprehension draws on both decoding and linguistic comprehension, and poor reading comprehension can be the consequence of a deficit in either of these skills. Methods: Using outcome data from the longitudinal Wellcome Language and Reading Project, we identified three groups of children at age 8 years: children with dyslexia (N = 21) who had deficits in decoding but not oral language, children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD; N = 38) whose decoding skills were in the normal range, and children who met criteria for both dyslexia and DLD (N = 29). Results: All three groups had reading comprehension difficulties at the ...


Computerized Speechreading Training For Deaf Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Hannah Pimperton, Fiona Kyle, Charles Hulme, Margaret Harris, Indie Beedie, Amelia Ralph-Lewis, Elizabeth Worster, Rachel Rees, Chris Donlan, Mairéad Macsweeney Jan 2019

Computerized Speechreading Training For Deaf Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Hannah Pimperton, Fiona Kyle, Charles Hulme, Margaret Harris, Indie Beedie, Amelia Ralph-Lewis, Elizabeth Worster, Rachel Rees, Chris Donlan, Mairéad Macsweeney

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Purpose
We developed and evaluated in a randomized controlled trial a computerized speechreading training program to determine (a) whether it is possible to train speechreading in deaf children and (b) whether speechreading training results in improvements in phonological and reading skills. Previous studies indicate a relationship between speechreading and reading skill and further suggest this relationship may be mediated by improved phonological representations. This is important since many deaf children find learning to read to be very challenging.
Method
Sixty-six deaf 5- to 7-year-olds were randomized into speechreading and maths training arms. Each training program was composed of a 10-min ...


The Relationship Between Handedness And Language Ability In Children, Verena E. Pritchard, Stephanie A. Malone, Kelly Burgoyne, Michelle Heron-Delaney, Dorothy V. M. Bishop, Charles Hulme Jan 2019

The Relationship Between Handedness And Language Ability In Children, Verena E. Pritchard, Stephanie A. Malone, Kelly Burgoyne, Michelle Heron-Delaney, Dorothy V. M. Bishop, Charles Hulme

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Weak or inconsistent hand preference may be a risk factor for developmental language delay. This study will test the extent to which variations in language skills are associated with the strength of hand preference. Data are drawn from a large sample (n = 569) of 6- to 7-year-old children unselected for ability, assessed at two time points, 6 months apart. Hand preference is assessed using the Quantitative Hand Preference task (QHP) and five uni-manual motor tasks. Language skills (expressive and receptive vocabulary, receptive grammar, and morphological awareness) are assessed with standardized measures. If weak cerebral lateralisation (as assessed by the QHP ...


Stage 2 Registered Report: There Is No Appreciable Relationship Between Strength Of Hand Preference And Language Ability In 6-To 7-Year-Old Children, Verena E. Pritchard, Stephanie A. Malone, Kelly Burgoyne, Michelle Heron-Delaney, Dorothy V. M. Bishop, Charles Hulme Jan 2019

Stage 2 Registered Report: There Is No Appreciable Relationship Between Strength Of Hand Preference And Language Ability In 6-To 7-Year-Old Children, Verena E. Pritchard, Stephanie A. Malone, Kelly Burgoyne, Michelle Heron-Delaney, Dorothy V. M. Bishop, Charles Hulme

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Background: Weak or inconsistent hand preference has been postulated to be a risk factor for developmental language delay. Following on from our Registered Stage 1 report this study assessed the extent to which variations in language skills are associated with the strength of hand preference. Methods: Data are drawn from a large sample (N = 569) of 6- to 7-year-old children unselected for ability, assessed at two time points, 6 months apart. Hand preference was assessed using the Quantitative Hand Preference (QHP) task and five uni-manual motor tasks. Language skills (expressive and receptive vocabulary, receptive grammar, and morphological awareness) were assessed ...


Assuring Children's Human Right To Freedom Of Opinion And Expression In Education, Jenna Gillett-Swan, Jonathon Sargeant Jan 2018

Assuring Children's Human Right To Freedom Of Opinion And Expression In Education, Jenna Gillett-Swan, Jonathon Sargeant

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights elaborated for children through the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, mandates each child’s right to participate in all matters affecting them. In particular, Article 19 includes the child’s right to freedom of expression and opinion, access to information and communication choice. However, many barriers placed on children’s daily lives often restrict or limit the enactment of children’s participatory rights in practice, most noticeably in education. It is often the adult who decides what, when and how children can communicate, and the extent children’s views and ...


A Benchmarking Study Of Father Involvement In Australian Child Mental Health Services, Mark R. Dadds, Daniel A. J. Collins, Frances L. Doyle, L. A. Tully, D. Hawes, Rhoshel Lenroot, Vicki Anderson, Paul Frick, C. Moul, Eva R. Kimonis Jan 2018

A Benchmarking Study Of Father Involvement In Australian Child Mental Health Services, Mark R. Dadds, Daniel A. J. Collins, Frances L. Doyle, L. A. Tully, D. Hawes, Rhoshel Lenroot, Vicki Anderson, Paul Frick, C. Moul, Eva R. Kimonis

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Fathers are underrepresented in interventions focussing on child well-being, yet research suggests their involvement may be critical to enhancing intervention effectiveness. This study aimed to provide the first Australian benchmark of rates of father attendance across several child mental health services. Retrospective casefile reviews were conducted to obtain data on father and mother attendance at 10 Australian child mental health services. A total of 2128 casefile records were retrospectively examined to extract family-level data. The main outcome measures were rates of father and mother attendance at sessions involving parents, and rates of father- and mother-instigated referral to services. Across services ...


Examining Practitioner Competencies, Organizational Support And Barriers To Engaging Fathers In Parenting Interventions, L. A. Tully, Daniel A.J. Collins, Patrycja J. Piotrowska, Kathleen S. Mairet, D. Hawes, C. Moul, Rhoshel Lenroot, Paul Frick, Vicki Anderson, Eva R. Kimonis, Mark R. Dadds Jan 2018

Examining Practitioner Competencies, Organizational Support And Barriers To Engaging Fathers In Parenting Interventions, L. A. Tully, Daniel A.J. Collins, Patrycja J. Piotrowska, Kathleen S. Mairet, D. Hawes, C. Moul, Rhoshel Lenroot, Paul Frick, Vicki Anderson, Eva R. Kimonis, Mark R. Dadds

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Evidence-based parenting interventions have been developed and evaluated largely with mothers. This study examined practitioner reports of rates of father attendance, barriers to engagement, organizational support for father-inclusive practice, participation in training in father engagement, and competencies in working with fathers. It also explored predictors of practitioner competence and rates of father attendance. Practitioners (N = 210) who delivered parenting interventions completed an online survey. Participants reported high levels of confidence in engaging fathers, but only one in three had participated in training and levels of father attendance in parenting interventions were low. Logistic regressions showed that high levels of practitioner ...


When Does Speech Sound Disorder Matter For Literacy? The Role Of Disordered Speech Errors, Co-Occurring Language Impairment And Family Risk Of Dyslexia, Marianna E. Hayiou-Thomas, Julia M. Carroll, Ruth Leavett, Charles Hulme, Margaret J. Snowling Jan 2017

When Does Speech Sound Disorder Matter For Literacy? The Role Of Disordered Speech Errors, Co-Occurring Language Impairment And Family Risk Of Dyslexia, Marianna E. Hayiou-Thomas, Julia M. Carroll, Ruth Leavett, Charles Hulme, Margaret J. Snowling

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Background: This study considers the role of early speech difficulties in literacy development, in the context of additional risk factors. Method: Children were identified with speech sound disorder (SSD) at the age of 3½ years, on the basis of performance on the Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology. Their literacy skills were assessed at the start of formal reading instruction (age 5½), using measures of phoneme awareness, word-level reading and spelling; and 3 years later (age 8), using measures of word-level reading, spelling and reading comprehension. Results: The presence of early SSD conferred a small but significant risk of poor ...


Optimising Child Outcomes From Parenting Interventions: Fathers' Experiences, Preferences And Barriers To Participation, L. A. Tully, Patrycja J. Piotrowska, Daniel A.J. Collins, Kathleen S. Mairet, Nicola Black, Eva R. Kimonis, D. Hawes, C. Moul, Rhoshel Lenroot, Paul Frick, Vicki Anderson, Mark R. Dadds Jan 2017

Optimising Child Outcomes From Parenting Interventions: Fathers' Experiences, Preferences And Barriers To Participation, L. A. Tully, Patrycja J. Piotrowska, Daniel A.J. Collins, Kathleen S. Mairet, Nicola Black, Eva R. Kimonis, D. Hawes, C. Moul, Rhoshel Lenroot, Paul Frick, Vicki Anderson, Mark R. Dadds

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Background: Early childhood interventions can have both immediate and long-term positive effects on cognitive, behavioural, health and education outcomes. Fathers are underrepresented in interventions focusing on the well-being of children. However, father participation may be critical for intervention effectiveness, especially for parenting interventions for child externalising problems. To date, there has been very little research conducted to understand the low rates of father participation and to facilitate the development of interventions to meet the needs of fathers. This study examined fathers experiences of, and preferences for, parenting interventions as well as perceptions of barriers to participation. It also examined how ...


Classroom Promotion Of Oral Language (Cpol): Protocol For A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial Of A School-Based Intervention To Improve Children's Literacy Outcomes At Grade 3, Oral Language And Mental Health, Sharon Goldfield, Pamela Snow, Patricia Eadie, John Munro, Lisa Gold, Ha N. D. Le, Francesca Orsini Jan 2017

Classroom Promotion Of Oral Language (Cpol): Protocol For A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial Of A School-Based Intervention To Improve Children's Literacy Outcomes At Grade 3, Oral Language And Mental Health, Sharon Goldfield, Pamela Snow, Patricia Eadie, John Munro, Lisa Gold, Ha N. D. Le, Francesca Orsini

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Introduction Oral language and literacy competence are major influences on children’s developmental pathways and life success. Children who do not develop the necessary language and literacy skills in the early years of school then go on to face long-term difficulties. Improving teacher effectiveness may be a critical step in lifting oral language and literacy outcomes. The Classroom Promotion of Oral Language trial aims to determine whether a specifically designed teacher professional learning programme focusing on promoting oral language can lead to improved teacher knowledge and practice, and advance outcomes in oral language and literacy for early years school children ...


The Dcdc2 Deletion Is Not A Risk Factor For Dyslexia, T.S. Scerri, E. Macpherson, Angela Martinelli, W.C. Wa, A.P. Monaco, John Stein, M. Zheng, C. S. Ho, C. Mcbride, Margaret J. Snowling, Charles Hulme, Marianna E. Hayiou-Thomas, M.M.Y. Waye, Joel B. Talcott, Silvia Paracchini Jan 2017

The Dcdc2 Deletion Is Not A Risk Factor For Dyslexia, T.S. Scerri, E. Macpherson, Angela Martinelli, W.C. Wa, A.P. Monaco, John Stein, M. Zheng, C. S. Ho, C. Mcbride, Margaret J. Snowling, Charles Hulme, Marianna E. Hayiou-Thomas, M.M.Y. Waye, Joel B. Talcott, Silvia Paracchini

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Dyslexia is a specific impairment in learning to read and has strong heritability. An intronic deletion within the DCDC2 gene, with ~8% frequency in European populations, is increasingly used as a marker for dyslexia in neuroimaging and behavioral studies. At a mechanistic level, this deletion has been proposed to influence sensory processing capacity, and in particular sensitivity to visual coherent motion. Our re-assessment of the literature, however, did not reveal strong support for a role of this specific deletion in dyslexia. We also analyzed data from five distinct cohorts, enriched for individuals with dyslexia, and did not identify any signal ...


Are The Literacy Difficulties That Characterize Developmental Dyslexia Associated With A Failure To Integrate Letters And Speech Sounds?, Hannah Nash, Debbie Gooch, Charles Hulme, Yatin Mahajan, Genevieve Mcarthur, Kurt Steinmetzger, Margaret J. Snowling Jan 2017

Are The Literacy Difficulties That Characterize Developmental Dyslexia Associated With A Failure To Integrate Letters And Speech Sounds?, Hannah Nash, Debbie Gooch, Charles Hulme, Yatin Mahajan, Genevieve Mcarthur, Kurt Steinmetzger, Margaret J. Snowling

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

The ‘automatic letter-sound integration hypothesis’ (Blomert,) proposes that dyslexia results from a failure to fully integrate letters and speech sounds into automated audio-visual objects. We tested this hypothesis in a sample of English-speaking children with dyslexic difficulties (N = 13) and samples of chronological-age-matched (CA; N = 17) and reading-age-matched controls (RA; N = 17) aged 7–13 years. Each child took part in two priming experiments in which speech sounds were preceded by congruent visual letters (congruent condition) or Greek letters(baseline). In a behavioural experiment, responses to speech sounds in the two conditions were compared using reaction times. These data revealed ...


A Guide To Evaluating Linkage Quality For The Analysis Of Linked Data, Katie Harron, James C. Doidge, Hannah E. Knight, Ruth Gilbert, Harvey Goldstein, David A. Cromwell, Jan H. Van Der Meulen Jan 2017

A Guide To Evaluating Linkage Quality For The Analysis Of Linked Data, Katie Harron, James C. Doidge, Hannah E. Knight, Ruth Gilbert, Harvey Goldstein, David A. Cromwell, Jan H. Van Der Meulen

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Linked datasets are an important resource for epidemiological and clinical studies, but linkage error can lead to biased results. For data security reasons, linkage of personal identifiers is often performed by a third party, making it difficult for researchers to assess the quality of the linked dataset in the context of specific research questions. This is compounded by a lack of guidance on how to determine the potential impact of linkage error. We describe how linkage quality can be evaluated and provide widely applicable guidance for both data providers and researchers. Using an illustrative example of a linked dataset of ...


Prevalence Of Overweight And Obesity Among Children And Adolescents With Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis [Accepted Manuscript], Christophe Maiano, O. Hue, Alexandre J.S. Morin, G. Moullec Jan 2016

Prevalence Of Overweight And Obesity Among Children And Adolescents With Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis [Accepted Manuscript], Christophe Maiano, O. Hue, Alexandre J.S. Morin, G. Moullec

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Although there have been numerous studies examining the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities, they have not yet been integrated and synthesized through a systematic quantitative review process. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine: (i) the prevalence of overweight/obesity among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities; (ii) the sources of heterogeneity in studies reporting the prevalence of overweight/obesity in this population; and (iii) the risk of overweight/obesity in this population compared with their typically developing peers. A systematic literature search was performed and 16 studies, published ...


Data Linkage Errors In Hospital Administrative Data When Applying A Pseudonymisation Algorithm To Paediatric Intensive Care Records, Gareth Hagger-Johnson, Katie Harron, Tom Fleming, Ruth Gilbert, Harvey Goldstein, Rebecca Landy, Roger Parslow Jan 2015

Data Linkage Errors In Hospital Administrative Data When Applying A Pseudonymisation Algorithm To Paediatric Intensive Care Records, Gareth Hagger-Johnson, Katie Harron, Tom Fleming, Ruth Gilbert, Harvey Goldstein, Rebecca Landy, Roger Parslow

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Objectives: Our aim was to estimate the rate of data linkage error in Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) by testing the HESID pseudoanonymisation algorithm against a reference standard, in a national registry of paediatric intensive care records. Setting: The Paediatric Intensive Care Audit Network (PICANet) database, covering 33 paediatric intensive care units in England, Scotland and Wales. Participants: Data from infants and young people aged 0–19 years admitted between 1 January 2004 and 21 February 2014. Primary and secondary outcome measures: PICANet admission records were classified as matches (records belonging to the same patient who had been readmitted) or non-matches ...


Replication Of A Whole School Ethos-Changing Intervention: Different Context, Similar Effects, Additional Insights Health Behavior, Health Promotion And Society, Penelope Hawe, Lyndal Bond, Laura M. Ghali, Rosemary Perry, Colleen M. Davison, David M. Casey, Helen Butler, Cynthia M. Webster, Bert Scholz Jan 2015

Replication Of A Whole School Ethos-Changing Intervention: Different Context, Similar Effects, Additional Insights Health Behavior, Health Promotion And Society, Penelope Hawe, Lyndal Bond, Laura M. Ghali, Rosemary Perry, Colleen M. Davison, David M. Casey, Helen Butler, Cynthia M. Webster, Bert Scholz

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Background Whole school, ethos-changing interventions reduce risk behaviours in middle adolescence, more than curriculum-based approaches. Effects on older ages are not known. We set out to replicate one of these interventions, Australia’s Gatehouse Project, in a rural Canadian high school. Methods A guided, whole school change process sought to make students feel more safe, connected, and valued by: changes in teaching practices, orientation processes, professional development of staff, recognition and reward mechanisms, elevating student voice, and strategies to involve greater proactivity and participation. We conducted risk behaviour surveys in grades 10 to 12 before the intervention and 2 years ...


After The Rct : Who Comes To A Family-Based Intervention For Childhood Overweight Or Obesity When It Is Implemented At Scale In The Community?, James Fagg, Tim Cole, Steven Cummins, Harvey Goldstein, Stephen Morris, Duncan Radley, Paul Sacher, Catherine Law Jan 2015

After The Rct : Who Comes To A Family-Based Intervention For Childhood Overweight Or Obesity When It Is Implemented At Scale In The Community?, James Fagg, Tim Cole, Steven Cummins, Harvey Goldstein, Stephen Morris, Duncan Radley, Paul Sacher, Catherine Law

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Background: When implemented at scale, the impact on health and health inequalities of public health interventions depends on who receives them in addition to intervention effectiveness. Methods: The MEND 7–13 (Mind, Exercise, Nutrition…Do it!) programme is a family-based weight management intervention for childhood overweight and obesity implemented at scale in the community. We compare the characteristics of children referred to the MEND programme (N=18 289 referred to 1940 programmes) with those of the population eligible for the intervention, and assess what predicts completion of the intervention. Results: Compared to the MEND-eligible population, proportionally more children who started ...


Replication Of A Whole School Ethos-Changing Intervention : Different Context, Similar Effects, Additional Insights, Penelope Hawe, Lyndal Bond, Laura Ghali, Rosemary Perry, Colleen Davison, David Casey, Helen Butler, Cynthia Webster, Bert Scholz Jan 2015

Replication Of A Whole School Ethos-Changing Intervention : Different Context, Similar Effects, Additional Insights, Penelope Hawe, Lyndal Bond, Laura Ghali, Rosemary Perry, Colleen Davison, David Casey, Helen Butler, Cynthia Webster, Bert Scholz

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Background: Whole school, ethos-changing interventions reduce risk behaviours in middle adolescence, more than curriculum-based approaches. Effects on older ages are not known. We set out to replicate one of these interventions, Australia’s Gatehouse Project, in a rural Canadian high school. Methods: A guided, whole school change process sought to make students feel more safe, connected, and valued by: changes in teaching practices, orientation processes, professional development of staff, recognition and reward mechanisms, elevating student voice, and strategies to involve greater proactivity and participation. We conducted risk behaviour surveys in grades 10 to 12 before the intervention and 2 years ...


Australian Alcohol Policy 2001-2013 And Implications For Public Health, Stephen Howard, Ross Gordon, Sandra Jones Jan 2014

Australian Alcohol Policy 2001-2013 And Implications For Public Health, Stephen Howard, Ross Gordon, Sandra Jones

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Background

Despite a complex and multi-faceted alcohol policy environment in Australia, there are few comprehensive reviews of national and state alcohol policies that assess their effectiveness and research support. In mapping the Australian alcohol policy domain and evaluating policy interventions in each of the core policy areas, this article provides a useful resource for researchers. The implications for protecting public health emanating from this mapping and evaluation of alcohol policy are also discussed.

Methods

This review considered data from: published primary research; alcohol legislation, strategies and alcohol-related press releases for all levels and jurisdictions of Australian government; international publications by ...


Gaming Well: Links Between Videogames And Flourishing Mental Health, Christian M. Jones, Laura Scholes, Daniel Johnson, Mary Katsikitis, Michelle C. Carras Jan 2014

Gaming Well: Links Between Videogames And Flourishing Mental Health, Christian M. Jones, Laura Scholes, Daniel Johnson, Mary Katsikitis, Michelle C. Carras

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

This paper is a review of the state of play of research linking videogaming and flourishing, and explores the role of videogames and technology to improve mental health and well-being. Its purpose is to develop understandings about the positive intersection of gaming and well-being, to document evidence regarding links between videogames and positive mental health, and to provide guidelines for use by other researchers as they design and use tools and games to improve mental health and well-being. Using Huppert’s (Huppert and So, 2013) proposition that to flourish is more than the absence of mental disorder but rather a ...


Comorbidities In Preschool Children At Family Risk Of Dyslexia, Debbie Gooch, Charles Hulme, Hannah M. Nash, Margaret J. Snowling Jan 2014

Comorbidities In Preschool Children At Family Risk Of Dyslexia, Debbie Gooch, Charles Hulme, Hannah M. Nash, Margaret J. Snowling

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Background: Comorbidity among developmental disorders such as dyslexia, language impairment, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder is common. This study explores comorbid weaknesses in preschool children at family risk of dyslexia with and without language impairment and considers the role that comorbidity plays in determining children's outcomes. Method: The preschool attention, executive function and motor skills of 112 children at family risk for dyslexia, 29 of whom also met criteria for language impairment, were assessed at ages 3½ and 4½ years. The performance of these children was compared to the performance of children with language impairment and ...


Modelling Survival And Mortality Risk To 15 Years Of Age For A National Cohort Of Children With Serious Congenital Heart Defects Diagnosed In Infancy, Rachel L. Knowles, Catherine Bull, Christopher Wren, Angela Wade, Harvey Goldstein, Carol Dezateux Jan 2014

Modelling Survival And Mortality Risk To 15 Years Of Age For A National Cohort Of Children With Serious Congenital Heart Defects Diagnosed In Infancy, Rachel L. Knowles, Catherine Bull, Christopher Wren, Angela Wade, Harvey Goldstein, Carol Dezateux

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Background: Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are a significant cause of death in infancy. Although contemporary management ensures that 80% of affected children reach adulthood, post-infant mortality and factors associated with death during childhood are not well-characterised. Using data from a UK-wide multicentre birth cohort of children with serious CHDs, we observed survival and investigated independent predictors of mortality up to age 15 years. Methods: Data were extracted retrospectively from hospital records and death certificates of 3,897 children (57% boys) in a prospectively identified cohort, born 1992–1995 with CHDs requiring intervention or resulting in death before age one year ...


Evaluating Bias Due To Data Linkage Error In Electronic Healthcare Records, Katie Harron, Angie Wade, Ruth Gilbert, Berit Muller-Pebody, Harvey Goldstein Jan 2014

Evaluating Bias Due To Data Linkage Error In Electronic Healthcare Records, Katie Harron, Angie Wade, Ruth Gilbert, Berit Muller-Pebody, Harvey Goldstein

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Background: Linkage of electronic healthcare records is becoming increasingly important for research purposes. However, linkage error due to mis-recorded or missing identifiers can lead to biased results. We evaluated the impact of linkage error on estimated infection rates using two different methods for classifying links: highest-weight (HW) classification using probabilistic match weights and prior-informed imputation (PII) using match probabilities. Methods: A gold-standard dataset was created through deterministic linkage of unique identifiers in admission data from two hospitals and infection data recorded at the hospital laboratories (original data). Unique identifiers were then removed and data were re-linked by date of birth ...


The Business Of Adoption: Past Practices At The Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Christin Quirk Jan 2013

The Business Of Adoption: Past Practices At The Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Christin Quirk

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

In the period 1945-1975, over 45,000 adoptions were legalised in Victoria. With the demand for adoptable babies at its peak across Australia, up to 68 per cent of ex-nuptial births resulted in adoption. It was argued that adoption guaranteed the moral and social redemption of mother and child, with adoptive parents cast as benevolent and sympathetic. Professionals who facilitated adoption perpetuated the stigma attached to single motherhood by encouraging silence, secrecy and relinquishment. Drawing on economic and business concepts to emphasise the incentive-driven, transactional nature of the adoption industry in this period, this paper examines past adoption practices at ...


Linkage, Evaluation And Analysis Of National Electronic Healthcare Data : Application To Providing Enhanced Blood-Stream Infection Surveillance In Paediatric Intensive Care, Katie Harron, Harvey Goldstein, Angie Wade, Berit Muller-Pebody, Harvey Goldstein, Roger Parslow, Ruth Gilbert Jan 2013

Linkage, Evaluation And Analysis Of National Electronic Healthcare Data : Application To Providing Enhanced Blood-Stream Infection Surveillance In Paediatric Intensive Care, Katie Harron, Harvey Goldstein, Angie Wade, Berit Muller-Pebody, Harvey Goldstein, Roger Parslow, Ruth Gilbert

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Purpose: National monitoring of variation in the quality of infection control in paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) requires comparisons of risk-adjusted rates. To inform the development of a national monitoring system, we evaluated the effects of risk-adjustment and outcome definition on comparisons of blood-stream infection (BSI) rates in PICU, using linkage of risk-factor data captured by national audit (PICANet) with laboratory records of BSI. Methods: Admission data for two children’s hospitals 2003–2010 were extracted from PICANet and linked using multiple identifiers with laboratory BSI records. We calculated trends of PICU-acquired BSI, defined as BSI occurring between at least ...


Language As A Resource For Improving Health: Using Swahili-Based Concepts In Responding To Infant Hiv, Jean Burke Dec 2012

Language As A Resource For Improving Health: Using Swahili-Based Concepts In Responding To Infant Hiv, Jean Burke

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

This article addresses the importance of recognising how language can structure understandings and behaviour in public health. It will be demonstrated by reference to community responses to HIV transmission to infants in Central Tanzania, using Swahili words and concepts to understand behaviour around infant feeding and improved wellbeing of children and their mothers. These examples are drawn from the findings of a qualitative study conducted in Tanzania in which data analysis was guided by the grounded theory principle of using natural language, supplemented by Swahili concepts developed and used by respondents themselves once their importance for deeper understanding was realised ...


Mediating Trust In Complementary And Alternative Medicine Treatment Decision Making, Michelle Black Jan 2012

Mediating Trust In Complementary And Alternative Medicine Treatment Decision Making, Michelle Black

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) comprises of a number of clinically and theoretically distinct therapies and practices, many becoming increasingly incorporated into the health care regimens of Australians. This paper explores the accounts of 16 regular CAM users to explore trust in CAM treatment decision-making. Self-reliant in their health information seeking and experimental i n their use of health treatment, the CAM users in this study exemplify the self-reflexive health consumer of late modernity. This paper shows that trust derives from confidence in the CAM practitioner, and also relates to culturally inscribed beliefs around pain and pleasure. Utilising the sociological ...


Exploring Spiritual Recovery Narratives Of 'Recovering Addicts' :An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, Michelle Black Jan 2011

Exploring Spiritual Recovery Narratives Of 'Recovering Addicts' :An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, Michelle Black

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Narcotics Anonymous (NA) is a global, nonprofit, community-based organisation modeled on the 12 steps of Alcoholics Anonymous. Members of NA speak of themselves as being in ‘recovery’ from alcohol and other drug addiction. Recovery is achieved through working the twelve steps of NA, which lead to a spiritual awakening. The ensuing ‘spiritual recovery narrative’ is inextricably linked to achieving self-transformation from working through the twelve steps, and is linked to intrapsychic processes derived from the installation of hope for a better life. The testimonials of three experienced NA members were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) to examine the production ...


Swahili-Based Concepts: Explaining How Social Ties Manage Hiv And Infant Feeding, Jean Burke Jan 2011

Swahili-Based Concepts: Explaining How Social Ties Manage Hiv And Infant Feeding, Jean Burke

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

In Tanzania where HIV transmission is high, decisions to avoid or modify breastfeeding are crucial for infant survival yet difficult due to competing risks. A study in Central Tanzania explored the role of social dynamics in infant feeding decisions to prevent HIV. Qualitative data was collected from in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with people living with HIV and community members, including village leaders, traditional healers and midwives within the Dodoma region. Data was analysed using grounded theory and natural Swahili language.

Emerging themes were based on Swahili categorisations. In the context of HIV, infant feeding is a moral issue ...