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Sport And Physical Activity For Youth With Intellectual Disability: An Analysis Of Determinants And Outcomes, Nathanial J. Kapsal Jun 2019

Sport And Physical Activity For Youth With Intellectual Disability: An Analysis Of Determinants And Outcomes, Nathanial J. Kapsal

Theses

Introduction: Extensive research has supported the physical and psychosocial health benefits of physical activity among typically developing youth. These benefits include higher quality of life, lower risk of disease, higher levels of psychological and emotional well-being, greater school engagement, greater motor skills, more frequent prosocial behaviours, and enhanced self-concept. Compared to their typically developing peers, youth with intellectual disability participate less frequently in physical activity, tend to be less fit, have poorer motor control, and worse mental health. Many studies examining sport and physical activity for youth with disability have focused on a limited range of outcomes or interventions, have ...


A Novel Device To Assess Hip Strength: Concurrent Validity And Normative Values In Male Athletes [Accepted Manuscript], Michael O'Brien, Matthew N. Bourne, Joshua Heerey, Ryan Gregory Timmins, Tania Pizzari Jan 2019

A Novel Device To Assess Hip Strength: Concurrent Validity And Normative Values In Male Athletes [Accepted Manuscript], Michael O'Brien, Matthew N. Bourne, Joshua Heerey, Ryan Gregory Timmins, Tania Pizzari

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives

To assess concurrent validity of the new, novel externally-fixed dynamometer (GroinBar) with hand-held dynamometry (HHD); to provide normative GroinBar scores for elite Australian rules football (AFL) and football (Soccer) players; and to evaluate preliminary predictive validity of the GroinBar and HHD in this population by comparing strength results with patient-reported outcome scores.

Design

Cross-sectional and reliability study

Participants

Total of 67 athletes, 36 AFL players and 31 football (Soccer) players

Setting

Elite AFL and football (Soccer) teams

Main Outcome Measures The GroinBar system, HHD, The Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS) Questionnaire.

Results

Moderate to good correlations were ...


Energy Availability In Athletics: Health, Performance, And Physique, Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam S. Tenforde, Margo Mountjoy Jan 2019

Energy Availability In Athletics: Health, Performance, And Physique, Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam S. Tenforde, Margo Mountjoy

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The reported prevalence of low energy availability (LEA) in female and male track and field athletes is between 18% and 58% with the highest prevalence among athletes in endurance and jump events. In male athletes, LEA may result in reduced testosterone levels and libido along with impaired training capacity. In female track and field athletes, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea as consequence of LEA has been reported among 60% of elite middle- and long-distance athletes and 23% among elite sprinters. Health concerns with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea include impaired bone health, elevated risk for bone stress injury, and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, LEA negatively ...


Special Environments: Altitude And Heat, Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Robert F. Chapman, Julien D. Périard Jan 2019

Special Environments: Altitude And Heat, Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Robert F. Chapman, Julien D. Périard

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

High-level athletes are always looking at ways to maximize training adaptations for competition performance, and using altered environmental conditions to achieve this outcome has become increasingly popular by elite athletes. Furthermore, a series of potential nutrition and hydration interventions may also optimize the adaptation to altered environments. Altitude training was first used to prepare for competition at altitude, and it still is today; however, more often now, elite athletes embark on a series of altitude training camps to try to improve sea-level performance. Similarly, the use of heat acclimation/acclimatization to optimize performance in hot/humid environmental conditions is a ...


Controlled Ecological Evaluation Of An Implemented Exercise-Training Programme To Prevent Lower Limb Injuries In Sport: Population-Level Trends In Hospital-Treated Injuries, Caroline F. Finch, Shannon E. Gray, Muhammad Akram, Alex Donaldson, David G. Lloyd, Jill L. Cook Jan 2019

Controlled Ecological Evaluation Of An Implemented Exercise-Training Programme To Prevent Lower Limb Injuries In Sport: Population-Level Trends In Hospital-Treated Injuries, Caroline F. Finch, Shannon E. Gray, Muhammad Akram, Alex Donaldson, David G. Lloyd, Jill L. Cook

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective: Exercise-training programmes have reduced lower limb injuries in trials, but their population-level effectiveness has not been reported in implementation trials. This study aimed to demonstrate that routinely collected hospital data can be used to evaluate population-level programme effectiveness. Method: A controlled ecological design was used to evaluate the effect of FootyFirst, an exercise-training programme, on the number of hospital-treated lower limb injuries sustained by males aged 16–50 years while participating in community-level Australian Football. FootyFirst was implemented with ‘support’ (FootyFirst+S) or ‘without support’ (FootyFirst+NS) in different geographic regions of Victoria, Australia: 22 clubs in region 1 ...


Sports Foods And Dietary Supplements For Optimal Function And Performance Enhancement In Track And Field Athletes, Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier De Hon, Louise M. Burke Jan 2019

Sports Foods And Dietary Supplements For Optimal Function And Performance Enhancement In Track And Field Athletes, Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier De Hon, Louise M. Burke

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Numerous nutritional products are marketed with claims of optimizing athlete health and function and/or enhancing performance. Products that fall under the banner of “Sports Foods” or “Dietary Supplements,” may be used to support performance during training and competition or for enhancing aspects of training adaptation, recovery, immune function, and/or overall athlete health. Effective marketing campaigns and athlete endorsements may convince us that certain sports foods and supplements are fundamental in allowing athletes to reach their sporting goals. However, this approach is naive in understanding the true foundations of athlete success, such as the inherent genetic predisposition for athletic ...


Ingesting A Bitter Solution: The Sweet Touch To Increasing Short-Term Cycling Performance [Accepted Manuscript], Naroa Etxebarria, Megan L. Ross, Brad Clark, Louise M. Burke Jan 2019

Ingesting A Bitter Solution: The Sweet Touch To Increasing Short-Term Cycling Performance [Accepted Manuscript], Naroa Etxebarria, Megan L. Ross, Brad Clark, Louise M. Burke

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Purpose: The authors investigated the potential benefit of ingesting 2 mM of quinine (bitter tastant) on a 3000-m cycling time-trial (TT) performance. Methods: Nine well-trained male cyclists (maximal aerobic power: 386 [38] W) performed a maximal incremental cycling ergometer test, three 3000-m familiarization TTs, and four 3000-m intervention TTs (∼4 min) on consecutive days. The 4 interventions were (1) 25 mL of placebo, (2) a 25-mL sweet solution, and (3) and (4) repeat 25 mL of 2-mM quinine solutions (Bitter1 and Bitter2), 30 s before each trial. Participants self-selected their gears and were only aware of distance covered. Results: Overall ...


Effect Of Concentric And Eccentric Hamstring Training On Sprint Recovery, Strength And Muscle Architecture In Inexperienced Athletes [Accepted Manuscript], Steven J. Duhig, Matthew N. Bourne, Robert L. Buhmann, Morgan Williams, Geoffrey M. Minett, Llion A. Roberts, Ryan Gregory Timmins, Casey Sims, Anthony J. Shield Jan 2019

Effect Of Concentric And Eccentric Hamstring Training On Sprint Recovery, Strength And Muscle Architecture In Inexperienced Athletes [Accepted Manuscript], Steven J. Duhig, Matthew N. Bourne, Robert L. Buhmann, Morgan Williams, Geoffrey M. Minett, Llion A. Roberts, Ryan Gregory Timmins, Casey Sims, Anthony J. Shield

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives

To investigate whether five-weeks of concentric (CON) or eccentric (ECC) hamstring strength training have different effects on recovery from sprint running, eccentric strength and architecture of the biceps femoris long head (BFLH).

Design

Cohort study.

Methods

Thirty males (age, 22.8 ± 4.1 y; height, 180.1 ± 6.4 cm; weight, 85.2 ± 14.6 kg) were allocated into either a CON or ECC group, both performing nine sessions of resistance training. Prior to and immediately after the five-week intervention, each participant’s BFLH fascicle length (FL), pennation angle (PA), muscle thickness (MT), peak isometric KF torque ...


Contemporary Nutrition Interventions To Optimize Performance In Middle-Distance Runners, Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim, Jamie Whitfield Jan 2019

Contemporary Nutrition Interventions To Optimize Performance In Middle-Distance Runners, Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim, Jamie Whitfield

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Middle-distance runners utilize the full continuum of energy systems throughout training, and given the infinite competition tactical scenarios, this event group is highly complex from a performance intervention point of view. However, this complexity results in numerous potential periodized nutrition interventions to optimize middle-distance training adaptation and competition performance. Middle-distance race intensity is extreme, with 800- to 5,000-m races being at ∼95% to 130% of VO2max. Accordingly, elite middle-distance runners have primarily Type IIa/IIx fiber morphology and rely almost exclusively on carbohydrate (primarily muscle glycogen) metabolic pathways for producing adenosine triphosphate. Consequently, the principle nutritional interventions that should ...


The Potential To Change Pacing And Performance During 4000-M Cycling Time Trials Using Hyperoxia And Inspired Gas-Content Deception [Accepted Manuscript], Michael J. Davies, Bradley Clark, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, Christopher J. Gore, Kevin G. Thompson Jan 2019

The Potential To Change Pacing And Performance During 4000-M Cycling Time Trials Using Hyperoxia And Inspired Gas-Content Deception [Accepted Manuscript], Michael J. Davies, Bradley Clark, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, Christopher J. Gore, Kevin G. Thompson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Purpose: To determine if a series of trials with fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) content deception could improve 4000-m cycling time-trial (TT) performance. Methods: A total of 15 trained male cyclists (mean [SD] body mass 74.2 [8.0] kg, peak oxygen uptake 62 [6] mL·kg−1·min−1) completed six 4000-m cycling TTs in a semirandomized order. After a familiarization TT, cyclists were informed in 2 initial trials they were inspiring normoxic air (NORM, FiO2 0.21); however, in 1 trial (deception condition), they inspired hyperoxic air (NORM-DEC, FiO2 0.36). During 2 subsequent TTs, cyclists were informed ...


Modelling Of Intrinsic And Extrinsic Injury Risk Factors In Elite Tennis, Danielle Gescheit Sep 2018

Modelling Of Intrinsic And Extrinsic Injury Risk Factors In Elite Tennis, Danielle Gescheit

Theses

Elite tennis places high physical, physiological and psychological stresses on its players which can amplify injury risk and limit player development and performance (1, 2). Therefore, understanding what and why injuries occur in both elite junior and professional tennis is critical in mitigating the risk. Unfortunately, current research on elite tennis injury is sparse. What is available is limited by methodological design and conflicting findings. Consequently, this thesis aimed to address these gaps through a more complete examination of the injury epidemiology and aetiology of elite tennis injuries throughout the entire player pathway. Specifically, Study 1 examined the epidemiology and ...


Tackling Ability In Rugby League Players: A Strength And Conditioning Perspective, Michael Speranza Jul 2018

Tackling Ability In Rugby League Players: A Strength And Conditioning Perspective, Michael Speranza

Theses

Rugby league is a collision sport that is intermittent in nature, characterised by bouts of high intensity running, collisions and tackling, separated by periods of lower intensity activity. Success in the sport requires a multifaceted skillset with players requiring good ball handling ability, quick and accurate decision making, and the ability to perform effective tackles.

A large part of success in a collision sport such as rugby league is based on player’s ability to execute proficient and effective tackles, the ability to dominate the tackle contest, and the capacity to tolerate physical impacts. While the tackle contest is a ...


High Dietary Fat Intake Increases Fat Oxidation And Reduces Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Respiration In Trained Humans [Accepted Manuscript], Jill J. Leckey, Nolan J. Hoffman, Evelyn B. Parr, Brooke L. Devlin, Adam J. Trewin, Nigel K. Stepto, James P. Morton, Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley Jun 2018

High Dietary Fat Intake Increases Fat Oxidation And Reduces Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Respiration In Trained Humans [Accepted Manuscript], Jill J. Leckey, Nolan J. Hoffman, Evelyn B. Parr, Brooke L. Devlin, Adam J. Trewin, Nigel K. Stepto, James P. Morton, Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

High-fat, low-carbohydrate (CHO) diets increase whole-body rates of fat oxidation and down-regulate CHO metabolism. We measured substrate utilization and skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration to determine whether these adaptations are driven by high fat or low CHO availability. In a randomized crossover design, 8male cyclists consumed5dof a high-CHO diet [>70%energy intake (EI)], followed by 5dof either an isoenergetic high-fat (HFAT; >65% EI) or high-protein diet (HPRO; >65% EI) with CHO intake clamped at


Hamstring Strain Injury: Objective Assessment Tools And Exercise-Specific Progression Criteria During Pain-Threshold Rehabilitation, Jack Thomas Hickey Mar 2018

Hamstring Strain Injury: Objective Assessment Tools And Exercise-Specific Progression Criteria During Pain-Threshold Rehabilitation, Jack Thomas Hickey

Theses

Hamstring strain injury (HSI) is a persistent cause of time lost in sports that involve high speed running. Clinicians working with sports injuries are therefore often faced with the task of HSI rehabilitation, with the simultaneous aims of minimising time to return to play (RTP) and risk of re-injury. Following rehabilitation and RTP clearance, previously injured hamstrings display elevated risk of re-injury likely, in part, due to persistent deficits in eccentric knee flexor strength and biceps femoris long head (BFlh) fascicle length. Elevated re-injury risk and persistent deficits in hamstring muscle structure and function suggest inadequacies in current rehabilitation practices ...


Demands Of The Kettlebell Snatch, James Alexander Ross Jan 2018

Demands Of The Kettlebell Snatch, James Alexander Ross

Theses

Kettlebell exercise has grown in popularity in the last decade. One of the exercises commonly performed is the kettlebell snatch, which is a key exercise within kettlebell sport. The kettlebell snatch involves swinging the kettlebell from between the legs to overhead in a continuous motion and is generally performed for multiple repetitions. In kettlebell sport the snatch is performed for up to ten minutes with only one hand change. A judge determines if the repetitions are performed correctly and allocates a point accordingly. Little research on the kettlebell snatch currently exists. When this thesis was started there was a single ...


The Combined Effect Of Training And Match Loads On Injury Risk In Professional Australian Footballers, Nicholas B. Murray Jan 2018

The Combined Effect Of Training And Match Loads On Injury Risk In Professional Australian Footballers, Nicholas B. Murray

Theses

Australian football is a dynamic team sport, which requires players to perform a large number of high-intensity efforts, combined with low-intensity activities throughout a match. Due to the complex and unique demands of the sport, players require an adequate training stimulus to develop and enhance the physical qualities required to succeed at the highest level. The ability to develop physically challenging but appropriate training at an individual level to 1) enhance the technical and physical qualities required, and 2) minimise the negative response to training (i.e. injury, illness, etc.) is a crucial task for practitioners involved in the preparation ...


An Evidence-Based Framework For Strengthening Exercises To Prevent Hamstring Injury [Accepted Manuscript], Matthew N. Bourne, Ryan Gregory Timmins, David Opar, Tania Pizzari, Joshua D. Ruddy, Casey Sims, Morgan D. Williams, Anthony J. Shield Jan 2018

An Evidence-Based Framework For Strengthening Exercises To Prevent Hamstring Injury [Accepted Manuscript], Matthew N. Bourne, Ryan Gregory Timmins, David Opar, Tania Pizzari, Joshua D. Ruddy, Casey Sims, Morgan D. Williams, Anthony J. Shield

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Strength training is a valuable component of hamstring strain injury prevention programmes. However, in recent years a significant body of work has emerged to suggest that the acute responses and chronic adaptations to training with different exercises are heterogeneous. Unfortunately, these research findings do not appear to have uniformly influenced clinical guidelines for exercise selection in hamstring injury prevention or rehabilitation programmes. The purpose of this review is to provide the practitioner with an evidence-base from which to prescribe strengthening exercises to mitigate the risk of hamstring injury. Several studies have established that eccentric knee flexor conditioning reduces the risk ...


Sending The Signal: Muscle Glycogen Availability As A Regulator Of Training Adaptation, John A. Hawley Jan 2018

Sending The Signal: Muscle Glycogen Availability As A Regulator Of Training Adaptation, John A. Hawley

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Exercise training-induced adaptations in human skeletal muscle are largely determined by the mode, volume, intensity and frequency of the training stimulus. However, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that the availability of endogenous and exogenous macronutrients can modify multiple intramuscular responses to both endurance- and resistance-based exercise. Acutely manipulating substrate availability (by altering diet composition and/or timing of meals) rapidly alters the concentration of blood-borne substrates and hormones that modulate several receptor-mediated signaling pathways. The release of cytokines and growth factors from contracting skeletal muscle also stimulates cell surface receptors and activates many intracellular signaling cascades. These local and ...


Training Quantification And Periodization During Live High Train High At 2100 M In Elite Runners: An Observational Cohort Case Study, Avish P. Sharma, Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Julien E. Périard, Brad Clark, Christopher J. Gore, Benjamin P. Raysmith, Jamie Stanley, Eileen Y. Robertson, Kevin G. Thompson Jan 2018

Training Quantification And Periodization During Live High Train High At 2100 M In Elite Runners: An Observational Cohort Case Study, Avish P. Sharma, Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Julien E. Périard, Brad Clark, Christopher J. Gore, Benjamin P. Raysmith, Jamie Stanley, Eileen Y. Robertson, Kevin G. Thompson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The questionable efficacy of Live High Train High altitude training (LHTH) is compounded by minimal training quantification in many studies. We sought to quantify the training load (TL) periodization in a cohort of elite runners completing LHTH immediately prior to competition. Eight elite runners (6 males, 2 females) with a V̇O2peak of 70 ± 4 mL·kg-1·min-1 were monitored during 4 weeks of sea-level training, then 3-4 weeks LHTH in preparation for sea-level races following descent to sea-level. TL was calculated using the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) method, whereby duration of each training session was multiplied by ...


The Fit Matters: Influence Of Accelerometer Fitting And Training Drill Demands On Load Measures In Rugby League Players [Accepted Manuscript], Blake D. Mclean, Cloe Cummins, Greta Conlan, Grant Duthie, Aaron J. Coutts Jan 2018

The Fit Matters: Influence Of Accelerometer Fitting And Training Drill Demands On Load Measures In Rugby League Players [Accepted Manuscript], Blake D. Mclean, Cloe Cummins, Greta Conlan, Grant Duthie, Aaron J. Coutts

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Purpose: To determine the relationship between drill type and accelerometer-derived loads during various team-sport activities and examine the influence of unit fitting on these loads. Methods: Sixteen rugby league players were fitted with microtechnology devices in either manufacturer vests or playing jerseys before completing standardized running, agility, and tackling drills. Two-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) accelerometer loads (BodyLoad™) per kilometer were compared across drills and fittings (ie, vest and jersey). Results: When fitted in a vest, 2D BodyLoad was higher during tackling (21.5 [14.8] AU/km) than during running (9.5 [2.5] AU/km) and agility (10 ...


Validation Of A Blood Marker For Plasma Volume In Endurance Athletes During A Live-High Train-Low Altitude Training Camp [Accepted Manuscript], Louisa M. Lobigs, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Victor L. Vuong, Nicolin Tee, Christopher J. Gore, Peter Peeling, Brian Dawson, Yorck O. Schumacher Jan 2018

Validation Of A Blood Marker For Plasma Volume In Endurance Athletes During A Live-High Train-Low Altitude Training Camp [Accepted Manuscript], Louisa M. Lobigs, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Victor L. Vuong, Nicolin Tee, Christopher J. Gore, Peter Peeling, Brian Dawson, Yorck O. Schumacher

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Altitude is a confounding factor within the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) due, in part, to the plasma volume (PV) response to hypoxia. Here, a newly developed PV blood test is applied to assess the possible efficacy of reducing the influence of PV on the volumetric ABP markers; haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) and the OFF‐score. Endurance athletes (n=34) completed a 21‐night simulated live‐high train‐low (LHTL) protocol (14 h.d‐1 at 3000 m). Bloods were collected twice pre‐altitude; at days 3, 8, and 15 at altitude; and 1, 7, 21, and 42 days post‐altitude. A ...


Measurement Of Upper Limb Range Of Motion Using Wearable Sensors: A Systematic Review, Corrin P. Walmsley, Sian A. Williams, Tiffany Grisbrook, Catherine Elliott, Christine Imms, Amity Campbell Jan 2018

Measurement Of Upper Limb Range Of Motion Using Wearable Sensors: A Systematic Review, Corrin P. Walmsley, Sian A. Williams, Tiffany Grisbrook, Catherine Elliott, Christine Imms, Amity Campbell

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Wearable sensors are portable measurement tools that are becoming increasingly popular for the measurement of joint angle in the upper limb. With many brands emerging on the market, each with variations in hardware and protocols, evidence to inform selection and application is needed. Therefore, the objectives of this review were related to the use of wearable sensors to calculate upper limb joint angle. We aimed to describe (i) the characteristics of commercial and custom wearable sensors, (ii) the populations for whom researchers have adopted wearable sensors, and (iii) their established psychometric properties. Methods: A systematic review of literature was ...


The Influence Of Physical Qualities On Activity Profiles Of Female Australian Football Match Play [Accepted Manuscript], Georgia M. Black, Tim J. Gabbett, Richard D. Johnston, Michael H. Cole, Geraldine Naughton, Brian Dawson Jan 2018

The Influence Of Physical Qualities On Activity Profiles Of Female Australian Football Match Play [Accepted Manuscript], Georgia M. Black, Tim J. Gabbett, Richard D. Johnston, Michael H. Cole, Geraldine Naughton, Brian Dawson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Purpose: The transition of female Australian football (AF) players from amateur to semielite competitions has the potential for athletes to be underprepared for match play. To gain an understanding of the match demands of female football, the aims of this study were to highlight the physical qualities that discriminate selected and nonselected female AF players, investigate activity profiles of female AF players, and gain an understanding of the influence of physical qualities on performance in female AF Methods: Twenty-two female AF state academy players (mean [SD]: age = 23.2 [4.5] y) and 27 nonselected players (mean [SD]: age = 23 ...


Non-Knee-Spanning Muscles Contribute To Tibiofemoral Shear As Well As Valgus And Rotational Joint Reaction Moments During Unanticipated Sidestep Cutting, Nirav Maniar, Anthony G. Schache, Prasanna Sritharan, David Opar Jan 2018

Non-Knee-Spanning Muscles Contribute To Tibiofemoral Shear As Well As Valgus And Rotational Joint Reaction Moments During Unanticipated Sidestep Cutting, Nirav Maniar, Anthony G. Schache, Prasanna Sritharan, David Opar

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are a burdensome condition due to potential surgical requirements and increased risk of long term debilitation. Previous studies indicate that muscle forces play an important role in the development of ligamentous loading, yet these studies have typically used cadaveric models considering only the knee-spanning quadriceps, hamstrings and gastrocnemius muscle groups. Using a musculoskeletal modelling approach, we investigated how lower-limb muscles produce and oppose key tibiofemoral reaction forces and moments during the weight acceptance phase of unanticipated sidestep cutting. Muscles capable of opposing (or controlling the magnitude of) the anterior shear force and the external valgus ...


Relationship Between Baseline Physical Activity Assessed By Pedometer Count And New-Onset Diabetes In The Navigator Trial, William E. Kraus, Thomas Yates, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Jie-Lena Sun, Laine Thomas, John Mcmurray, M. A. Bethel, Rury R. Holman Jan 2018

Relationship Between Baseline Physical Activity Assessed By Pedometer Count And New-Onset Diabetes In The Navigator Trial, William E. Kraus, Thomas Yates, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Jie-Lena Sun, Laine Thomas, John Mcmurray, M. A. Bethel, Rury R. Holman

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective
Physical activity is related to clinical outcomes, even after adjusting for body mass, but is rarely assessed in randomized clinical trials.
Research design and methods
We conducted an observational analysis of data from the Nateglinide and Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research trial, in which a total of 9306 people from 40 countries with impaired glucose tolerance and either cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors were randomized to receive nateglinide or placebo, in a 2-by-2 factorial design with valsartan or placebo. All were asked to also participate in a detailed lifestyle modification programme and followed-up for a median ...


Repeated-Sprint Performance And Plasma Responses Following Beetroot Juice Supplementation Do Not Differ Between Recreational, Competitive And Elite Sprint Athletes, Kristin L. Jonvik, Jean Nyakayiru, Jan Willem Van Dijk, K. Maase, S. B. Ballak, Joan M. Senden, Luc Van Loon, Lex B. Verdijk Jan 2018

Repeated-Sprint Performance And Plasma Responses Following Beetroot Juice Supplementation Do Not Differ Between Recreational, Competitive And Elite Sprint Athletes, Kristin L. Jonvik, Jean Nyakayiru, Jan Willem Van Dijk, K. Maase, S. B. Ballak, Joan M. Senden, Luc Van Loon, Lex B. Verdijk

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Purpose:
There is an ongoing debate whether highly trained athletes are less responsive to the ergogenic properties of nitrate. We assessed the effects of nitrate supplementation on plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and repeated-sprint performance in recreational, competitive and elite sprint athletes.
Methods:
In a randomized double-blinded cross-over design, recreational cyclists (n = 20), national talent speed-skaters (n = 22) and Olympic-level track cyclists (n = 10) underwent two 6-day supplementation periods; 140 mL/d nitrate-rich (BR; ∼800 mg/d) and nitrate-depleted (PLA; ∼0.5 mg/d) beetroot juice. Blood samples were collected and three 30-s Wingate tests were performed.
Results:
Plasma nitrate ...


A Systematic Review Of The Technology-Based Assessment Of Visual Perception And Exploration Behaviour In Association Football [Accepted Manuscript], Thomas Baxter Mcguckian, Michael Cole, Gert-Jan Pepping Jan 2018

A Systematic Review Of The Technology-Based Assessment Of Visual Perception And Exploration Behaviour In Association Football [Accepted Manuscript], Thomas Baxter Mcguckian, Michael Cole, Gert-Jan Pepping

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

To visually perceive opportunities for action, athletes rely on the movements of their eyes, head and body to explore their surrounding environment. To date, the specific types of technology and their efficacy for assessing the exploration behaviours of association footballers have not been systematically reviewed. This review aimed to synthesise the visual perception and exploration behaviours of footballers according to the task constraints, action requirements of the experimental task, and level of expertise of the athlete, in the context of the technology used to quantify the visual perception and exploration behaviours of footballers. A systematic search for papers that included ...


The Effects Of Intensified Training On Resting Metabolic Rate (Rmr), Body Composition And Performance In Trained Cyclists, Amy L. Woods, Anthony J. Rice, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Alice M. Wallett, Bronwen Lundy, Margot A. Rogers, Marijke Welvaert, Shona Halson, Andrew Mckune, Kevin G. Thompson Jan 2018

The Effects Of Intensified Training On Resting Metabolic Rate (Rmr), Body Composition And Performance In Trained Cyclists, Amy L. Woods, Anthony J. Rice, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Alice M. Wallett, Bronwen Lundy, Margot A. Rogers, Marijke Welvaert, Shona Halson, Andrew Mckune, Kevin G. Thompson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Recent research has demonstrated decreases in resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance following a period of intensified training in elite athletes, however the underlying mechanisms of change remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate how an intensified training period, designed to elicit overreaching, affects RMR, body composition, and performance in trained endurance athletes, and to elucidate underlying mechanisms. Method: Thirteen (n = 13) trained male cyclists completed a six-week training program consisting of a “Baseline” week (100% of regular training load), a “Build” week (~120% of Baseline load), two “Loading” weeks (~140, 150 ...


Self-Reported Periodization Of Nutrition In Elite Female And Male Runners And Race Walkers, Ida Heikura, Trent Stellingwerff, Louise Burke Jan 2018

Self-Reported Periodization Of Nutrition In Elite Female And Male Runners And Race Walkers, Ida Heikura, Trent Stellingwerff, Louise Burke

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Athletes should achieve event-specific physiological requirements through careful periodization of training, underpinned by individualized and targeted nutrition strategies. However, evidence of whether, and how, elite endurance athletes periodize nutrition is scarce. Accordingly, elite international female (n = 67) and male (n = 37) middle/long-distance athletes (IAAF score: 1129 ± 54, corresponds to 13:22.49 [males] and 15:17.93 [females] in the 5000 m) completed an online survey (February–May 2018) examining self-reported practices of dietary periodization for micro (within/between-days), meso (weeks/months) and macro (across the year) contexts. Data are shown as the percentage of all athletes practicing a ...


Perceived Weight-Related Victimization And Physical Activity Outcomes Among Adolescents With Overweight And Obesity: Indirect Role Of Perceived Physical Abilities And Fear Of Enacted Stigma [Accepted Manuscript], Christophe Maiano, Genevieve Lepage, Annie Aimé, Aspq Team, Alexandre J. S. Morin Jan 2018

Perceived Weight-Related Victimization And Physical Activity Outcomes Among Adolescents With Overweight And Obesity: Indirect Role Of Perceived Physical Abilities And Fear Of Enacted Stigma [Accepted Manuscript], Christophe Maiano, Genevieve Lepage, Annie Aimé, Aspq Team, Alexandre J. S. Morin

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives Recently, victimization has been shown to be negatively related to physical activity among adolescents with overweight or obesity. However, research on this relation remains scarce and plagued by multiple limitations. The objectives of this study were twofold. First, we wanted to replicate and extend previous research among adolescents with overweight and obesity by examining the relations between perceived weight-related victimization in school-based physical activity and students’ perceived physical education performance or involvement in physical activity outside school. Second, we wanted to investigate the indirect role of perceived physical abilities and fear of enacted stigma on these relations. Design A ...