Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Medicine and Health Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 27 of 27

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Dog-Walking In Dense Compact Areas: The Role Of Neighbourhood Built Environment, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Tomoki Nakaya, Gavin R. Mccormack, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Akitomo Yasunaga, Yung Liao, Koichiro Oka Jan 2020

Dog-Walking In Dense Compact Areas: The Role Of Neighbourhood Built Environment, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Tomoki Nakaya, Gavin R. Mccormack, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Akitomo Yasunaga, Yung Liao, Koichiro Oka

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

There is a dearth of evidence about how high-density living may influence dog-walking behaviour. We examined associations between neighbourhood built environment attributes and dog-ownership and dog-walking behaviour in Japan. Data from 1058 participants were used. The dog-ownership was 18.8%. All neighbourhood built attributes (excluding availability of parks) were negatively associated with dog-ownership. Among dog-owners, these same attributes were positively associated with any dog-walking in a usual week and with achieving 150-min per week of physical activity through dog-walking alone. These findings provided evidence on the importance of neighbourhood built environment attributes on dog-ownership and dog-walking behaviour in dense and ...


Challenges Associated With The Civilian Reintegration Of Soldiers With Chronic Ptsd: A New Approach Integrating Psychological Resources And Values In Action Reappropriation, Célia Belrose, Anais M. Duffaud, Frédéric Dutheil, Julie Trichereau, Marion Trousselard Jan 2019

Challenges Associated With The Civilian Reintegration Of Soldiers With Chronic Ptsd: A New Approach Integrating Psychological Resources And Values In Action Reappropriation, Célia Belrose, Anais M. Duffaud, Frédéric Dutheil, Julie Trichereau, Marion Trousselard

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

In light of the psychological changes in an individual suffering from chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), questions are being raised in order to understand and facilitate recovery and a return to work. This is particularly challenging for soldiers suffering from chronic PTSD, who are often young individuals suffering from moral conflicts. A French military rehabilitation program proposes the broadening of the relationships between recovery and reintegration by incorporating approaches from the field of positive psychology for soldiers with chronic PTSD. The aim of the study was to evaluate (i) the psychological resources which remain sustainable for these trauma exposed soldiers ...


Neighbourhood Disadvantage, Geographic Remoteness And Body Mass Index Among Immigrants To Australia: A National Cohort Study 2006-2014, Karen Menigoz, Andrea Nathan, Kristiann C. Heesch, Gavin Turrell Jan 2018

Neighbourhood Disadvantage, Geographic Remoteness And Body Mass Index Among Immigrants To Australia: A National Cohort Study 2006-2014, Karen Menigoz, Andrea Nathan, Kristiann C. Heesch, Gavin Turrell

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Obesity is socioeconomically, geographically and ethnically patterned. Understanding these elements of disadvantage is vital in understanding population obesity trends and the development of effective and equitable interventions. This study examined the relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage and geographic remoteness with prospective trends in mean body mass index (BMI) among immigrants to Australia. Longitudinal data (2006–2014) from a national panel survey of Australian adults was divided into an immigrant-only sample (n = 4,293, 52.6% women and 19,404 person-year observations). The data were analysed using multi-level random effects linear regression modelling that controlled for individual socioeconomic and demographic factors ...


Harnessing Advances In Computer Simulation To Inform Policy And Planning To Reduce Alcohol-Related Harms, Jo-An Atkinson, Dylan Knowles, John H. Wiggers, Michael Livingston, Robin Room, Ante Prodan, Geoff Mcdonnell, Eloise O'Donnell, Sandra Jones, Paul S. Haber, David Muscatello, Nadine Ezard, Nghi Phung, Louise Freebairn, Devon Indig, Lucie Rychetnik, Jaithri Ananthapavan, Sonia Wutzke Jan 2018

Harnessing Advances In Computer Simulation To Inform Policy And Planning To Reduce Alcohol-Related Harms, Jo-An Atkinson, Dylan Knowles, John H. Wiggers, Michael Livingston, Robin Room, Ante Prodan, Geoff Mcdonnell, Eloise O'Donnell, Sandra Jones, Paul S. Haber, David Muscatello, Nadine Ezard, Nghi Phung, Louise Freebairn, Devon Indig, Lucie Rychetnik, Jaithri Ananthapavan, Sonia Wutzke

Professional Staff Publications

Objectives: Alcohol misuse is a complex systemic problem. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using a transparent and participatory agent-based modelling approach to develop a robust decision support tool to test alcohol policy scenarios before they are implemented in the real world.

Methods: A consortium of Australia’s leading alcohol experts was engaged to collaboratively develop an agent-based model of alcohol consumption behaviour and related harms. As a case study, four policy scenarios were examined.

Results: A 19.5 ± 2.5% reduction in acute alcohol-related harms was estimated with the implementation of a 3 a ...


Residential Surrounding Greenness And Cognitive Decline: A 10-Year Follow-Up Of The Whitehall Ii Cohort, Carmen De Keijzer, C. Tonne, Xavier Basagaña, A. Valentín, Archana Singh-Manoux, Jordi Alonso, Josep M. Antó, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Jordi Sunyer, Payam Dadvand Jan 2018

Residential Surrounding Greenness And Cognitive Decline: A 10-Year Follow-Up Of The Whitehall Ii Cohort, Carmen De Keijzer, C. Tonne, Xavier Basagaña, A. Valentín, Archana Singh-Manoux, Jordi Alonso, Josep M. Antó, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Jordi Sunyer, Payam Dadvand

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background:
Evidence on beneficial associations of green space with cognitive function in older adults is very scarce and mainly limited to cross-sectional studies.
Objectives:
We aimed to investigate the association between long-term residential surrounding greenness and cognitive decline.
Methods:
This longitudinal study was based on three waves of data from the Whitehall II cohort, providing a 10-y follow-up (1997–1999 to 2007–2009) of 6,506 participants (45–68 y old) from the United Kingdom. Residential surrounding greenness was obtained across buffers of 500 and 1,000m around the participants’ residential addresses at each follow-up using satellite images on greenness ...


The Urban Exposome During Pregnancy And Its Socioeconomic Determinants, Oliver Robinson, Ibon Tamayo, Montserrat De Castro, A. Valentín, Lise Giorgis-Allemand, Norun Hjertager Krog, Gunn Marit Aasvang, Albert Ambros, Ferran Ballester, Pippa Bird, Leda Chatzi, Marta Cirach, Audrius Dėdelė, David Donaire Gonzalez, Regina Gražuleviciene, Minas Iakovidis, Jesus Ibarluzea, Mariza Kampouri, Johanna Lepeule, Léa Maitre, R. R. C. Mceachan, Bente Oftedal, Valerie Siroux, Rémy Slama, Euripides Stephanou, Jordi Sunyer, Jose Urquiza, Kjell Vegard Weyde, John Wright, Martine Vrijheid, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Xavier Basagaña Jan 2018

The Urban Exposome During Pregnancy And Its Socioeconomic Determinants, Oliver Robinson, Ibon Tamayo, Montserrat De Castro, A. Valentín, Lise Giorgis-Allemand, Norun Hjertager Krog, Gunn Marit Aasvang, Albert Ambros, Ferran Ballester, Pippa Bird, Leda Chatzi, Marta Cirach, Audrius Dėdelė, David Donaire Gonzalez, Regina Gražuleviciene, Minas Iakovidis, Jesus Ibarluzea, Mariza Kampouri, Johanna Lepeule, Léa Maitre, R. R. C. Mceachan, Bente Oftedal, Valerie Siroux, Rémy Slama, Euripides Stephanou, Jordi Sunyer, Jose Urquiza, Kjell Vegard Weyde, John Wright, Martine Vrijheid, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Xavier Basagaña

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background:
The urban exposome is the set of environmental factors that are experienced in the outdoor urban environment and that may influence child development.
Objective:
The authors’ goal was to describe the urban exposome among European pregnant women and understand its socioeconomic determinants.
Methods:
Using geographic information systems, remote sensing and spatio-temporal modeling we estimated exposure during pregnancy to 28 environmental indicators in almost 30,000 women from six population-based birth cohorts, in nine urban areas from across Europe. Exposures included meteorological factors, air pollutants, traffic noise, traffic indicators, natural space, the built environment, public transport, facilities, and walkability. Socioeconomic ...


Socioeconomic Inequalities In Urban And Transport Planning Related Exposures And Mortality: A Health Impact Assessment Study For Bradford, Uk, Natalie Mueller, David Rojas-Rueda, Haneen Khreis, Marta Cirach, Carles Mila, Ana Espinosa, Maria Foraster, R. R. C. Mceachan, Brian Kelly, John Wright, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen Jan 2018

Socioeconomic Inequalities In Urban And Transport Planning Related Exposures And Mortality: A Health Impact Assessment Study For Bradford, Uk, Natalie Mueller, David Rojas-Rueda, Haneen Khreis, Marta Cirach, Carles Mila, Ana Espinosa, Maria Foraster, R. R. C. Mceachan, Brian Kelly, John Wright, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background
Cities have unique geographic, environmental and sociocultural characteristics that influence the health status of their citizens. Identification and modification of these characteristics may help to promote healthier cities.
Objective
We estimated premature mortality impacts of breaching international exposure guidelines for physical activity (PA), air pollution, noise and access to green space for Bradford (UK) adult residents (n = 393,091).
Methods
We applied the Urban and TranspOrt Planning Health Impact Assessment (UTOPHIA) methodology and estimated mortality, life expectancy (LE) and economic impacts of non-compliance with recommended exposure levels. We also investigated the distribution of the mortality burden among the population ...


Exposomics: Final Policy Workshop And Stakeholder Consultation, Michelle C. Turner, Paolo Vineis, Eduardo Seleiro, Michaela Dijmarescu, David Balshaw, Roberto Bertollini, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Timothy Gant, John Gulliver, Ayoung Jeong, Soterios Kyrtopoulos, Marco Martuzzi, Gary W. Miller, Timothy Nawrot, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, David H. Phillips, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Jonathan Samet, Roel Vermeulen, Jelle Vlaanderen, Martine Vrijheid, Christopher Wild, Manolis Kogevinas Jan 2018

Exposomics: Final Policy Workshop And Stakeholder Consultation, Michelle C. Turner, Paolo Vineis, Eduardo Seleiro, Michaela Dijmarescu, David Balshaw, Roberto Bertollini, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Timothy Gant, John Gulliver, Ayoung Jeong, Soterios Kyrtopoulos, Marco Martuzzi, Gary W. Miller, Timothy Nawrot, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, David H. Phillips, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Jonathan Samet, Roel Vermeulen, Jelle Vlaanderen, Martine Vrijheid, Christopher Wild, Manolis Kogevinas

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The final meeting of the EXPOsOMICS project “Final Policy Workshop and Stakeholder Consultation” took place 28–29 March 2017 to present the main results of the project and discuss their implications both for future research and for regulatory and policy activities. This paper summarizes presentations and discussions at the meeting related with the main results and advances in exposome research achieved through the EXPOsOMICS project; on other parallel research initiatives on the study of the exposome in Europe and in the United States and their complementarity to EXPOsOMICS; lessons learned from these early studies on the exposome and how they ...


Impact Of The Social And Natural Environment On Preschool-Age Children Weight, Inga Petraviciene, Regina Grazuleviciene, Sandra Andrusaityte, Audrius Dedele, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen Jan 2018

Impact Of The Social And Natural Environment On Preschool-Age Children Weight, Inga Petraviciene, Regina Grazuleviciene, Sandra Andrusaityte, Audrius Dedele, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background:
The complex impact of environmental and social factors on preschool children being overweight/obese is unclear. We examined the associations between the levels of green space exposure and the risk of being overweight/obese for 4–6 year-old children and assessed the impact of maternal education on these associations.
Methods:
This cross-sectional study included 1489 mother-child pairs living in Kaunas, Lithuania, in 2012–2013. We assessed children overweight/obesity by standardized questionnaires using international body mass index cut-off points, and the level of greenness exposures by satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of each child’s home and by ...


The Association Between Lifelong Greenspace Exposure And 3-Dimensional Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging In Barcelona School Children, Payam Dadvand, Jesus Pujol, Dídac Macià, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Laura Blanco-Hinojo, Marion Mortamais, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Raquel Fenoll, Mikel Esnaola, Albert Dalmau-Bueno, Mónica López-Vicente, Xavier Basagaña, Michael Jerrett, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Jordi Sunyer Jan 2018

The Association Between Lifelong Greenspace Exposure And 3-Dimensional Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging In Barcelona School Children, Payam Dadvand, Jesus Pujol, Dídac Macià, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Laura Blanco-Hinojo, Marion Mortamais, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Raquel Fenoll, Mikel Esnaola, Albert Dalmau-Bueno, Mónica López-Vicente, Xavier Basagaña, Michael Jerrett, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Jordi Sunyer

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Proponents of the biophilia hypothesis believe that contact with nature, including green spaces, has a crucial role in brain development in children. Currently, however, we are not aware of evidence linking such exposure with potential effects on brain structure. Objective: We determined whether lifelong exposure to residential surrounding greenness is associated with regional differences in brain volume based on 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) among children attending primary school. Methods: We performed a series of analyses using data from a subcohort of 253 Barcelona schoolchildren from the Brain Development and Air Pollution Ultrafine Particles in School Children (BREATHE ...


The Human Right To Communicate And Our Need To Listen: Learning From People With A History Of Childhood Communication Disorder, Jane Mccormack, Elise Baker, Kathryn Crowe Jan 2018

The Human Right To Communicate And Our Need To Listen: Learning From People With A History Of Childhood Communication Disorder, Jane Mccormack, Elise Baker, Kathryn Crowe

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Purpose: In 2013, the Australian Government Senate formed a committee for inquiry and report into the prevalence of speech, language, and communication disorders and speech pathology services in Australia. Submissions were sought from individuals and organisations. In this paper, submissions made by individuals with a history of childhood communication disorder were examined to explore their life experiences and the impact on their lives when the right to communicate could not be enacted. Method: There were 305 submissions to the Australian Government Senate Committee Inquiry, of which 288 were publically accessible. In this study, the submissions (n = 17) from children or ...


Do Natural Experiments Of Changes In Neighborhood Built Environment Impact Physical Activity And Diet? A Systematic Review, Freya Macmillan, Emma S. George, Xiaoqi Feng, Dafna Merom, Andrew Bennie, Amelia Cook, Taren Sanders, Genevieve Dwyer, Bonnie Pang, Justin M. Guagliano, Gregory S. Kolt, Thomas Astell-Burt Jan 2018

Do Natural Experiments Of Changes In Neighborhood Built Environment Impact Physical Activity And Diet? A Systematic Review, Freya Macmillan, Emma S. George, Xiaoqi Feng, Dafna Merom, Andrew Bennie, Amelia Cook, Taren Sanders, Genevieve Dwyer, Bonnie Pang, Justin M. Guagliano, Gregory S. Kolt, Thomas Astell-Burt

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Physical activity and diet are major modifiable risk factors for chronic disease and have been shown to be associated with neighborhood built environment. Systematic review evidence from longitudinal studies on the impact of changing the built environment on physical activity and diet is currently lacking. A systematic review of natural experiments of neighborhood built environment was conducted. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize study characteristics, study quality, and impact of changes in neighborhood built environment on physical activity and diet outcomes among residents. Natural experiments of neighborhood built environment change, exploring longitudinal impacts on physical activity and ...


Bluehealth: A Study Programme Protocol For Mapping And Quantifying The Potential Benefits To Public Health And Well-Being From Europe's Blue Spaces, James Grellier, Mathew P. White, Maria Albin, Simon Bell, Lewis R. Elliott, Mireia Gascon, Silvio Gualdi, Laura Mancini, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Denis A. Sarigiannis, Matilda Van Den Bosch, Tanja Wolf, Susanne Wuijts, Lora E. Fleming Jan 2017

Bluehealth: A Study Programme Protocol For Mapping And Quantifying The Potential Benefits To Public Health And Well-Being From Europe's Blue Spaces, James Grellier, Mathew P. White, Maria Albin, Simon Bell, Lewis R. Elliott, Mireia Gascon, Silvio Gualdi, Laura Mancini, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Denis A. Sarigiannis, Matilda Van Den Bosch, Tanja Wolf, Susanne Wuijts, Lora E. Fleming

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Introduction
Proximity and access to water have long been central to human culture and accordingly deliver countless societal benefits. Over 200 million people live on Europe's coastline, and aquatic environments are the top recreational destination in the region. In terms of public health, interactions with ‘blue space’ (eg, coasts, rivers, lakes) are often considered solely in terms of risk (eg, drowning, microbial pollution). Exposure to blue space can, however, promote health and well-being and prevent disease, although underlying mechanisms are poorly understood.
Aims and methods
The BlueHealth project aims to understand the relationships between exposure to blue space and ...


Health Impacts Of Active Transportation In Europe, David Rojas-Rueda, Audrey De Nazelle, Zorana Jovanovic Andersen, Charlotte Braun-Fahrländer, Jan Bruha, Hana Bruhova-Foltynova, Hélène Desqueyroux, Corinne Praznoczy, Martina Ragettli, Marko Tainio, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen Jan 2016

Health Impacts Of Active Transportation In Europe, David Rojas-Rueda, Audrey De Nazelle, Zorana Jovanovic Andersen, Charlotte Braun-Fahrländer, Jan Bruha, Hana Bruhova-Foltynova, Hélène Desqueyroux, Corinne Praznoczy, Martina Ragettli, Marko Tainio, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling) have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16–64) in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter < 2.5 μm, as well as traffic fatalities in the cities of Barcelona, Basel, Copenhagen, Paris, Prague, and Warsaw. All scenarios produced health benefits in the six cities. An increase in bicycle trips to 35% of all trips (as in Copenhagen) produced the highest benefits among the different scenarios analysed in Warsaw 113 (76–163) annual deaths avoided, Prague 61 (29–104), Barcelona 37 (24–56), Paris 37 (18–64) and Basel 5 (3–9). An increase in walking trips to 50% of all trips (as in Paris) resulted in 19 (3–42) deaths avoided annually in Warsaw, 11(3–21) in Prague, 6 (4–9) in Basel, 3 (2–6) in Copenhagen and 3 (2–4) in Barcelona. The scenarios would also reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation.


Physical Activity Through Sustainable Transport Approaches (Pasta): A Study Protocol For A Multicentre Project, Regine Gerike, Audrey De Nazelle, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Luc Int Panis, Esther Anaya, Ione Avila-Palencia, Florinda Boschetti, Christian Brand, Tom Cole-Hunter, Evi Dons, Ulf Eriksson, Mailin Gaupp-Berghausen, Sonja Kahlmeier, Michelle Laeremans, Natalie Mueller, Juan Pablo Orjuela, Francesca Racioppi, Elisabeth Raser, David Rojas-Rueda, Christian Schweizer, Arnout Standaert, Tina Uhlmann, Sandra Wegener, Thomas Götschi Jan 2016

Physical Activity Through Sustainable Transport Approaches (Pasta): A Study Protocol For A Multicentre Project, Regine Gerike, Audrey De Nazelle, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Luc Int Panis, Esther Anaya, Ione Avila-Palencia, Florinda Boschetti, Christian Brand, Tom Cole-Hunter, Evi Dons, Ulf Eriksson, Mailin Gaupp-Berghausen, Sonja Kahlmeier, Michelle Laeremans, Natalie Mueller, Juan Pablo Orjuela, Francesca Racioppi, Elisabeth Raser, David Rojas-Rueda, Christian Schweizer, Arnout Standaert, Tina Uhlmann, Sandra Wegener, Thomas Götschi

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Introduction: Only one-third of the European population meets the minimum recommended levels of physical activity (PA). Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases. Walking and cycling for transport (active mobility, AM) are well suited to provide regular PA. The European research project Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA) pursues the following aims: (1) to investigate correlates and interrelations of AM, PA, air pollution and crash risk; (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of selected interventions to promote AM; (3) to improve health impact assessment (HIA) of AM; (4) to foster the exchange between the disciplines of public ...


Urban And Transport Planning, Environmental Exposures And Health-New Concepts, Methods And Tools To Improve Health In Cities, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen Jan 2016

Urban And Transport Planning, Environmental Exposures And Health-New Concepts, Methods And Tools To Improve Health In Cities, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: The majority of people live in cities and urbanization is continuing worldwide. Cities have long been known to be society’s predominant engine of innovation and wealth creation, yet they are also a main source of pollution and disease. Methods: We conducted a review around the topic urban and transport planning, environmental exposures and health and describe the findings. Results: Within cities there is considerable variation in the levels of environmental exposures such as air pollution, noise, temperature and green space. Emerging evidence suggests that urban and transport planning indicators such as road network, distance to major roads, and ...


Assessing The Human Health Impacts Of Exposure To Disinfection By-Products - A Critical Review Of Concepts And Methods, James Grellier, Lesley Rushton, David J. Briggs, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen Jan 2015

Assessing The Human Health Impacts Of Exposure To Disinfection By-Products - A Critical Review Of Concepts And Methods, James Grellier, Lesley Rushton, David J. Briggs, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Understanding the public health implications of chemical contamination of drinking water is important for societies and their decision-makers. The possible population health impacts associated with exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) are of particular interest due to their potential carcinogenicity and their widespread occurrence as a result of treatments employed to control waterborne infectious disease.
We searched the literature for studies that have attempted quantitatively to assess population health impacts and health risks associated with exposure to DBPs in drinking water. We summarised and evaluated these assessments in terms of their objectives, methods, treatment of uncertainties, and interpretation and communication of ...


Physical Activity Through Sustainable Transport Approaches (Pasta): Protocol For A Multi-Centre, Longitudinal Study, Evi Dons, Thomas Götschi, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Audrey De Nazelle, Esther Anaya, Ione Avila-Palencia, Christian Brand, Tom Cole-Hunter, Mailin Gaupp-Berghausen, Sonja Kahlmeier, Michelle Laeremans, Natalie Mueller, Juan Pablo Orjuela, Elisabeth Raser, David Rojas-Rueda, Arnout Standaert, Erik Stigell, Tina Uhlmann, Regine Gerike, Luc Int Panis Jan 2015

Physical Activity Through Sustainable Transport Approaches (Pasta): Protocol For A Multi-Centre, Longitudinal Study, Evi Dons, Thomas Götschi, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Audrey De Nazelle, Esther Anaya, Ione Avila-Palencia, Christian Brand, Tom Cole-Hunter, Mailin Gaupp-Berghausen, Sonja Kahlmeier, Michelle Laeremans, Natalie Mueller, Juan Pablo Orjuela, Elisabeth Raser, David Rojas-Rueda, Arnout Standaert, Erik Stigell, Tina Uhlmann, Regine Gerike, Luc Int Panis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Physical inactivity is one of the leading risk factors for non-communicable diseases, yet many are not sufficiently active. The Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA) study aims to better understand active mobility (walking and cycling for transport solely or in combination with public transport) as an innovative approach to integrate physical activity into individuals’ everyday lives. The PASTA study will collect data of multiple cities in a longitudinal cohort design to study correlates of active mobility, its effect on overall physical activity, crash risk and exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Methods/Design: A set of online questionnaires incorporating ...


Green Spaces And Cognitive Development In Primary Schoolchildren, Payam Dadvand, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Mikel Esnaola, Joan Forns, Xavier Basagaña, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Ioar Rivas, Monica López-Vicente, Montserrat Castro De Pascual, Jason Su, Michael Jerrett, Xavier Querol, Jordi Sunyer Jan 2015

Green Spaces And Cognitive Development In Primary Schoolchildren, Payam Dadvand, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Mikel Esnaola, Joan Forns, Xavier Basagaña, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Ioar Rivas, Monica López-Vicente, Montserrat Castro De Pascual, Jason Su, Michael Jerrett, Xavier Querol, Jordi Sunyer

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Exposure to green space has been associated with better physical and mental health. Although this exposure could also influence cognitive development in children, available epidemiological evidence on such an impact is scarce. This study aimed to assess the association between exposure to green space and measures of cognitive development in primary schoolchildren. This study was based on 2,593 schoolchildren in the second to fourth grades (7–10 y) of 36 primary schools in Barcelona, Spain (2012–2013). Cognitive development was assessed as 12-mo change in developmental trajectory of working memory, superior working memory, and inattentiveness by using four repeated ...


Mental Health Benefits Of Long-Term Exposure To Residential Green And Blue Spaces: A Systematic Review, Mireia Gascon, Margarita Triguero-Mas, David Martínez, Payam Dadvand, Joan Forns, Antoni Plasència, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen Jan 2015

Mental Health Benefits Of Long-Term Exposure To Residential Green And Blue Spaces: A Systematic Review, Mireia Gascon, Margarita Triguero-Mas, David Martínez, Payam Dadvand, Joan Forns, Antoni Plasència, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Many studies conducted during the last decade suggest the mental health benefits of green and blue spaces. We aimed to systematically review the available literature on the long-term mental health benefits of residential green and blue spaces by including studies that used standardized tools or objective measures of both the exposures and the outcomes of interest. We followed the PRISMA statement guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis. In total 28 studies were included in the systematic review. We found limited evidence for a causal relationship between surrounding greenness and mental health in adults, whereas the evidence was inadequate in ...


Natural Outdoor Environments And Mental And Physical Health: Relationships And Mechanisms, Margarita Triguero-Mas, Payam Dadvand, Marta Cirach, David Martínez, Antonia Medina, Anna Mompart, Xavier Basagaña, Regina Gražulevičienė, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen Jan 2015

Natural Outdoor Environments And Mental And Physical Health: Relationships And Mechanisms, Margarita Triguero-Mas, Payam Dadvand, Marta Cirach, David Martínez, Antonia Medina, Anna Mompart, Xavier Basagaña, Regina Gražulevičienė, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background
Evidence is growing for the beneficial impacts of natural outdoor environments on health. However, most of the evidence has focused on green spaces and little evidence is available on health benefits of blue spaces and about possible mediators and modifiers of such impacts. We investigated the association between natural outdoor environments (separately for green and blue spaces) and health (general and mental) and its possible mediators and modifiers.
Methods
Cross-sectional data from adults interviewed in Catalonia (Spain) between 2010 and 2012 as part of the Catalonia Health Survey were used. The collected data included sociodemographic characteristics, self-perceived general health ...


Severity Of Injuries In Different Modes Of Transport, Expressed With Disability-Adjusted Life Years (Dalys), Marko Tainio, Dorota Olkowicz, Grzegorz Teresinski, Audrey De Nazelle, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen Jan 2014

Severity Of Injuries In Different Modes Of Transport, Expressed With Disability-Adjusted Life Years (Dalys), Marko Tainio, Dorota Olkowicz, Grzegorz Teresinski, Audrey De Nazelle, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Health impact assessment (HIA) studies are increasingly predicting the health effects of mode shifts in traffic. The challenge for such studies is to combine the health effects, caused by injuries, with the disease driven health effects, and to express the change in the health with a common health indicator. Disability-adjusted life year (DALY) combines years lived disabled or injured (YLD) and years of life lost (YLL) providing practical indicator to combine injuries with diseases. In this study, we estimate the average YLDs for one person injured in a transport crash to allow easy to use methods to predict health ...


Australia's Leading Public Health Body Delays Action On The Revision Of The Public Health Goal For Blood Lead Exposures, Mark Taylor, Chris Winder, Bruce P. Lanphear Jan 2014

Australia's Leading Public Health Body Delays Action On The Revision Of The Public Health Goal For Blood Lead Exposures, Mark Taylor, Chris Winder, Bruce P. Lanphear

Faculty of Law and Business Publications

Globally, childhood blood lead levels have fallen precipitously in developed countries since the 1970s following action by international bodies such as the WHO and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. These reductions have been affected by the activities of national agencies such as the US EPA and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the establishment of air lead and blood lead standards, the introduction of legislation to remove lead from petrol, paint and consumer products and tighter restrictions on lead emissions. The outcome of recent major international reviews of research into the effects of low-level ...


Accessibility And Use Of Urban Green Spaces, And Cardiovascular Health: Findings From A Kaunas Cohort Study, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Regina Grazuleviciene, Dalia Luksiene, Audrius Dedele, Regina Reklaitiene, Migle Baceviciene, Jone Vencloviene, Gailute Bernotiene, Ricardas Radisauskas, Vilija Malinauskiene, Egle Milinaviciene, Martin Bobak, Anne Peasey, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen Jan 2014

Accessibility And Use Of Urban Green Spaces, And Cardiovascular Health: Findings From A Kaunas Cohort Study, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Regina Grazuleviciene, Dalia Luksiene, Audrius Dedele, Regina Reklaitiene, Migle Baceviciene, Jone Vencloviene, Gailute Bernotiene, Ricardas Radisauskas, Vilija Malinauskiene, Egle Milinaviciene, Martin Bobak, Anne Peasey, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: The aims of this study were to explore associations of the distance and use of urban green spaces with the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and its risk factors, and to evaluate the impact of the accessibility and use of green spaces on the incidence of CVD among the population of Kaunas city (Lithuania). Methods: We present the results from a Kaunas cohort study on the access to and use of green spaces, the association with cardiovascular risk factors and other health-related variables, and the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. A random sample of 5,112 individuals aged ...


Vitamin B12 And Folate Tests: The Ongoing Need To Determine Appropriate Use And Public Funding [Accepted Manuscript], Cameron D. Willis, Michael P. Metz, Janet Hiller, Adam G. Elshaug Jan 2013

Vitamin B12 And Folate Tests: The Ongoing Need To Determine Appropriate Use And Public Funding [Accepted Manuscript], Cameron D. Willis, Michael P. Metz, Janet Hiller, Adam G. Elshaug

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

No abstract provided.


Critical Realism: A Practical Ontology To Explain The Complexities Of Smoking And Tobacco Control In Different Resource Settings, Dunsi Oladele, Alexander M. Clark, Solina Richter, Lory Laing Jan 2013

Critical Realism: A Practical Ontology To Explain The Complexities Of Smoking And Tobacco Control In Different Resource Settings, Dunsi Oladele, Alexander M. Clark, Solina Richter, Lory Laing

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: This paper presents critical realism (CR) as an innovative system for research in tobacco prevention and control. CR argues that underlying mechanisms are considered and explored to ensure effective implementation of any program/policy or intervention. Any intervention or program/policy that is transposed from one country to another or one setting to another is complex.

Methods: The research was undertaken and analyzed through a critical ethnography lens using CR as a philosophical underpinning. The study relied upon the following components: original fieldwork in Nigeria including participant observation of smokers, in-depth interviews and focus groups with smokers, and in-depth ...


Population Based Case-Control Study Of Serious Non-Fatal Motorcycle Crashes, Lesley Day, Michael G. Lenné, Mark Symmons, Peter Hillard, Stuart V. Newstead, Trevor J. Allen, Roderick Mcclurre Jan 2013

Population Based Case-Control Study Of Serious Non-Fatal Motorcycle Crashes, Lesley Day, Michael G. Lenné, Mark Symmons, Peter Hillard, Stuart V. Newstead, Trevor J. Allen, Roderick Mcclurre

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Motorcycle sales, registration and use are increasing in many countries. The epidemiological literature on risk factors for motorcycle injury is becoming outdated, due to changes in rider demography, licensing regulations, traffic mix and density, road environments, and motorcycle designs and technologies. Further, the potential contribution of road infrastructure and travel speed has not yet been examined. Methods/design: A population based case–control study together with a nested case-crossover study is planned. Cases will be motorcycle riders who are injured but not killed in a motorcycle crash on a public road within 150 km radius of Melbourne, Australia, and ...