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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Sport And Physical Activity For Youth With Intellectual Disability: An Analysis Of Determinants And Outcomes, Nathanial J. Kapsal Jun 2019

Sport And Physical Activity For Youth With Intellectual Disability: An Analysis Of Determinants And Outcomes, Nathanial J. Kapsal

Theses

Introduction: Extensive research has supported the physical and psychosocial health benefits of physical activity among typically developing youth. These benefits include higher quality of life, lower risk of disease, higher levels of psychological and emotional well-being, greater school engagement, greater motor skills, more frequent prosocial behaviours, and enhanced self-concept. Compared to their typically developing peers, youth with intellectual disability participate less frequently in physical activity, tend to be less fit, have poorer motor control, and worse mental health. Many studies examining sport and physical activity for youth with disability have focused on a limited range of outcomes or interventions, have ...


Socioemotional Functioning In Youth With Borderline Personality Disorder, Elizabeth Pizarro-Campagna Mar 2019

Socioemotional Functioning In Youth With Borderline Personality Disorder, Elizabeth Pizarro-Campagna

Theses

This thesis makes an original contribution to our understanding of socioemotional functioning in borderline personality disorder (BPD) by critically examining social cognition and emotion regulation BPD research from a developmental perspective. It also extends on previous research, making a novel and important contribution to our understanding of sociocognitive functioning and emotion regulation ability in youth with first presentation BPD. This was achieved via two critical narrative reviews of the existing literature and two empirical studies, which examined aspects of social cognition and emotion regulation considered key to interpersonal functioning in BPD. The empirical studies assessed, 1) unconscious simulation processes, a ...


Expanding The Map Of Intrinsic And Extrinsic Aspirations Using Network Analysis And Multidimensional Scaling: Examining Four New Aspirations, Frank Martela, Emma L. Bradshaw, Richard M. Ryan Jan 2019

Expanding The Map Of Intrinsic And Extrinsic Aspirations Using Network Analysis And Multidimensional Scaling: Examining Four New Aspirations, Frank Martela, Emma L. Bradshaw, Richard M. Ryan

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Life goals or aspirations can be distinguished as intrinsic or extrinsic, with different implications for well-being. In this study we used network analysis to reexamine this intrinsic-extrinsic distinction, illustrating how novel candidate aspirations can be mapped along this dimension using innovative methods. We identify four previously unexamined life aspirations, predicting that aspiring for power and social adherence would group with extrinsic goals, whereas aspiring for self-expression and mastery would group with intrinsic goals. In two samples (n = 196; n = 346) we analyze both the original life-goal variables and these novel aspirations using factor analysis, multidimensional scaling, circumplex modeling, and a ...


Differences In Brain Processing Of Proprioception Related To Postural Control In Patients With Recurrent Non-Specific Low Back Pain And Healthy Controls, Nina Goossens, Lotte Janssens, Karen Caeyenberghs, Geneviève Albouy, Simon Brumagne Jan 2019

Differences In Brain Processing Of Proprioception Related To Postural Control In Patients With Recurrent Non-Specific Low Back Pain And Healthy Controls, Nina Goossens, Lotte Janssens, Karen Caeyenberghs, Geneviève Albouy, Simon Brumagne

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Patients with non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) show an impaired postural control during standing and a slower performance of sit-to-stand-to-sit (STSTS) movements. Research suggests that these impairments could be due to an altered use of ankle compared to back proprioception. However, the neural correlates of these postural control impairments in NSLBP remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated brain activity during ankle and back proprioceptive processing by applying local muscle vibration during functional magnetic resonance imaging in 20 patients with NSLBP and 20 controls. Correlations between brain activity during proprioceptive processing and (Airaksinen et al., 2006) proprioceptive use during postural control, evaluated ...


Dog Ownership, The Natural Outdoor Environment And Health: A Cross-Sectional Study, Wilma L. Zijlema, Hayley Christian, Margarita Triguero-Mas, Marta Cirach, Magdalena Van Den Berg, Jolanda Maas, Christopher J. Gidlow, Hanneke Kruize, Wanda Wendel-Vos, Sandra Andrušaitytė, Regina Grazuleviciene, Jill Litt, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen Jan 2019

Dog Ownership, The Natural Outdoor Environment And Health: A Cross-Sectional Study, Wilma L. Zijlema, Hayley Christian, Margarita Triguero-Mas, Marta Cirach, Magdalena Van Den Berg, Jolanda Maas, Christopher J. Gidlow, Hanneke Kruize, Wanda Wendel-Vos, Sandra Andrušaitytė, Regina Grazuleviciene, Jill Litt, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives: Dog owners walking their dog in natural outdoor environments (NOE) may benefit from the physical activity facilitated by dog walking and from time spent in nature. However, it is unclear whether dog owners receive additional health benefits associated with having access to NOE above the physical activity benefit of walking with their dog. We investigated associations between dog ownership, walking, time spent in NOE and health and whether these associations differed among those with good and poor access to NOE and those living in green and less green areas. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: The Positive Health Effects of the ...


Impulsivity And Body Fat Accumulation Are Linked To Cortical And Subcortical Brain Volumes Among Adolescents And Adults, Naomi Kakoschke, Valentina Lorenzetti, Karen Caeyenberghs, Antonio Verdejo-García Jan 2019

Impulsivity And Body Fat Accumulation Are Linked To Cortical And Subcortical Brain Volumes Among Adolescents And Adults, Naomi Kakoschke, Valentina Lorenzetti, Karen Caeyenberghs, Antonio Verdejo-García

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Obesity is associated not only with metabolic and physical health conditions, but with individual variations in cognition and brain health. This study examined the association between body fat (an index of excess weight severity), impulsivity (a vulnerability factor for obesity), and brain structure among adolescents and adults across the body mass index (BMI) spectrum. We used 3D T1 weighted anatomic magnetic resonance imaging scans to map the association between body fat and volumes in regions associated with obesity and impulsivity. Participants were 127 individuals (BMI: 18–40 kg/m2; M = 25.69 ± 5.15), aged 14 to 45 years (M ...


Joint Physical-Activity/Screen-Time Trajectories During Early Childhood: Socio-Demographic Predictors And Consequences On Health-Related Quality-Of-Life And Socio-Emotional Outcomes, Borja Del Pozo Cruz, Francisco Perales, Phil Parker, Chris Lonsdale, Michael Noetel, Kylie D. Hesketh, Taren Sanders Jan 2019

Joint Physical-Activity/Screen-Time Trajectories During Early Childhood: Socio-Demographic Predictors And Consequences On Health-Related Quality-Of-Life And Socio-Emotional Outcomes, Borja Del Pozo Cruz, Francisco Perales, Phil Parker, Chris Lonsdale, Michael Noetel, Kylie D. Hesketh, Taren Sanders

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Understanding the early roots of physical activity and sedentary behaviors is critical to developing intervention programs that promote healthy lifestyle habits in infants and children. There is, however, no evidence on how these behaviors cluster and develop together during early childhood. The aim of this study was to identify single and joint longitudinal trajectories in physical activity and screen time amongst children aged 0 to 9 years, their social-demographic predictors and their prospective health-related quality-of-life and socio-emotional outcomes. Methods: Three waves of data from The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, a national study tracking two cohorts every 2 years ...


Envisioning Progress And Perils: Musings On The Future Of Motivation Research In A Rapidly Evolving World [Accepted Manuscript], Richard Ryan, Emma Bradshaw Jan 2019

Envisioning Progress And Perils: Musings On The Future Of Motivation Research In A Rapidly Evolving World [Accepted Manuscript], Richard Ryan, Emma Bradshaw

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

This final chapter reflects on the rich contributions within this Handbook of Human Motivation on diverse topics including self-regulation, biological mechanisms, awareness, defensiveness and oppression, and the facilitation of engagement, learning, and behavior change. These processes are examined within broad theoretical frameworks, as well as in specific domains such as close relationships, physical activity, work, education, and psychotherapy. Building on these contributions, the chapter projects forward in time to ask the question of whether future scientists and practitioners will think these authors from the early 21st century were asking the right questions. The chapter includes speculation on how developments in ...


International Clinical Practice Recommendations On The Definition, Diagnosis, Assessment, Intervention And Psychosocial Aspects Of Developmental Coordination Disorder, Rainer Blank, Anna L. Barnett, John Cairney, Dido Green, Amanda Kirby, Helene Polatajko, Sara Rosenblum, Bouwein C. M. Smits-Engelsman, David Sugden, Peter Wilson, Sabine Vinçon Jan 2019

International Clinical Practice Recommendations On The Definition, Diagnosis, Assessment, Intervention And Psychosocial Aspects Of Developmental Coordination Disorder, Rainer Blank, Anna L. Barnett, John Cairney, Dido Green, Amanda Kirby, Helene Polatajko, Sara Rosenblum, Bouwein C. M. Smits-Engelsman, David Sugden, Peter Wilson, Sabine Vinçon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Aim These international clinical practice recommendations (CPR) for developmental coordination disorder (DCD), initiated by the European Academy of Childhood Disability (EACD), aim to address key questions on the definition, diagnosis, assessment, intervention, and psychosocial aspects of DCD relevant for clinical practice. Method Key questions in five areas were considered through literature reviews and formal expert consensus. For recommendations based on evidence, literature searches on ‘mechanisms’, ‘assessment’, and ‘intervention’ were updated since the last recommendations in 2012. New searches were conducted for ‘psychosocial issues’ and ‘adolescents/adults’. Evidence was rated according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence‐Based Medicine (level of ...


Low Childhood Nature Exposure Is Associated With Worse Mental Health In Adulthood, Myriam Preuß, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Sandra Marquez, Marta Cirach, Payam Dadvand, Margarita Triguero-Mas, Christopher Gidlow, Regina Grazuleviciene, Hanneke Kruize, Wilma Zijlema Jan 2019

Low Childhood Nature Exposure Is Associated With Worse Mental Health In Adulthood, Myriam Preuß, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Sandra Marquez, Marta Cirach, Payam Dadvand, Margarita Triguero-Mas, Christopher Gidlow, Regina Grazuleviciene, Hanneke Kruize, Wilma Zijlema

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Exposure to natural outdoor environments (NOE) is associated with health benefits; however, evidence on the impact of NOE exposure during childhood on mental health (MH) and vitality in adulthood is scarce. This study was based on questionnaire data collected from 3585 participants, aged 18–75, in the PHENOTYPE project (2013) in four European cities. Mixed models were used to investigate associations between childhood NOE exposure and (i) MH; (ii) vitality (perceived level of energy and fatigue); and (iii) potential mediation by perceived amount, use, satisfaction, importance of NOE, and residential surrounding greenness, using pooled and city-level data. Adults with low ...


Cognitive Function Of Elderly Persons In Japanese Neighborhoods: The Role Of Street Layout, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Tomoki Nakaya, Gavin R. Mccormack, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Akitomo Yasunaga, Koichiro Oka Jan 2019

Cognitive Function Of Elderly Persons In Japanese Neighborhoods: The Role Of Street Layout, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Tomoki Nakaya, Gavin R. Mccormack, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Akitomo Yasunaga, Koichiro Oka

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives: The aims of this study were to examine (a) associations of two metric and space syntax measures of street layout with the cognitive function of Japanese older adults and (b) the extent to which objectively assessed physical activity mediated such associations. Methods: Cross-sectional data from 277 older adults who lived in Japan were used. Street layout attributes were objectively calculated for each participant’s geocoded home location. The Mini-Mental State Examination was used to evaluate cognitive function. Physical activity was objectively assessed with accelerometers. Results: There was a statistically significant negative association between street integration and the odds of ...


Do Physical Activity Social Cohesion, And Loneliness Mediate The Association Between Time Spent Visiting Green Space And Mental Health?, Magdalena M. Van Den Berg, Mireille Van Poppel, Irene Van Kamp, Annemarie Ruijsbroek, Margarita Triguero-Mas, Christopher Gidlow, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Regina Gražulevičiene, Willem Van Mechelen, Hanneke Kruize, Jolanda Maas Jan 2019

Do Physical Activity Social Cohesion, And Loneliness Mediate The Association Between Time Spent Visiting Green Space And Mental Health?, Magdalena M. Van Den Berg, Mireille Van Poppel, Irene Van Kamp, Annemarie Ruijsbroek, Margarita Triguero-Mas, Christopher Gidlow, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Regina Gražulevičiene, Willem Van Mechelen, Hanneke Kruize, Jolanda Maas

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

This cross-sectional study investigated whether physical activity, social cohesion, and loneliness mediate the association between time spent visiting green spaces and perceived mental health and vitality. Questionnaire data were collected from 3,948 residents from 124 neighborhoods across four European cities. Multilevel linear regression analysis revealed positive, but weak, associations between time spent visiting green space and Medical Outcome Study Short Form (SF-36) mental health and vitality score, which suggest small mental health benefits. Single mediation analyses showed that different indicators of physical activity (total, during leisure time, and walking during leisure time), social cohesion, and loneliness were mediators. Multiple ...


Personal And Reported Partner Pornography Viewing By Australian Women, And Association With Mental Health And Body Image, Ingrid L. Laemmle-Ruff, Michelle Raggatt, Cassandra J. C. Wright, Elise Rose Carrotte, Angela C. Davis, Rebecca Jenkinson, Megan Su Cheng Lim Jan 2019

Personal And Reported Partner Pornography Viewing By Australian Women, And Association With Mental Health And Body Image, Ingrid L. Laemmle-Ruff, Michelle Raggatt, Cassandra J. C. Wright, Elise Rose Carrotte, Angela C. Davis, Rebecca Jenkinson, Megan Su Cheng Lim

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Personal and partner pornography viewing may affect health and wellbeing. This study aimed to improve understanding of the effects of pornography on mental health and body image, given emerging evidence of increasing use, particularly among young people. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was implemented, targeting people who had accessed health and fitness content via social media. Convenience sampling was used and participants were recruited via advertising on social media. Results: Overall, 76% (75/99) of women reported having ever viewed pornography, and 21% had viewed pornography frequently (monthly/weekly/daily) in the prior 12 months. The association between frequent viewing ...


Self-Compassion Moderates The Link Between Perfectionism And Depression Link In Both Adolescence And Adulthood, Madeleine Ferrari, Keong Yap, Nicole Scott, Danielle A. Einstein, Joseph Ciarrochi Feb 2018

Self-Compassion Moderates The Link Between Perfectionism And Depression Link In Both Adolescence And Adulthood, Madeleine Ferrari, Keong Yap, Nicole Scott, Danielle A. Einstein, Joseph Ciarrochi

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Psychological practitioners often seek to directly change the form or frequency of clients' maladaptive perfectionist thoughts, because such thoughts predict future depression. Indirect strategies, such as self-compassion interventions, that seek to change clients' relationships to difficult thoughts, rather than trying to change the thoughts directly could be just as effective. This study aimed to investigate whether self-compassion moderated, or weakened, the relationship between high perfectionism and high depression symptoms in both adolescence and adulthood.

Methods: The present study utilised anonymous self-report questionnaires to assess maladaptive perfectionism, depression, and self-compassion across two samples covering much of the lifespan. Questionnaires were ...


Pain Education For Clinicians In Geriatrics: A Study Into Changes In Clinician Attitudes And Beliefs, Audrey P. Wang, Georgia Fisher, Jillian Hall Jan 2018

Pain Education For Clinicians In Geriatrics: A Study Into Changes In Clinician Attitudes And Beliefs, Audrey P. Wang, Georgia Fisher, Jillian Hall

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

A lack of recognition of chronic pain in older adults has fundamental healthcare implications. A practice gap exists that affects evidence-based practice for chronic pain assessment and management specific to older adults. Psychologically informed practice (PIP) has been proposed as a method of enabling health professionals to deliver biopsychosocial pain assessment and management in their practice. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of a single one-day structured educational program to both introduce the concept of PIP and to shift the attitudes, beliefs and orientation towards patients of clinicians working in the geriatric rehabilitation setting. An observational ...


Individual Differences Influencing Immediate Effects Of Internal And External Focus Instructions On Children’S Motor Performance, Femke Van Abswoude, Nienke B. Nuijen, John Van Der Kamp, Bert Steenbergen Jan 2018

Individual Differences Influencing Immediate Effects Of Internal And External Focus Instructions On Children’S Motor Performance, Femke Van Abswoude, Nienke B. Nuijen, John Van Der Kamp, Bert Steenbergen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Purpose: A large pool of evidence supports the beneficial effect of an external focus of attention on motor skill performance in adults. In children, this effect has been studied less and results are inconclusive. Importantly, individual differences are often not taken into account. We investigated the role of working memory, conscious motor control, and task-specific focus preferences on performance with an internal and external focus of attention in children. Methods: Twenty-five children practiced a golf putting task in both an internal focus condition and external focus condition. Performance was defined as the average distance toward the hole in 3 blocks ...


Incidence Of Ill-Health Related Job Loss And Related Social And Occupational Factors. The "Unfit For The Job" Study: A One-Year Follow-Up Study Of 51,132 Workers, Francois-Xavier Lesage, Frederic Dutheil, Lode Godderis, Aymeric Divies, Guillaume Choron Jan 2018

Incidence Of Ill-Health Related Job Loss And Related Social And Occupational Factors. The "Unfit For The Job" Study: A One-Year Follow-Up Study Of 51,132 Workers, Francois-Xavier Lesage, Frederic Dutheil, Lode Godderis, Aymeric Divies, Guillaume Choron

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective
The analysis of ill-health related job loss may be a relevant indicator for the prioritization of actions in the workplace or in the field of public health, as well as a target for health promotion. The aim of this study was to analyze the medical causes, the incidence, and the characteristics of employees medically unfit to do their job.
Methods
This one-year prospective study included all workers followed by occupational physicians in an occupational health service in the south of France. The incidence of unfitness for work have been grouped according to the main medical causes and analyzed. We ...


A Qualitative Investigation Of The Perceived Influence Of Adolescents’ Motivation On Relationships Between Domain-Specific Physical Activity And Positive And Negative Affect [Accepted Manuscript], Rhiannon Lee White, Rebecca Olson, Philip D. Parker, Thomas Astell-Burt, Chris Lonsdale Jan 2018

A Qualitative Investigation Of The Perceived Influence Of Adolescents’ Motivation On Relationships Between Domain-Specific Physical Activity And Positive And Negative Affect [Accepted Manuscript], Rhiannon Lee White, Rebecca Olson, Philip D. Parker, Thomas Astell-Burt, Chris Lonsdale

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Evidence shows that the relationship between physical activity and mental wellbeing varies across different life domains. However, little is known about the reasons for such variation. We aimed to explore motivation as a potential underlying factor that may explain some of the variation, by qualitatively examining adolescents’ physical activity experiences and perceived affective outcomes during leisure-time, active travel, and physical education. Method: We conducted computer-assisted-self-interviews with 144 adolescents (M age = 14.42 years) about physical activity experiences they believed led to positive and negative affect. The participants were asked when the activities occurred, their reason for participation, and with ...


How Experience Modulates Semantic Memory For Food: Evidence From Elderly Adults And Centenarians, Miriam Vignando, Marilena Aiello, Francesco Foroni, Gabriella Marcon, Mauro Tettamanti, Raffaella I. Rumiati Jan 2018

How Experience Modulates Semantic Memory For Food: Evidence From Elderly Adults And Centenarians, Miriam Vignando, Marilena Aiello, Francesco Foroni, Gabriella Marcon, Mauro Tettamanti, Raffaella I. Rumiati

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

In order to make sense of the objects we encounter in everyday life we largely rely on previous knowledge stored in our semantic memory. Semantic memory is considered dependent on lifelong experience and cultural knowledge. So far, a few studies have investigated the role of expertise on the organization of semantic memory, whereas life-long experience has largely been overlooked. In this study, we investigated this issue using food concepts. In particular, we administered different semantic tasks using food (natural and transformed) and non-food (living and non-living things) as stimuli to participants belonging to three different age cohorts (56–74, 75 ...


The Association Between Lifelong Greenspace Exposure And 3-Dimensional Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging In Barcelona School Children, Payam Dadvand, Jesus Pujol, Dídac Macià, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Laura Blanco-Hinojo, Marion Mortamais, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Raquel Fenoll, Mikel Esnaola, Albert Dalmau-Bueno, Mónica López-Vicente, Xavier Basagaña, Michael Jerrett, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Jordi Sunyer Jan 2018

The Association Between Lifelong Greenspace Exposure And 3-Dimensional Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging In Barcelona School Children, Payam Dadvand, Jesus Pujol, Dídac Macià, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Laura Blanco-Hinojo, Marion Mortamais, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Raquel Fenoll, Mikel Esnaola, Albert Dalmau-Bueno, Mónica López-Vicente, Xavier Basagaña, Michael Jerrett, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Jordi Sunyer

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Proponents of the biophilia hypothesis believe that contact with nature, including green spaces, has a crucial role in brain development in children. Currently, however, we are not aware of evidence linking such exposure with potential effects on brain structure. Objective: We determined whether lifelong exposure to residential surrounding greenness is associated with regional differences in brain volume based on 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) among children attending primary school. Methods: We performed a series of analyses using data from a subcohort of 253 Barcelona schoolchildren from the Brain Development and Air Pollution Ultrafine Particles in School Children (BREATHE ...


Self-Assessment Of Social Cognitive Ability In Schizophrenia: Association With Social Cognitive Test Performance, Informant Assessments Of Social Cognitive Ability, And Everyday Outcomes [Accepted Manuscript], Juliet M. Silberstein, Amy E. Pinkham, David L. Penn, Philip D. Harvey Jan 2018

Self-Assessment Of Social Cognitive Ability In Schizophrenia: Association With Social Cognitive Test Performance, Informant Assessments Of Social Cognitive Ability, And Everyday Outcomes [Accepted Manuscript], Juliet M. Silberstein, Amy E. Pinkham, David L. Penn, Philip D. Harvey

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Impairments in self-assessment are common in people with schizophrenia and impairments in self-assessment of cognitive ability have been found to predict impaired functional outcome. In this study, we examined self-assessment of social cognitive ability and related them to assessments of social cognition provided by informants, to performance on tests of social cognition, and to everyday outcomes. The difference between self-reported social cognition and informant ratings was used to predict everyday functioning. Methods: People with schizophrenia (n = 135) performed 8 different tests of social cognition. They were asked to rate their social cognitive abilities on the Observable Social Cognition Rating ...


A Worthy Self Is A Caring Self: Examining The Developmental Relations Between Self-Esteem And Self-Compassion In Adolescents [Accepted Manuscript]`, James N. Donald, Joseph Ciarrochi, Philip D. Parker, Baljinder K. Sahdra, Sarah L. Marshall, Jiesi Guo Jan 2018

A Worthy Self Is A Caring Self: Examining The Developmental Relations Between Self-Esteem And Self-Compassion In Adolescents [Accepted Manuscript]`, James N. Donald, Joseph Ciarrochi, Philip D. Parker, Baljinder K. Sahdra, Sarah L. Marshall, Jiesi Guo

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective: Self‐compassion has been framed as a healthy alternative to self‐esteem, as it is nonevaluative. However, rather than being alternatives, it may be that the two constructs develop in a mutually reinforcing way. The present study tested this possibility among adolescents. Method: A large adolescent sample (N = 2,809; 49.8% female) reported levels of trait self‐esteem and self‐compassion annually for 4 years. Autoregressive cross‐lagged structural equation models were used to estimate the reciprocal longitudinal relations between the two constructs. Results: Self‐esteem consistently predicted changes in self‐compassion across the 4 years of the ...


Social Distance Toward Syrian Refugees: The Role Of Intergroup Anxiety In Facilitating Positive Relations, Yasin Koc, Joel R. Anderson Jan 2018

Social Distance Toward Syrian Refugees: The Role Of Intergroup Anxiety In Facilitating Positive Relations, Yasin Koc, Joel R. Anderson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The number of asylum seekers and refugees across the world is rapidly increasing. Negative attitudes toward these groups are globally prevalent and typically hostile because most receiving country citizens perceive them to be a security threat and an economic burden. This paper aims to understand the antecedents of negative attitudes toward a large refugee group currently garnering a great deal of attention—Syrian refugees, and experimentally test ways to ameliorate negative attitudes. In Study 1 (N = 122), we investigated predictors of social distance—as a proxy for prejudice—and found right‐wing authoritarianism and intergroup anxiety to be significant predictors ...


Cross-Sectional Associations Of Sedentary Behaviour And Physical Activity On Depression In Japanese Older Adults: An Isotemporal Substitution Approach, Akitomo Yasunaga, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Koichiro Oka Jan 2018

Cross-Sectional Associations Of Sedentary Behaviour And Physical Activity On Depression In Japanese Older Adults: An Isotemporal Substitution Approach, Akitomo Yasunaga, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Koichiro Oka

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives: Reducing sedentary behaviour (SB) and increasing physical activity (PA) have been shown to be associated with decreased depression. However, there are yet few studies examining the potential benefits on older adults’ depression, when SB is replaced with PA. This study aimed to examine the associations of objectively assessed SB, light-intensity PA (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) with depression among a sample of Japanese older adults, and to explore impacts of substituting SB with PA on older adults’ depression. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Setting: General community. Participants: A total of 276 older adults aged 65–85 years living in Japan. Main ...


The Quality Of Life When A Partner Has Substance Use Problems: A Scoping Review, Bente Birkeland, Kim Foster, Anne S. Selbekk, Magnhild M. Høie, Torleif Ruud, Bente Weimand Jan 2018

The Quality Of Life When A Partner Has Substance Use Problems: A Scoping Review, Bente Birkeland, Kim Foster, Anne S. Selbekk, Magnhild M. Høie, Torleif Ruud, Bente Weimand

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective: To examine the existing body of knowledge on quality of life (QoL) in partners of people with substance use problems (PP-SUPs) to provide a synthesized summary of the evidence and identify gaps in our knowledge on the QoL of PP-SUPs. Methods: A systematic scoping review was performed. Publications indexed in EMBASE, Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, SocINDEX, and CENTRAL were searched for original, empirical, peer-reviewed, full-length research papers that examined QoL in PP-SUPs. Research papers identified through a manual search of key references and known references by co-authors were also included. A total of 3070 abstracts were screened, 41 full-text papers ...


A Psychosocial Intervention For The Management Of Functional Dysphonia: Complex Intervention Development And Pilot Randomised Trial, Vincent Deary, Elaine Mccoll, Paul Carding, Tracy Miller, Janet Wilson Jan 2018

A Psychosocial Intervention For The Management Of Functional Dysphonia: Complex Intervention Development And Pilot Randomised Trial, Vincent Deary, Elaine Mccoll, Paul Carding, Tracy Miller, Janet Wilson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Medically unexplained loss or alteration of voice—functional dysphonia—is the commonest presentation to speech and language therapists (SLTs). Besides the impact on personal and work life, functional dysphonia is also associated with increased levels of anxiety and depression and poor general health. Voice therapy delivered by SLTs improves voice but not these associated symptoms. The aims of this research were the systematic development of a complex intervention to improve the treatment of functional dysphonia, and the trialling of this intervention for feasibility and acceptability to SLTs and patients in a randomised pilot study Methods: A theoretical model of ...


Availability, Use Of, And Satisfaction With Green Space, And Children's Mental Wellbeing At Age 4 Years In A Multicultural, Deprived, Urban Area: Results From The Born In Bradford Cohort Study, Rosemary R. C. Mceachan, Tiffany C. Yang, Hannah Roberts, Kate E. Pickett, Diana Arseneau-Powell, Christopher J. Gidlow, John Wright, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen Jan 2018

Availability, Use Of, And Satisfaction With Green Space, And Children's Mental Wellbeing At Age 4 Years In A Multicultural, Deprived, Urban Area: Results From The Born In Bradford Cohort Study, Rosemary R. C. Mceachan, Tiffany C. Yang, Hannah Roberts, Kate E. Pickett, Diana Arseneau-Powell, Christopher J. Gidlow, John Wright, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: It is unknown whether the quantity or quality of green space is more important for mental wellbeing. We aimed to explore associations between availability of, satisfaction with, and use of green space and mental wellbeing among children aged 4 years in a multi-ethnic sample. Methods: We did a 4-year follow-up assessment of participants in the Born in Bradford longitudinal cohort study, which recruited children and mothers at the city's main maternity unit from 2007 to 2011. The primary outcome was parent-reported mental wellbeing for children aged 4 years, assessed with the standardised Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Total, internalising ...


The Anticipation And Outcome Phases Of Reward And Loss Processing: A Neuroimaging Meta-Analysis Of The Monetary Incentive Delay Task, Stuart Oldham, Carsten Murawski, Alex Fornito, George J. Youssef, Murat Yücel, Valentina Lorenzetti Jan 2018

The Anticipation And Outcome Phases Of Reward And Loss Processing: A Neuroimaging Meta-Analysis Of The Monetary Incentive Delay Task, Stuart Oldham, Carsten Murawski, Alex Fornito, George J. Youssef, Murat Yücel, Valentina Lorenzetti

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The processing of rewards and losses are crucial to everyday functioning. Considerable interest has been attached to investigating the anticipation and outcome phases of reward and loss processing, but results to date have been inconsistent. It is unclear if anticipation and outcome of a reward or loss recruit similar or distinct brain regions. In particular, while the striatum has widely been found to be active when anticipating a reward, whether it activates in response to the anticipation of losses as well remains ambiguous. Furthermore, concerning the orbitofrontal/ventromedial prefrontal regions, activation is often observed during reward receipt. However, it is ...


Emotion Regulation Using Virtual Environments And Real-Time Fmri Neurofeedback, Valentina Lorenzetti, Bruno Melo, Rodrigo Basílio, Chao Suo, Murat Yücel, Carlos J. Tierra-Criollo, Jorge Moll Jan 2018

Emotion Regulation Using Virtual Environments And Real-Time Fmri Neurofeedback, Valentina Lorenzetti, Bruno Melo, Rodrigo Basílio, Chao Suo, Murat Yücel, Carlos J. Tierra-Criollo, Jorge Moll

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Neurofeedback (NFB) enables the voluntary regulation of brain activity, with promising applications to enhance and recover emotion and cognitive processes, and their underlying neurobiology. It remains unclear whether NFB can be used to aid and sustain complex emotions, with ecological validity implications. We provide a technical proof of concept of a novel real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) NFB procedure. Using rtfMRI-NFB, we enabled participants to voluntarily enhance their own neural activity while they experienced complex emotions. The rtfMRI-NFB software (FRIEND Engine) was adapted to provide a virtual environment as brain computer interface (BCI) and musical excerpts to induce two ...


A Qualitative Investigation Of The Perceived Influence Of Adolescents’ Motivation On Relationships Between Domain-Specific Physical Activity And Positive And Negative Affect [Accepted Manuscript], Rhiannon Lee White, Rebecca Olson, Phillip Parker, Thomas Astell-Burt, Chris Lonsdale Jan 2018

A Qualitative Investigation Of The Perceived Influence Of Adolescents’ Motivation On Relationships Between Domain-Specific Physical Activity And Positive And Negative Affect [Accepted Manuscript], Rhiannon Lee White, Rebecca Olson, Phillip Parker, Thomas Astell-Burt, Chris Lonsdale

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background

Evidence shows that the relationship between physical activity and mental wellbeing varies across different life domains. However, little is known about the reasons for such variation. We aimed to explore motivation as a potential underlying factor that may explain some of the variation, by qualitatively examining adolescents’ physical activity experiences and perceived affective outcomes during leisure-time, active travel, and physical education.

Method

We conducted computer-assisted-self-interviews with 144 adolescents (M age = 14.42 years) about physical activity experiences they believed led to positive and negative affect. The participants were asked when the activities occurred, their reason for participation, and with ...