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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Alteration To Hippocampal Volume And Shape Confined To Cannabis Dependence: A Multi-Site Study [Accepted Manuscript], Yann Chye, Valentina Lorenzetti, Chao Suo, Albert Batalla, Janna Cousijn, Anna E. Goudriaan, Mark Jenkinson, Rocio Martin-Santos, Sarah Whittle, Murat Yücel, Nadia Solowij Jan 2019

Alteration To Hippocampal Volume And Shape Confined To Cannabis Dependence: A Multi-Site Study [Accepted Manuscript], Yann Chye, Valentina Lorenzetti, Chao Suo, Albert Batalla, Janna Cousijn, Anna E. Goudriaan, Mark Jenkinson, Rocio Martin-Santos, Sarah Whittle, Murat Yücel, Nadia Solowij

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Cannabis use is highly prevalent and often considered to be relatively harmless. Nonetheless, a subset of regular cannabis users may develop dependence, experiencing poorer quality of life and greater mental health problems relative to non‐dependent users. The neuroanatomy characterizing cannabis use versus dependence is poorly understood. We aimed to delineate the contributing role of cannabis use and dependence on morphology of the hippocampus, one of the most consistently altered brain regions in cannabis users, in a large multi‐site dataset aggregated across four research sites. We compared hippocampal volume and vertex‐level hippocampal shape differences (1) between 121 non ...


A Novel Method For Extracting Hierarchical Functional Subnetworks Based On A Multisubject Spectral Clustering Approach [Accepted Manuscript], Xiaoyun Liang, Chun-Hung Yeh, Alan Connelly, Fernando Calamante Jan 2019

A Novel Method For Extracting Hierarchical Functional Subnetworks Based On A Multisubject Spectral Clustering Approach [Accepted Manuscript], Xiaoyun Liang, Chun-Hung Yeh, Alan Connelly, Fernando Calamante

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Brain network modularity analysis has attracted increasing interest due to its capability in measuring the level of integration and segregation across subnetworks. Most studies have focused on extracting modules at a single level, although brain network modules are known to be organized in a hierarchical manner. A few techniques have been developed to extract hierarchical modularity in human functional brain networks using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data; however, the focus of those methods is binary networks produced by applying arbitrary thresholds of correlation coefficients to the connectivity matrices. In this study, we propose a new multisubject spectral clustering ...


Dimensionality Reduction Of Diffusion Mri Measures For Improved Tractometry Of The Human Brain, Maxime Chamberland, Erika P. Raven, Sila Genc, Kate Duffy, Maxime Descoteaux, Greg D. Parker, Chantal M. W. Tax, Derek K. Jones Jan 2019

Dimensionality Reduction Of Diffusion Mri Measures For Improved Tractometry Of The Human Brain, Maxime Chamberland, Erika P. Raven, Sila Genc, Kate Duffy, Maxime Descoteaux, Greg D. Parker, Chantal M. W. Tax, Derek K. Jones

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Various diffusion MRI (dMRI) measures have been proposed for characterising tissue microstructure over the last 15 years. Despite the growing number of experiments using different dMRI measures in assessments of white matter, there has been limited work on: 1) examining their covariance along specific pathways; and on 2) combining these different measures to study tissue microstructure. Indeed, it quickly becomes intractable for existing analysis pipelines to process multiple measurements at each voxel and at each vertex forming a streamline, highlighting the need for new ways to visualise or analyse such high-dimensional data. In a sample of 36 typically developing children ...


Optimization Of Graph Construction Can Significantly Increase The Power Of Structural Brain Network Studies, Eirini Messaritaki, Stavros I. Dimitriadis, Derek K. Jones Jan 2019

Optimization Of Graph Construction Can Significantly Increase The Power Of Structural Brain Network Studies, Eirini Messaritaki, Stavros I. Dimitriadis, Derek K. Jones

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Structural brain networks derived from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data have been used extensively to describe the human brain, and graph theory has allowed quantification of their network properties. Schemes used to construct the graphs that represent the structural brain networks differ in the metrics they use as edge weights and the algorithms they use to define the network topologies. In this work, twenty graph construction schemes were considered. The schemes use the number of streamlines, the fractional anisotropy, the mean diffusivity or other attributes of the tracts to define the edge weights, and either an absolute threshold or a ...


Differences In Brain Processing Of Proprioception Related To Postural Control In Patients With Recurrent Non-Specific Low Back Pain And Healthy Controls, Nina Goossens, Lotte Janssens, Karen Caeyenberghs, Geneviève Albouy, Simon Brumagne Jan 2019

Differences In Brain Processing Of Proprioception Related To Postural Control In Patients With Recurrent Non-Specific Low Back Pain And Healthy Controls, Nina Goossens, Lotte Janssens, Karen Caeyenberghs, Geneviève Albouy, Simon Brumagne

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Patients with non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) show an impaired postural control during standing and a slower performance of sit-to-stand-to-sit (STSTS) movements. Research suggests that these impairments could be due to an altered use of ankle compared to back proprioception. However, the neural correlates of these postural control impairments in NSLBP remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated brain activity during ankle and back proprioceptive processing by applying local muscle vibration during functional magnetic resonance imaging in 20 patients with NSLBP and 20 controls. Correlations between brain activity during proprioceptive processing and (Airaksinen et al., 2006) proprioceptive use during postural control, evaluated ...


Impulsivity And Body Fat Accumulation Are Linked To Cortical And Subcortical Brain Volumes Among Adolescents And Adults, Naomi Kakoschke, Valentina Lorenzetti, Karen Caeyenberghs, Antonio Verdejo-García Jan 2019

Impulsivity And Body Fat Accumulation Are Linked To Cortical And Subcortical Brain Volumes Among Adolescents And Adults, Naomi Kakoschke, Valentina Lorenzetti, Karen Caeyenberghs, Antonio Verdejo-García

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Obesity is associated not only with metabolic and physical health conditions, but with individual variations in cognition and brain health. This study examined the association between body fat (an index of excess weight severity), impulsivity (a vulnerability factor for obesity), and brain structure among adolescents and adults across the body mass index (BMI) spectrum. We used 3D T1 weighted anatomic magnetic resonance imaging scans to map the association between body fat and volumes in regions associated with obesity and impulsivity. Participants were 127 individuals (BMI: 18–40 kg/m2; M = 25.69 ± 5.15), aged 14 to 45 years (M ...


Comparing Mri Metrics To Quantify White Matter Microstructural Damage In Multiple Sclerosis, Ilona Lipp, Derek K. Jones, Sonya Bells, Eleonora Sgarlata, Catherine Foster, Rachael Stickland, Alison E. Davidson, Emma C. Tallantyre, Neil P. Robertson, Richard G. Wise, Valentina Tomassini Jan 2019

Comparing Mri Metrics To Quantify White Matter Microstructural Damage In Multiple Sclerosis, Ilona Lipp, Derek K. Jones, Sonya Bells, Eleonora Sgarlata, Catherine Foster, Rachael Stickland, Alison E. Davidson, Emma C. Tallantyre, Neil P. Robertson, Richard G. Wise, Valentina Tomassini

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Quantifying white matter damage in vivo is becoming increasingly important for investigating the effects of neuroprotective and repair strategies in multiple sclerosis (MS). While various approaches are available, the relationship between MRI‐based metrics of white matter microstructure in the disease, that is, to what extent the metrics provide complementary versus redundant information, remains largely unexplored. We obtained four microstructural metrics from 123 MS patients: fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), myelin water fraction (MWF), and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR). Coregistration of maps of these four indices allowed quantification of microstructural damage through voxel‐wise damage scores relative to healthy ...


Fornix White Matter Glia Damage Causes Hippocampal Gray Matter Damage During Age-Dependent Limbic Decline, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, Jilu P. Mole, Rebecca Sims, Fabrizio Fasano, John Evans, Derek K. Jones, John P. Aggleton, Roland J. Baddeley Jan 2019

Fornix White Matter Glia Damage Causes Hippocampal Gray Matter Damage During Age-Dependent Limbic Decline, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, Jilu P. Mole, Rebecca Sims, Fabrizio Fasano, John Evans, Derek K. Jones, John P. Aggleton, Roland J. Baddeley

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Aging leads to gray and white matter decline but their causation remains unclear. We explored two classes of models of age and dementia risk related brain changes. The first class of models emphasises the importance of gray matter: age and risk-related processes cause neurodegeneration and this causes damage in associated white matter tracts. The second class of models reverses the direction of causation: aging and risk factors cause white matter damage and this leads to gray matter damage. We compared these models with linear mediation analysis and quantitative MRI indices (from diffusion, quantitative magnetization transfer and relaxometry imaging) of tissue ...


Quantitative Proteomic Analyses Of Dynamic Signalling Events In Cortical Neurons Undergoing Excitotoxic Cell Death, Ashfaqul Hoque, Nicholas A. Williamson, S. Sadia Ameen, Giuseppe D. Ciccotosto, Mohammed Iqbal Hossain, Jonathan S. Oakhill, Dominic C. H. Ng, Ching-Seng Ang, Heung-Chin Cheng Jan 2019

Quantitative Proteomic Analyses Of Dynamic Signalling Events In Cortical Neurons Undergoing Excitotoxic Cell Death, Ashfaqul Hoque, Nicholas A. Williamson, S. Sadia Ameen, Giuseppe D. Ciccotosto, Mohammed Iqbal Hossain, Jonathan S. Oakhill, Dominic C. H. Ng, Ching-Seng Ang, Heung-Chin Cheng

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Excitotoxicity, caused by overstimulation or dysregulation of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs), is a pathological process directing neuronal death in many neurological disorders. The aberrantly stimulated iGluRs direct massive influx of calcium ions into the affected neurons, leading to changes in expression and phosphorylation of specific proteins to modulate their functions and direct their participation in the signalling pathways that induce excitotoxic neuronal death. To define these pathways, we used quantitative proteomic approaches to identify these neuronal proteins (referred to as the changed proteins) and determine how their expression and/or phosphorylation dynamically changed in association with excitotoxic cell death. Our ...


Sex-Specific Effects Of Central Adiposity And Inflammatory Markers On Limbic Microstructure, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, Jilu P. Mole, Erika Leonaviciude, Rebecca Sims, Emma J. Kidd, Benyamin Ertefai, Aurora Kelso-Mitchell, Florence Gidney, Fabrizio Fasano, John Evans, Derek K. Jones, Roland J. Baddeley Jan 2019

Sex-Specific Effects Of Central Adiposity And Inflammatory Markers On Limbic Microstructure, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, Jilu P. Mole, Erika Leonaviciude, Rebecca Sims, Emma J. Kidd, Benyamin Ertefai, Aurora Kelso-Mitchell, Florence Gidney, Fabrizio Fasano, John Evans, Derek K. Jones, Roland J. Baddeley

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Midlife obesity is a risk factor of late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) but why this is the case remains unknown. As systemic inflammation is involved in both conditions, obesity-related neuroinflammation may contribute to damage in limbic structures important in LOAD. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that systemic inflammation would mediate central obesity related effects on limbic tissue microstructure in 166 asymptomatic individuals (38–71 years old). We employed MRI indices sensitive to myelin and neuroinflammation [macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) and kf] from quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) together with indices from neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) to investigate ...


The Cueped Trial: How Does Environmental Complexity Impact Cue Effectiveness? A Comparison Of Tonic And Phasic Visual Cueing In Simple And Complex Environments In A Parkinson’S Disease Population With Freezing Of Gait, Rodney Marsh, Michael H. Cole, Nadeeka N. W. Dissanayaka, Tiffany R. Au, Sandra Clewett, John D. O'Sullivan, Peter A. Silburn Jan 2019

The Cueped Trial: How Does Environmental Complexity Impact Cue Effectiveness? A Comparison Of Tonic And Phasic Visual Cueing In Simple And Complex Environments In A Parkinson’S Disease Population With Freezing Of Gait, Rodney Marsh, Michael H. Cole, Nadeeka N. W. Dissanayaka, Tiffany R. Au, Sandra Clewett, John D. O'Sullivan, Peter A. Silburn

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background. The optimal prescription of cueing for the treatment of freezing of gait (FoG) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is currently a difficult problem for clinicians due to the heterogeneity of cueing modalities, devices, and the limited comparative trial evidence. There has been a rise in the development of motion-sensitive, wearable cueing devices for the treatment of FoG in PD. These devices generally produce cues after signature gait or electroencephalographic antecedents of FoG episodes are detected (phasic cues). It is not known whether these devices offer benefit over simple (tonic) cueing devices. Methods. We assembled 20 participants with PD and ...


The Structural Connectome In Traumatic Brain Injury: A Meta-Analysis Of Graph Metrics [Accepted Manuscript], Phoebe Imms, Adam Clemente, Mark Cook, Wendyl D'Souza, Peter H. Wilson, Derek K. Jones, Karen Caeyenberghs Jan 2019

The Structural Connectome In Traumatic Brain Injury: A Meta-Analysis Of Graph Metrics [Accepted Manuscript], Phoebe Imms, Adam Clemente, Mark Cook, Wendyl D'Souza, Peter H. Wilson, Derek K. Jones, Karen Caeyenberghs

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Although recent structural connectivity studies of traumatic brain injury (TBI) have used graph theory to evaluate alterations in global integration and functional segregation, pooled analysis is needed to examine the robust patterns of change in graph metrics across studies. Following a systematic search, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria for review. Of these, ten studies were included in a random-effects meta-analysis of global graph metrics, and subgroup analyses examined the confounding effects of severity and time since injury. The meta-analysis revealed significantly higher values of normalised clustering coefficient (gö=ö1.445, CI=[0.512, 2.378], pö=ö0.002) and ...


The Superoanterior Fasciculus (Saf): A Novel White Matter Pathway In The Human Brain?, Szabolcs David, Anneriet M. Heemskerk, Francesco Corrivetti, Michel Thiebaut De Schotten, Silvio Sarubbo, Francesco Corsini, Alessandro De Benedictis, Laurent Petit, Max A. Viergever, Derek K. Jones, Emmanuel Mandonnet, Hubertus Axer, John Evans, Tomáš Paus, Alexander Leemans Jan 2019

The Superoanterior Fasciculus (Saf): A Novel White Matter Pathway In The Human Brain?, Szabolcs David, Anneriet M. Heemskerk, Francesco Corrivetti, Michel Thiebaut De Schotten, Silvio Sarubbo, Francesco Corsini, Alessandro De Benedictis, Laurent Petit, Max A. Viergever, Derek K. Jones, Emmanuel Mandonnet, Hubertus Axer, John Evans, Tomáš Paus, Alexander Leemans

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Fiber tractography (FT) using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is widely used for investigating microstructural properties of white matter (WM) fiber-bundles and for mapping structural connections of the human brain. While studying the architectural configuration of the brain’s circuitry with FT is not without controversy, recent progress in acquisition, processing, modeling, analysis, and visualization of dMRI data pushes forward the reliability in reconstructing WM pathways. Despite being aware of the well-known pitfalls in analyzing dMRI data and several other limitations of FT discussed in recent literature, we present the superoanterior fasciculus (SAF), a novel bilateral fiber tract in the ...


Alternate Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Parameters To Manage Motor Symptoms Of Parkinson's Disease: Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis [Accepted Manuscript], Zachary J. Conway, Peter A. Silburn, Wesley Thevathasan, Karen O'Maley, Geraldine Naughton, Michael H. Cole Jan 2019

Alternate Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Parameters To Manage Motor Symptoms Of Parkinson's Disease: Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis [Accepted Manuscript], Zachary J. Conway, Peter A. Silburn, Wesley Thevathasan, Karen O'Maley, Geraldine Naughton, Michael H. Cole

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background The use of alternate frequencies, amplitudes, and pulse widths to manage motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN‐DBS) is of clinical interest, but currently lacks systematic evidence. Objective/Hypothesis Systematically review whether alternate STN‐DBS settings influence the therapy's efficacy for managing PD motor symptoms. Methods Systematic searches identified studies that; involved bilateral STN‐DBS PD patients; manipulated ≥ 1 STN‐DBS parameter (e.g., amplitude); assessed ≥ 1 motor symptom (e.g., tremor); and contrasted the experimental and chronic stimulation settings. A Mantel‐Haenszel random‐effects meta‐analysis compared the ...


White Matter Organization In Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Pilot Study Exploring The Added Value Of Constrained Spherical Deconvolution, Christian Hyde, Ian Fuelscher, Peter G. Enticott, Derek K. Jones, Shawna Farquharson, Tim J. Silk, Jacqueline Williams, Karen Caeyenberghs Jan 2019

White Matter Organization In Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Pilot Study Exploring The Added Value Of Constrained Spherical Deconvolution, Christian Hyde, Ian Fuelscher, Peter G. Enticott, Derek K. Jones, Shawna Farquharson, Tim J. Silk, Jacqueline Williams, Karen Caeyenberghs

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Previous studies of white matter organization in sensorimotor tracts in developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have adopted diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a method unable to reconcile pathways with ‘crossing fibres’. In response to limitations of the commonly adopted DTI approach, the present study employed a framework that can reconcile the ‘crossing fibre’ problem (i.e., constrained spherical deconvolution- CSD) to characterize white matter tissue organization of sensorimotor tracts in young adults with DCD. Participants were 19 healthy adults aged 18–46: 7 met diagnostic criteria for DCD (4 females) and 12 were controls (3 females). All underwent high angular diffusion MRI ...


Individual Differences Influencing Immediate Effects Of Internal And External Focus Instructions On Children’S Motor Performance, Femke Van Abswoude, Nienke B. Nuijen, John Van Der Kamp, Bert Steenbergen Jan 2018

Individual Differences Influencing Immediate Effects Of Internal And External Focus Instructions On Children’S Motor Performance, Femke Van Abswoude, Nienke B. Nuijen, John Van Der Kamp, Bert Steenbergen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Purpose: A large pool of evidence supports the beneficial effect of an external focus of attention on motor skill performance in adults. In children, this effect has been studied less and results are inconclusive. Importantly, individual differences are often not taken into account. We investigated the role of working memory, conscious motor control, and task-specific focus preferences on performance with an internal and external focus of attention in children. Methods: Twenty-five children practiced a golf putting task in both an internal focus condition and external focus condition. Performance was defined as the average distance toward the hole in 3 blocks ...


Imaging Individual Differences In The Response Of The Human Suprachiasmatic Area To Light, Elise M. Mcglashan, Govinda R. Poudel, Parisa Vidafar, Sean P. A. Drummond, Sean W. Cain Jan 2018

Imaging Individual Differences In The Response Of The Human Suprachiasmatic Area To Light, Elise M. Mcglashan, Govinda R. Poudel, Parisa Vidafar, Sean P. A. Drummond, Sean W. Cain

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Circadian disruption is associated with poor health outcomes, including sleep and mood disorders. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus acts as the master biological clock in mammals, regulating circadian rhythms throughout the body. The clock is synchronized to the day/night cycle via retinal light exposure. The BOLD-fMRI response of the human suprachiasmatic area to light has been shown to be greater in the night than in the day, consistent with the known sensitivity of the clock to light at night. Whether the BOLD-fMRI response of the human suprachiasmatic area to light is related to a functional outcome ...


How Experience Modulates Semantic Memory For Food: Evidence From Elderly Adults And Centenarians, Miriam Vignando, Marilena Aiello, Francesco Foroni, Gabriella Marcon, Mauro Tettamanti, Raffaella I. Rumiati Jan 2018

How Experience Modulates Semantic Memory For Food: Evidence From Elderly Adults And Centenarians, Miriam Vignando, Marilena Aiello, Francesco Foroni, Gabriella Marcon, Mauro Tettamanti, Raffaella I. Rumiati

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

In order to make sense of the objects we encounter in everyday life we largely rely on previous knowledge stored in our semantic memory. Semantic memory is considered dependent on lifelong experience and cultural knowledge. So far, a few studies have investigated the role of expertise on the organization of semantic memory, whereas life-long experience has largely been overlooked. In this study, we investigated this issue using food concepts. In particular, we administered different semantic tasks using food (natural and transformed) and non-food (living and non-living things) as stimuli to participants belonging to three different age cohorts (56–74, 75 ...


The Association Between Lifelong Greenspace Exposure And 3-Dimensional Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging In Barcelona School Children, Payam Dadvand, Jesus Pujol, Dídac Macià, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Laura Blanco-Hinojo, Marion Mortamais, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Raquel Fenoll, Mikel Esnaola, Albert Dalmau-Bueno, Mónica López-Vicente, Xavier Basagaña, Michael Jerrett, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Jordi Sunyer Jan 2018

The Association Between Lifelong Greenspace Exposure And 3-Dimensional Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging In Barcelona School Children, Payam Dadvand, Jesus Pujol, Dídac Macià, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Laura Blanco-Hinojo, Marion Mortamais, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Raquel Fenoll, Mikel Esnaola, Albert Dalmau-Bueno, Mónica López-Vicente, Xavier Basagaña, Michael Jerrett, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Jordi Sunyer

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Proponents of the biophilia hypothesis believe that contact with nature, including green spaces, has a crucial role in brain development in children. Currently, however, we are not aware of evidence linking such exposure with potential effects on brain structure. Objective: We determined whether lifelong exposure to residential surrounding greenness is associated with regional differences in brain volume based on 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) among children attending primary school. Methods: We performed a series of analyses using data from a subcohort of 253 Barcelona schoolchildren from the Brain Development and Air Pollution Ultrafine Particles in School Children (BREATHE ...


Explicit And Implicit Motor Learning In Children With Unilateral Cerebral Palsy, John Van Der Kamp, Bert Steenbergen, Rich S. W. Masters Jan 2018

Explicit And Implicit Motor Learning In Children With Unilateral Cerebral Palsy, John Van Der Kamp, Bert Steenbergen, Rich S. W. Masters

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the capacity for explicit and implicit learning in children with unilateral cerebral palsy. Participants: Children with left and right unilateral cerebral palsy and typically developing children shuffled disks toward a target. Design: A prism-adaptation design was implemented, consisting of pre-exposure, prism exposure, and post-exposure phases. Half of the participants were instructed about the function of the prism glasses, while the other half were not. Measures: For each trial, the distance between the target and the shuffled disk was determined. Explicit learning was indicated by the rate of adaptation during the prism exposure phase ...


Balance Control Systems In Parkinson's Disease And The Impact Of Pedunculopontine Area Stimulation, Thushara Perera, Joy L. Tan, Michael H. Cole, Shivy A. C. Yohanandan, Paul Silberstein, Raymond Cook, Richard Peppard, Tipu Aziz, Terry Coyne, Peter Brown, Peter A. Silburn, Wesley Thevathasan Jan 2018

Balance Control Systems In Parkinson's Disease And The Impact Of Pedunculopontine Area Stimulation, Thushara Perera, Joy L. Tan, Michael H. Cole, Shivy A. C. Yohanandan, Paul Silberstein, Raymond Cook, Richard Peppard, Tipu Aziz, Terry Coyne, Peter Brown, Peter A. Silburn, Wesley Thevathasan

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Impaired balance is a major contributor to falls and diminished quality of life in Parkinson’s disease, yet the pathophysiology is poorly understood. Here, we assessed if patients with Parkinson’s disease and severe clinical balance impairment have deficits in the intermittent and continuous control systems proposed to maintain upright stance, and furthermore, whether such deficits are potentially reversible, with the experimental therapy of pedunculopontine nucleus deep brain stimulation. Two subject groups were assessed: (i) 13 patients with Parkinson’s disease and severe clinical balance impairment, implanted with pedunculopontine nucleus deep brain stimulators; and (ii) 13 healthy control subjects. Patients ...


Adar3 Is Involved In Learning And Memory In Mice, Dessislava Mladenova, Guy Barry, Lyndsey M. Konen, Sandy S. Pineda, Boris Guennewig, Lotta Avesson, Raphael Zinn, Nicole Schonrock, Maina Bitar, Nicky Jonkhout, Lauren Crumlish, Dominik C. Kaczorowski, Andrew Gong, Mark Pinese, Gloria R. Franco, Carl R. Walkley, Bryce Vissel, John S. Mattick Jan 2018

Adar3 Is Involved In Learning And Memory In Mice, Dessislava Mladenova, Guy Barry, Lyndsey M. Konen, Sandy S. Pineda, Boris Guennewig, Lotta Avesson, Raphael Zinn, Nicole Schonrock, Maina Bitar, Nicky Jonkhout, Lauren Crumlish, Dominik C. Kaczorowski, Andrew Gong, Mark Pinese, Gloria R. Franco, Carl R. Walkley, Bryce Vissel, John S. Mattick

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The amount of regulatory RNA encoded in the genome and the extent of RNA editing by the post-transcriptional deamination of adenosine to inosine (A-I) have increased with developmental complexity and may be an important factor in the cognitive evolution of animals. The newest member of the A-I editing family of ADAR proteins, the vertebrate-specific ADAR3, is highly expressed in the brain, but its functional significance is unknown. In vitro studies have suggested that ADAR3 acts as a negative regulator of A-I RNA editing but the scope and underlying mechanisms are also unknown. Meta-analysis of published data indicates that mouse Adar3 ...


The Anticipation And Outcome Phases Of Reward And Loss Processing: A Neuroimaging Meta-Analysis Of The Monetary Incentive Delay Task, Stuart Oldham, Carsten Murawski, Alex Fornito, George J. Youssef, Murat Yücel, Valentina Lorenzetti Jan 2018

The Anticipation And Outcome Phases Of Reward And Loss Processing: A Neuroimaging Meta-Analysis Of The Monetary Incentive Delay Task, Stuart Oldham, Carsten Murawski, Alex Fornito, George J. Youssef, Murat Yücel, Valentina Lorenzetti

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The processing of rewards and losses are crucial to everyday functioning. Considerable interest has been attached to investigating the anticipation and outcome phases of reward and loss processing, but results to date have been inconsistent. It is unclear if anticipation and outcome of a reward or loss recruit similar or distinct brain regions. In particular, while the striatum has widely been found to be active when anticipating a reward, whether it activates in response to the anticipation of losses as well remains ambiguous. Furthermore, concerning the orbitofrontal/ventromedial prefrontal regions, activation is often observed during reward receipt. However, it is ...


Reduced Amygdala Volumes Are Related To Motor And Cognitive Signs In Huntington's Disease: The Image-Hd Study, Lotta M. Ahveninen, Julie C. Stout, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Valentina Lorenzetti, Yifat Glikmann-Johnston Jan 2018

Reduced Amygdala Volumes Are Related To Motor And Cognitive Signs In Huntington's Disease: The Image-Hd Study, Lotta M. Ahveninen, Julie C. Stout, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Valentina Lorenzetti, Yifat Glikmann-Johnston

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

In Huntington's disease (HD), the presence of neurodegeneration in brain regions other than the striatum has been recently gaining attention. The amygdala is one such area, which has been investigated in only eight structural magnetic resonance imaging studies to date, but with inconsistent findings. This is the largest MRI study to date examining manually traced amygdala volumes in HD participants and the relationship of amygdala volumes to clinical measures of HD. Our study included 35 healthy control participants, and groups of 35 pre-symptomatic, and 36 symptomatic HD participants. When comparing the pre-symptomatic and symptomatic HD groups together against the ...


Emotion Regulation Using Virtual Environments And Real-Time Fmri Neurofeedback, Valentina Lorenzetti, Bruno Melo, Rodrigo Basílio, Chao Suo, Murat Yücel, Carlos J. Tierra-Criollo, Jorge Moll Jan 2018

Emotion Regulation Using Virtual Environments And Real-Time Fmri Neurofeedback, Valentina Lorenzetti, Bruno Melo, Rodrigo Basílio, Chao Suo, Murat Yücel, Carlos J. Tierra-Criollo, Jorge Moll

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Neurofeedback (NFB) enables the voluntary regulation of brain activity, with promising applications to enhance and recover emotion and cognitive processes, and their underlying neurobiology. It remains unclear whether NFB can be used to aid and sustain complex emotions, with ecological validity implications. We provide a technical proof of concept of a novel real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) NFB procedure. Using rtfMRI-NFB, we enabled participants to voluntarily enhance their own neural activity while they experienced complex emotions. The rtfMRI-NFB software (FRIEND Engine) was adapted to provide a virtual environment as brain computer interface (BCI) and musical excerpts to induce two ...


Effectiveness Of Cognitive Orientation To Daily Occupational Performance Over And Above Functional Hand Splints For Children With Cerebral Palsy Or Brain Injury: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Michelle Jackman, Iona Novak, Natasha Lannin, Elspeth Froude, Laura Miller, Claire Galea Jan 2018

Effectiveness Of Cognitive Orientation To Daily Occupational Performance Over And Above Functional Hand Splints For Children With Cerebral Palsy Or Brain Injury: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Michelle Jackman, Iona Novak, Natasha Lannin, Elspeth Froude, Laura Miller, Claire Galea

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Functional hand splinting is a common therapeutic intervention for children with neurological conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) approach over and above conventional functional hand splinting, and in combination with splinting, for children with cerebral palsy or brain injury. Methods: A multisite, assessor-blinded, parallel, randomized controlled trial was conducted in Australia. Participants (n = 45) were randomly allocated to one of three groups; (1) splint only (n = 15); (2) CO-OP only (n = 15); (3) CO-OP + splint (n = 15). Inclusion: age 4–15 years; diagnosis of cerebral ...


The Spectrum Of Neurological And White Matter Changes And Premutation Status Categories Of Older Male Carriers Of The Fmr1 Alleles Are Linked To Genetic (Cgg And Fmr1 Mrna) And Cellular Stress (Ampk) Markers, Danuta Z. Loesch, Nicholas Trost, Minh Q. Bui, Eleanor Hammersley, Sui T. Lay, Sarah J. Annesley, Oana Sanislav, Claire Y. Allan, Flora Tassone, Zhi-Ping Chen, Kevin R. W. Ngoei, Bruce E. Kemp, David Francis, Paul R. Fisher, Elsdon Storey Jan 2018

The Spectrum Of Neurological And White Matter Changes And Premutation Status Categories Of Older Male Carriers Of The Fmr1 Alleles Are Linked To Genetic (Cgg And Fmr1 Mrna) And Cellular Stress (Ampk) Markers, Danuta Z. Loesch, Nicholas Trost, Minh Q. Bui, Eleanor Hammersley, Sui T. Lay, Sarah J. Annesley, Oana Sanislav, Claire Y. Allan, Flora Tassone, Zhi-Ping Chen, Kevin R. W. Ngoei, Bruce E. Kemp, David Francis, Paul R. Fisher, Elsdon Storey

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The fragile X premutation (PM) allele contains a CGG expansion of 55–200 repeats in the FMR1 gene’s promoter. Male PM carriers have an elevated risk of developing neurological and psychiatric changes, including an approximately 50% risk of the fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). The aim of this study was to assess the relationships of regional white matter hyperintensities (wmhs) semi-quantitative scores, clinical status, motor (UPDRS, ICARS, Tremor) scales, and cognitive impairments, with FMR1-specific genetic changes, in a sample of 32 unselected male PM carriers aged 39–81 years. Half of these individuals were affected with FXTAS, while ...


Cardiovascular Disease Risk Marker Responses To Breaking Up Prolonged Sedentary Time In Individuals With Paraplegia: The Spinal Cord Injury Move More (Scimm) Randomised Crossover Laboratory Trial Protocol, Thomas M. Withers, Louise Croft, Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey, David W. Dunstan, Christof A. Leicht, Daniel P. Bailey Jan 2018

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Marker Responses To Breaking Up Prolonged Sedentary Time In Individuals With Paraplegia: The Spinal Cord Injury Move More (Scimm) Randomised Crossover Laboratory Trial Protocol, Thomas M. Withers, Louise Croft, Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey, David W. Dunstan, Christof A. Leicht, Daniel P. Bailey

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Introduction: Sedentary behaviour is a distinct risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and could partly explain the increased prevalence of CVD in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Interrupting prolonged sitting periods with regular short bouts of walking acutely suppresses postprandial glucose and lipids in able-bodied individuals. However, the acute CVD risk marker response to breaking up prolonged sedentary time in people with SCI has not been investigated. Methods and analysis: A randomised two-condition laboratory crossover trial will compare: (1) breaking up prolonged sedentary time with 2 min moderate-intensity arm-crank activity every 20 min, with (2) uninterrupted prolonged sedentary time ...


Cognition And Bimanual Performance In Children With Unilateral Cerebral Palsy: Protocol For A Multicentre, Cross-Sectional Study, Brian Hoare, Michael Ditchfield, Megan Thorley, Margaret Wallen, Jenny Bracken, Adrienne Harvey, Catherine Elliott, Iona Novak, Ali Crichton Jan 2018

Cognition And Bimanual Performance In Children With Unilateral Cerebral Palsy: Protocol For A Multicentre, Cross-Sectional Study, Brian Hoare, Michael Ditchfield, Megan Thorley, Margaret Wallen, Jenny Bracken, Adrienne Harvey, Catherine Elliott, Iona Novak, Ali Crichton

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

No abstract provided.


Innovative Stroke Interactive Virtual Therapy (Strive) Online Platform For Community-Dwelling Stroke Survivors: A Randomised Controlled Trial Protocol, Liam Johnson, Marie-Louise Bird, Makii Muthalib, Wei-Peng Teo Jan 2018

Innovative Stroke Interactive Virtual Therapy (Strive) Online Platform For Community-Dwelling Stroke Survivors: A Randomised Controlled Trial Protocol, Liam Johnson, Marie-Louise Bird, Makii Muthalib, Wei-Peng Teo

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Introduction: The STRoke Interactive Virtual thErapy (STRIVE) intervention provides community-dwelling stroke survivors access to individualised, remotely supervised progressive exercise training via an online platform. This trial aims to determine the clinical efficacy of the STRIVE intervention and its effect on brain activity in community-dwelling stroke survivors. Methods and analysis: In a multisite, assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial, 60 stroke survivors > 3 months poststroke with mild-to-moderate upper extremity impairment will be recruited and equally randomised by location (Melbourne, Victoria or Launceston, Tasmania) to receive 8 weeks of virtual therapy (VT) at a local exercise training facility or usual care. Participants allocated to ...