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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Alteration To Hippocampal Volume And Shape Confined To Cannabis Dependence: A Multi-Site Study [Accepted Manuscript], Yann Chye, Valentina Lorenzetti, Chao Suo, Albert Batalla, Janna Cousijn, Anna E. Goudriaan, Mark Jenkinson, Rocio Martin-Santos, Sarah Whittle, Murat Yücel, Nadia Solowij Jan 2019

Alteration To Hippocampal Volume And Shape Confined To Cannabis Dependence: A Multi-Site Study [Accepted Manuscript], Yann Chye, Valentina Lorenzetti, Chao Suo, Albert Batalla, Janna Cousijn, Anna E. Goudriaan, Mark Jenkinson, Rocio Martin-Santos, Sarah Whittle, Murat Yücel, Nadia Solowij

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Cannabis use is highly prevalent and often considered to be relatively harmless. Nonetheless, a subset of regular cannabis users may develop dependence, experiencing poorer quality of life and greater mental health problems relative to non‐dependent users. The neuroanatomy characterizing cannabis use versus dependence is poorly understood. We aimed to delineate the contributing role of cannabis use and dependence on morphology of the hippocampus, one of the most consistently altered brain regions in cannabis users, in a large multi‐site dataset aggregated across four research sites. We compared hippocampal volume and vertex‐level hippocampal shape differences (1) between 121 non ...


A Novel Method For Extracting Hierarchical Functional Subnetworks Based On A Multisubject Spectral Clustering Approach [Accepted Manuscript], Xiaoyun Liang, Chun-Hung Yeh, Alan Connelly, Fernando Calamante Jan 2019

A Novel Method For Extracting Hierarchical Functional Subnetworks Based On A Multisubject Spectral Clustering Approach [Accepted Manuscript], Xiaoyun Liang, Chun-Hung Yeh, Alan Connelly, Fernando Calamante

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Brain network modularity analysis has attracted increasing interest due to its capability in measuring the level of integration and segregation across subnetworks. Most studies have focused on extracting modules at a single level, although brain network modules are known to be organized in a hierarchical manner. A few techniques have been developed to extract hierarchical modularity in human functional brain networks using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data; however, the focus of those methods is binary networks produced by applying arbitrary thresholds of correlation coefficients to the connectivity matrices. In this study, we propose a new multisubject spectral clustering ...


Optimization Of Graph Construction Can Significantly Increase The Power Of Structural Brain Network Studies, Eirini Messaritaki, Stavros I. Dimitriadis, Derek K. Jones Jan 2019

Optimization Of Graph Construction Can Significantly Increase The Power Of Structural Brain Network Studies, Eirini Messaritaki, Stavros I. Dimitriadis, Derek K. Jones

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Structural brain networks derived from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data have been used extensively to describe the human brain, and graph theory has allowed quantification of their network properties. Schemes used to construct the graphs that represent the structural brain networks differ in the metrics they use as edge weights and the algorithms they use to define the network topologies. In this work, twenty graph construction schemes were considered. The schemes use the number of streamlines, the fractional anisotropy, the mean diffusivity or other attributes of the tracts to define the edge weights, and either an absolute threshold or a ...


Differences In Brain Processing Of Proprioception Related To Postural Control In Patients With Recurrent Non-Specific Low Back Pain And Healthy Controls, Nina Goossens, Lotte Janssens, Karen Caeyenberghs, Geneviève Albouy, Simon Brumagne Jan 2019

Differences In Brain Processing Of Proprioception Related To Postural Control In Patients With Recurrent Non-Specific Low Back Pain And Healthy Controls, Nina Goossens, Lotte Janssens, Karen Caeyenberghs, Geneviève Albouy, Simon Brumagne

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Patients with non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) show an impaired postural control during standing and a slower performance of sit-to-stand-to-sit (STSTS) movements. Research suggests that these impairments could be due to an altered use of ankle compared to back proprioception. However, the neural correlates of these postural control impairments in NSLBP remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated brain activity during ankle and back proprioceptive processing by applying local muscle vibration during functional magnetic resonance imaging in 20 patients with NSLBP and 20 controls. Correlations between brain activity during proprioceptive processing and (Airaksinen et al., 2006) proprioceptive use during postural control, evaluated ...


Quantitative Proteomic Analyses Of Dynamic Signalling Events In Cortical Neurons Undergoing Excitotoxic Cell Death, Ashfaqul Hoque, Nicholas A. Williamson, S. Sadia Ameen, Giuseppe D. Ciccotosto, Mohammed Iqbal Hossain, Jonathan S. Oakhill, Dominic C. H. Ng, Ching-Seng Ang, Heung-Chin Cheng Jan 2019

Quantitative Proteomic Analyses Of Dynamic Signalling Events In Cortical Neurons Undergoing Excitotoxic Cell Death, Ashfaqul Hoque, Nicholas A. Williamson, S. Sadia Ameen, Giuseppe D. Ciccotosto, Mohammed Iqbal Hossain, Jonathan S. Oakhill, Dominic C. H. Ng, Ching-Seng Ang, Heung-Chin Cheng

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Excitotoxicity, caused by overstimulation or dysregulation of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs), is a pathological process directing neuronal death in many neurological disorders. The aberrantly stimulated iGluRs direct massive influx of calcium ions into the affected neurons, leading to changes in expression and phosphorylation of specific proteins to modulate their functions and direct their participation in the signalling pathways that induce excitotoxic neuronal death. To define these pathways, we used quantitative proteomic approaches to identify these neuronal proteins (referred to as the changed proteins) and determine how their expression and/or phosphorylation dynamically changed in association with excitotoxic cell death. Our ...


Sex-Specific Effects Of Central Adiposity And Inflammatory Markers On Limbic Microstructure, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, Jilu P. Mole, Erika Leonaviciude, Rebecca Sims, Emma J. Kidd, Benyamin Ertefai, Aurora Kelso-Mitchell, Florence Gidney, Fabrizio Fasano, John Evans, Derek K. Jones, Roland J. Baddeley Jan 2019

Sex-Specific Effects Of Central Adiposity And Inflammatory Markers On Limbic Microstructure, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, Jilu P. Mole, Erika Leonaviciude, Rebecca Sims, Emma J. Kidd, Benyamin Ertefai, Aurora Kelso-Mitchell, Florence Gidney, Fabrizio Fasano, John Evans, Derek K. Jones, Roland J. Baddeley

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Midlife obesity is a risk factor of late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) but why this is the case remains unknown. As systemic inflammation is involved in both conditions, obesity-related neuroinflammation may contribute to damage in limbic structures important in LOAD. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that systemic inflammation would mediate central obesity related effects on limbic tissue microstructure in 166 asymptomatic individuals (38–71 years old). We employed MRI indices sensitive to myelin and neuroinflammation [macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) and kf] from quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) together with indices from neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) to investigate ...


The Cueped Trial: How Does Environmental Complexity Impact Cue Effectiveness? A Comparison Of Tonic And Phasic Visual Cueing In Simple And Complex Environments In A Parkinson’S Disease Population With Freezing Of Gait, Rodney Marsh, Michael H. Cole, Nadeeka N. W. Dissanayaka, Tiffany R. Au, Sandra Clewett, John D. O'Sullivan, Peter A. Silburn Jan 2019

The Cueped Trial: How Does Environmental Complexity Impact Cue Effectiveness? A Comparison Of Tonic And Phasic Visual Cueing In Simple And Complex Environments In A Parkinson’S Disease Population With Freezing Of Gait, Rodney Marsh, Michael H. Cole, Nadeeka N. W. Dissanayaka, Tiffany R. Au, Sandra Clewett, John D. O'Sullivan, Peter A. Silburn

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background. The optimal prescription of cueing for the treatment of freezing of gait (FoG) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is currently a difficult problem for clinicians due to the heterogeneity of cueing modalities, devices, and the limited comparative trial evidence. There has been a rise in the development of motion-sensitive, wearable cueing devices for the treatment of FoG in PD. These devices generally produce cues after signature gait or electroencephalographic antecedents of FoG episodes are detected (phasic cues). It is not known whether these devices offer benefit over simple (tonic) cueing devices. Methods. We assembled 20 participants with PD and ...


The Structural Connectome In Traumatic Brain Injury: A Meta-Analysis Of Graph Metrics [Accepted Manuscript], Phoebe Imms, Adam Clemente, Mark Cook, Wendyl D'Souza, Peter H. Wilson, Derek K. Jones, Karen Caeyenberghs Jan 2019

The Structural Connectome In Traumatic Brain Injury: A Meta-Analysis Of Graph Metrics [Accepted Manuscript], Phoebe Imms, Adam Clemente, Mark Cook, Wendyl D'Souza, Peter H. Wilson, Derek K. Jones, Karen Caeyenberghs

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Although recent structural connectivity studies of traumatic brain injury (TBI) have used graph theory to evaluate alterations in global integration and functional segregation, pooled analysis is needed to examine the robust patterns of change in graph metrics across studies. Following a systematic search, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria for review. Of these, ten studies were included in a random-effects meta-analysis of global graph metrics, and subgroup analyses examined the confounding effects of severity and time since injury. The meta-analysis revealed significantly higher values of normalised clustering coefficient (gö=ö1.445, CI=[0.512, 2.378], pö=ö0.002) and ...


The Superoanterior Fasciculus (Saf): A Novel White Matter Pathway In The Human Brain?, Szabolcs David, Anneriet M. Heemskerk, Francesco Corrivetti, Michel Thiebaut De Schotten, Silvio Sarubbo, Francesco Corsini, Alessandro De Benedictis, Laurent Petit, Max A. Viergever, Derek K. Jones, Emmanuel Mandonnet, Hubertus Axer, John Evans, Tomáš Paus, Alexander Leemans Jan 2019

The Superoanterior Fasciculus (Saf): A Novel White Matter Pathway In The Human Brain?, Szabolcs David, Anneriet M. Heemskerk, Francesco Corrivetti, Michel Thiebaut De Schotten, Silvio Sarubbo, Francesco Corsini, Alessandro De Benedictis, Laurent Petit, Max A. Viergever, Derek K. Jones, Emmanuel Mandonnet, Hubertus Axer, John Evans, Tomáš Paus, Alexander Leemans

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Fiber tractography (FT) using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is widely used for investigating microstructural properties of white matter (WM) fiber-bundles and for mapping structural connections of the human brain. While studying the architectural configuration of the brain’s circuitry with FT is not without controversy, recent progress in acquisition, processing, modeling, analysis, and visualization of dMRI data pushes forward the reliability in reconstructing WM pathways. Despite being aware of the well-known pitfalls in analyzing dMRI data and several other limitations of FT discussed in recent literature, we present the superoanterior fasciculus (SAF), a novel bilateral fiber tract in the ...


Alternate Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Parameters To Manage Motor Symptoms Of Parkinson's Disease: Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis [Accepted Manuscript], Zachary J. Conway, Peter A. Silburn, Wesley Thevathasan, Karen O'Maley, Geraldine Naughton, Michael H. Cole Jan 2019

Alternate Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Parameters To Manage Motor Symptoms Of Parkinson's Disease: Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis [Accepted Manuscript], Zachary J. Conway, Peter A. Silburn, Wesley Thevathasan, Karen O'Maley, Geraldine Naughton, Michael H. Cole

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background The use of alternate frequencies, amplitudes, and pulse widths to manage motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN‐DBS) is of clinical interest, but currently lacks systematic evidence. Objective/Hypothesis Systematically review whether alternate STN‐DBS settings influence the therapy's efficacy for managing PD motor symptoms. Methods Systematic searches identified studies that; involved bilateral STN‐DBS PD patients; manipulated ≥ 1 STN‐DBS parameter (e.g., amplitude); assessed ≥ 1 motor symptom (e.g., tremor); and contrasted the experimental and chronic stimulation settings. A Mantel‐Haenszel random‐effects meta‐analysis compared the ...


Imaging Individual Differences In The Response Of The Human Suprachiasmatic Area To Light, Elise M. Mcglashan, Govinda R. Poudel, Parisa Vidafar, Sean P. A. Drummond, Sean W. Cain Jan 2018

Imaging Individual Differences In The Response Of The Human Suprachiasmatic Area To Light, Elise M. Mcglashan, Govinda R. Poudel, Parisa Vidafar, Sean P. A. Drummond, Sean W. Cain

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Circadian disruption is associated with poor health outcomes, including sleep and mood disorders. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus acts as the master biological clock in mammals, regulating circadian rhythms throughout the body. The clock is synchronized to the day/night cycle via retinal light exposure. The BOLD-fMRI response of the human suprachiasmatic area to light has been shown to be greater in the night than in the day, consistent with the known sensitivity of the clock to light at night. Whether the BOLD-fMRI response of the human suprachiasmatic area to light is related to a functional outcome ...


Balance Control Systems In Parkinson's Disease And The Impact Of Pedunculopontine Area Stimulation, Thushara Perera, Joy L. Tan, Michael H. Cole, Shivy A. C. Yohanandan, Paul Silberstein, Raymond Cook, Richard Peppard, Tipu Aziz, Terry Coyne, Peter Brown, Peter A. Silburn, Wesley Thevathasan Jan 2018

Balance Control Systems In Parkinson's Disease And The Impact Of Pedunculopontine Area Stimulation, Thushara Perera, Joy L. Tan, Michael H. Cole, Shivy A. C. Yohanandan, Paul Silberstein, Raymond Cook, Richard Peppard, Tipu Aziz, Terry Coyne, Peter Brown, Peter A. Silburn, Wesley Thevathasan

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Impaired balance is a major contributor to falls and diminished quality of life in Parkinson’s disease, yet the pathophysiology is poorly understood. Here, we assessed if patients with Parkinson’s disease and severe clinical balance impairment have deficits in the intermittent and continuous control systems proposed to maintain upright stance, and furthermore, whether such deficits are potentially reversible, with the experimental therapy of pedunculopontine nucleus deep brain stimulation. Two subject groups were assessed: (i) 13 patients with Parkinson’s disease and severe clinical balance impairment, implanted with pedunculopontine nucleus deep brain stimulators; and (ii) 13 healthy control subjects. Patients ...


Adar3 Is Involved In Learning And Memory In Mice, Dessislava Mladenova, Guy Barry, Lyndsey M. Konen, Sandy S. Pineda, Boris Guennewig, Lotta Avesson, Raphael Zinn, Nicole Schonrock, Maina Bitar, Nicky Jonkhout, Lauren Crumlish, Dominik C. Kaczorowski, Andrew Gong, Mark Pinese, Gloria R. Franco, Carl R. Walkley, Bryce Vissel, John S. Mattick Jan 2018

Adar3 Is Involved In Learning And Memory In Mice, Dessislava Mladenova, Guy Barry, Lyndsey M. Konen, Sandy S. Pineda, Boris Guennewig, Lotta Avesson, Raphael Zinn, Nicole Schonrock, Maina Bitar, Nicky Jonkhout, Lauren Crumlish, Dominik C. Kaczorowski, Andrew Gong, Mark Pinese, Gloria R. Franco, Carl R. Walkley, Bryce Vissel, John S. Mattick

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The amount of regulatory RNA encoded in the genome and the extent of RNA editing by the post-transcriptional deamination of adenosine to inosine (A-I) have increased with developmental complexity and may be an important factor in the cognitive evolution of animals. The newest member of the A-I editing family of ADAR proteins, the vertebrate-specific ADAR3, is highly expressed in the brain, but its functional significance is unknown. In vitro studies have suggested that ADAR3 acts as a negative regulator of A-I RNA editing but the scope and underlying mechanisms are also unknown. Meta-analysis of published data indicates that mouse Adar3 ...


Reduced Amygdala Volumes Are Related To Motor And Cognitive Signs In Huntington's Disease: The Image-Hd Study, Lotta M. Ahveninen, Julie C. Stout, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Valentina Lorenzetti, Yifat Glikmann-Johnston Jan 2018

Reduced Amygdala Volumes Are Related To Motor And Cognitive Signs In Huntington's Disease: The Image-Hd Study, Lotta M. Ahveninen, Julie C. Stout, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Valentina Lorenzetti, Yifat Glikmann-Johnston

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

In Huntington's disease (HD), the presence of neurodegeneration in brain regions other than the striatum has been recently gaining attention. The amygdala is one such area, which has been investigated in only eight structural magnetic resonance imaging studies to date, but with inconsistent findings. This is the largest MRI study to date examining manually traced amygdala volumes in HD participants and the relationship of amygdala volumes to clinical measures of HD. Our study included 35 healthy control participants, and groups of 35 pre-symptomatic, and 36 symptomatic HD participants. When comparing the pre-symptomatic and symptomatic HD groups together against the ...


Emotion Regulation Using Virtual Environments And Real-Time Fmri Neurofeedback, Valentina Lorenzetti, Bruno Melo, Rodrigo Basílio, Chao Suo, Murat Yücel, Carlos J. Tierra-Criollo, Jorge Moll Jan 2018

Emotion Regulation Using Virtual Environments And Real-Time Fmri Neurofeedback, Valentina Lorenzetti, Bruno Melo, Rodrigo Basílio, Chao Suo, Murat Yücel, Carlos J. Tierra-Criollo, Jorge Moll

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Neurofeedback (NFB) enables the voluntary regulation of brain activity, with promising applications to enhance and recover emotion and cognitive processes, and their underlying neurobiology. It remains unclear whether NFB can be used to aid and sustain complex emotions, with ecological validity implications. We provide a technical proof of concept of a novel real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) NFB procedure. Using rtfMRI-NFB, we enabled participants to voluntarily enhance their own neural activity while they experienced complex emotions. The rtfMRI-NFB software (FRIEND Engine) was adapted to provide a virtual environment as brain computer interface (BCI) and musical excerpts to induce two ...


Cognition And Bimanual Performance In Children With Unilateral Cerebral Palsy: Protocol For A Multicentre, Cross-Sectional Study, Brian Hoare, Michael Ditchfield, Megan Thorley, Margaret Wallen, Jenny Bracken, Adrienne Harvey, Catherine Elliott, Iona Novak, Ali Crichton Jan 2018

Cognition And Bimanual Performance In Children With Unilateral Cerebral Palsy: Protocol For A Multicentre, Cross-Sectional Study, Brian Hoare, Michael Ditchfield, Megan Thorley, Margaret Wallen, Jenny Bracken, Adrienne Harvey, Catherine Elliott, Iona Novak, Ali Crichton

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

No abstract provided.


Accelerated Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation In Major Depression Induces Decreases In Modularity: A Connectome Analysis, Karen Caeyenberghs, Romain Duprat, Alexander Leemans, Hadi Hosseini, Peter H. Wilson, Debby Klooster, Chris Baeken Jan 2018

Accelerated Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation In Major Depression Induces Decreases In Modularity: A Connectome Analysis, Karen Caeyenberghs, Romain Duprat, Alexander Leemans, Hadi Hosseini, Peter H. Wilson, Debby Klooster, Chris Baeken

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Accelerated intermittent theta burst stimulation (aiTBS) is a noninvasive neurostimulation technique that shows promise for improving clinical outcome in patients suffering from treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Although it has been suggested that aiTBS may evoke beneficial neuroplasticity effects in neuronal circuits, the effects of aiTBS on brain networks have not been investigated until now. Fifty TRD patients were enrolled in a randomized double-blind sham-controlled crossover trial involving aiTBS, applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Diffusion-weighted MRI data were acquired at each of three time points (T1at baseline; T2 after the first week of real/sham aiTBS stimulation; and T3 after ...


Global, Regional, And National Burden Of Parkinson's Disease, 1990–2016: A Systematic Analysis For The Global Burden Of Disease Study 2016, E. Ray Dorsey, Alexis Elbaz, Emma Nichols, Foad Abd-Allah, Ahmed Abdelalim, Jose C. Adsuar, Mustafa Geleto Ansha, Carol Brayne, Jee-Young J. Choi, Daniel Collado-Mateo, Nabila Dahodwala, Huyen Phuc Do, Dumessa Edessa, Matthias Endres, Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Kyle J. Foreman, Fortune Gbetoho Gankpe, Rahul Gupta, Graeme J. Hankey, Simon I. Hay, Mohamed I. Hegazy, Desalegn T. Hibstu, Amir Kasaeian, Yousef Saleh Khader, Ibrahim Khalil, Young-Ho Khang, Yun Jin Kim, Yoshihiro Kokubo, Giancarlo Logroscino, João Massano, Norlinah Mohamed Ibrahim, Mohammed A. Mohammed, Alireza Mohammadi, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Mohsen Naghavi, Binh Thanh Nguyen, Yirga Legesse Nirayo, Felix Akpojene Ogbo, Mayowa Ojo Owolabi, David M. Pereira, Maarten J. Postma, Mostafa Qorbani, Muhammad Aziz Rahman, Kedir T. Roba, Hosein Safari, Saeid Safiri, Maheswar Satpathy, Monika Sawhney, Azadeh Shafieesabet, Mekonnen Sisay Shiferaw, Mari Smith, Cassandra E. I. Szoeke, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, Nu Thi Truong, Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Santos Villafaina, Kidu Gidey Weldegwergs, Ronny Westerman, Tissa Wijeratne, Andrea S. Winkler, Bach Tran Xuan, Naohiro Yonemoto, Valery L. Feigin, Theo Vos, Christopher J. L. Murray Jan 2018

Global, Regional, And National Burden Of Parkinson's Disease, 1990–2016: A Systematic Analysis For The Global Burden Of Disease Study 2016, E. Ray Dorsey, Alexis Elbaz, Emma Nichols, Foad Abd-Allah, Ahmed Abdelalim, Jose C. Adsuar, Mustafa Geleto Ansha, Carol Brayne, Jee-Young J. Choi, Daniel Collado-Mateo, Nabila Dahodwala, Huyen Phuc Do, Dumessa Edessa, Matthias Endres, Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Kyle J. Foreman, Fortune Gbetoho Gankpe, Rahul Gupta, Graeme J. Hankey, Simon I. Hay, Mohamed I. Hegazy, Desalegn T. Hibstu, Amir Kasaeian, Yousef Saleh Khader, Ibrahim Khalil, Young-Ho Khang, Yun Jin Kim, Yoshihiro Kokubo, Giancarlo Logroscino, João Massano, Norlinah Mohamed Ibrahim, Mohammed A. Mohammed, Alireza Mohammadi, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Mohsen Naghavi, Binh Thanh Nguyen, Yirga Legesse Nirayo, Felix Akpojene Ogbo, Mayowa Ojo Owolabi, David M. Pereira, Maarten J. Postma, Mostafa Qorbani, Muhammad Aziz Rahman, Kedir T. Roba, Hosein Safari, Saeid Safiri, Maheswar Satpathy, Monika Sawhney, Azadeh Shafieesabet, Mekonnen Sisay Shiferaw, Mari Smith, Cassandra E. I. Szoeke, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, Nu Thi Truong, Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Santos Villafaina, Kidu Gidey Weldegwergs, Ronny Westerman, Tissa Wijeratne, Andrea S. Winkler, Bach Tran Xuan, Naohiro Yonemoto, Valery L. Feigin, Theo Vos, Christopher J. L. Murray

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Neurological disorders are now the leading source of disability globally, and ageing is increasing the burden of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease. We aimed to determine the global burden of Parkinson's disease between 1990 and 2016 to identify trends and to enable appropriate public health, medical, and scientific responses. Methods Through a systematic analysis of epidemiological studies, we estimated global, regional, and country-specific prevalence and years of life lived with disability for Parkinson's disease from 1990 to 2016. We estimated the proportion of mild, moderate, and severe Parkinson's disease on the basis of studies that ...


Is Length Of Time In A Stroke Unit Associated With Better Outcomes For Patients With Stroke In Australia? An Observational Study, Doreen Busingye, Monique F. Kilkenny, Tara Purvis, Joosup Kim, Sandy Middleton, Bruce C. V. Campbell, Dominique A. Cadihac Jan 2018

Is Length Of Time In A Stroke Unit Associated With Better Outcomes For Patients With Stroke In Australia? An Observational Study, Doreen Busingye, Monique F. Kilkenny, Tara Purvis, Joosup Kim, Sandy Middleton, Bruce C. V. Campbell, Dominique A. Cadihac

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective: Spending at least 90% of hospital admission in a stroke unit (SU) is a recommended indicator of receiving high-quality stroke care. However, whether this makes a difference to patient outcomes is unknown. We aimed to investigate outcomes and factors associated with patients with acute stroke spending at least 90% of their admission in an SU, compared with those having less time in the SU. Design: Observational study using cross-sectional data. Setting Data from hospitals which participated in the 2015 Stroke Foundation National Audit: Acute Services (Australia) and had an SU. This audit includes an organisational survey and retrospective medical ...


Effects Of Explicit Cueing And Ambiguity On The Anticipation And Experience Of A Painful Thermal Stimulus, Lincoln M. Tracy, Stephen J. Gibson, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Melita J. Giummarra Jan 2017

Effects Of Explicit Cueing And Ambiguity On The Anticipation And Experience Of A Painful Thermal Stimulus, Lincoln M. Tracy, Stephen J. Gibson, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Melita J. Giummarra

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Many factors can influence the way in which we perceive painful events and noxious stimuli, but less is known about how pain perception is altered by explicit knowledge about the impending sensation. This study aimed to investigate the impact of explicit cueing on anxiety, arousal, and pain experience during the anticipation and delivery of noxious thermal heat stimulations. Fifty-two healthy volunteers were randomised to receive explicit instructions about visual cue-stimulus temperature pairings, or no explicit instructions about the cue-stimulus pairs. A pain anxiety task was used to investigate the effects of explicit cueing on anticipatory anxiety, pain experience and electrophysiological ...


Barriers To Evidence-Based Acute Stroke Care In Ghana: A Qualitative Study On The Perspectives Of Stroke Care Professionals, Leonard Baatiema, Ama De-Graft Aikins, Adem Sav, George Mnatzaganian, Carina K. Y. Chan, Shawn Somerset Jan 2017

Barriers To Evidence-Based Acute Stroke Care In Ghana: A Qualitative Study On The Perspectives Of Stroke Care Professionals, Leonard Baatiema, Ama De-Graft Aikins, Adem Sav, George Mnatzaganian, Carina K. Y. Chan, Shawn Somerset

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective: Despite major advances in research on acute stroke care interventions, relatively few stroke patients benefit from evidence-based care due to multiple barriers. Yet current evidence of such barriers is predominantly from high-income countries. This study seeks to understand stroke care professionals’ views on the barriers which hinder the provision of optimal acute stroke care in Ghanaian hospital settings. Design: A qualitative approach using semistructured interviews. Both thematic and grounded theory approaches were used to analyse and interpret the data through a synthesis of preidentified and emergent themes. Setting: A multisite study, conducted in six major referral acute hospital settings ...


Improving The Reliability Of Network Metrics In Structural Brain Networks By Integrating Different Network Weighting Strategies Into A Single Graph, Stavros I. Dimitriadis, Mark Drakesmith, Sonya Bells, Greg D. Parker, David E. Linden, Derek K. Jones Jan 2017

Improving The Reliability Of Network Metrics In Structural Brain Networks By Integrating Different Network Weighting Strategies Into A Single Graph, Stavros I. Dimitriadis, Mark Drakesmith, Sonya Bells, Greg D. Parker, David E. Linden, Derek K. Jones

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Structural brain networks estimated from diffusion MRI (dMRI) via tractography have been widely studied in healthy controls and patients with neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, few studies have addressed the reliability of derived network metrics both node-specific and network-wide. Different network weighting strategies (NWS) can be adopted to weight the strength of connection between two nodes yielding structural brain networks that are almost fully-weighted. Here, we scanned five healthy participants five times each, using a diffusion-weighted MRI protocol and computed edges between 90 regions of interest (ROI) from the Automated Anatomical Labeling (AAL) template. The edges were weighted according to ...


Low-Frequency Synonymous Coding Variation In Cyp2r1 Has Large Effects On Vitamin D Levels And Risk Of Multiple Sclerosis, Despoina Manousaki, Tom Dudding, Simon Haworth, Yi-Hsiang Hsu, Chiang-Ti Liu, Carolina Medina-Gómez, Trudy Voortman, Nathalie Van Der Velde, Håkan Melhus, Cassianne Robinson-Cohen, Diana L. Cousminer, Maria Nethander, Liesbeth Vandenput, Raymond Noordam, Vincenzo Forgetta, Celia M. T. Greenwood, Mary L. Biggs, Bruce M. Psaty, Jerome I. Rotter, Babette S. Zemel, Jonathan A. Mitchell, Bruce V. Taylor, Mattias Lorentzon, Magnus Karlsson, Vincent W. V. Jaddoe, Henning Tiemeier, Natalia Campos-Obando, Oscar H. Franco, Andre G. Utterlinden, Linda Broer, Natasja M. Van Schoor, Annelies C. Ham, M. Arfan Ikram, David Karasik, Renée De Mutsert, Frits R. Rosendaal, Martin Den Heijer, Thomas J. Wang, Lars Lind, Eric S. Orwoll, Dennis O. Mook-Kanamori, Karl Michaëlsson, Bryan Kestenbaum, Claes Ohlsson, Dan Mellström, Lisette C. P. G. M. De Groot, Struan F. A. Grant, Douglas P. Kiel, M. Carola Zillikens, Fernando Rivadeneira, Stephen Sawcer, Nicholas J. Timpson, J. Brent Richards Jan 2017

Low-Frequency Synonymous Coding Variation In Cyp2r1 Has Large Effects On Vitamin D Levels And Risk Of Multiple Sclerosis, Despoina Manousaki, Tom Dudding, Simon Haworth, Yi-Hsiang Hsu, Chiang-Ti Liu, Carolina Medina-Gómez, Trudy Voortman, Nathalie Van Der Velde, Håkan Melhus, Cassianne Robinson-Cohen, Diana L. Cousminer, Maria Nethander, Liesbeth Vandenput, Raymond Noordam, Vincenzo Forgetta, Celia M. T. Greenwood, Mary L. Biggs, Bruce M. Psaty, Jerome I. Rotter, Babette S. Zemel, Jonathan A. Mitchell, Bruce V. Taylor, Mattias Lorentzon, Magnus Karlsson, Vincent W. V. Jaddoe, Henning Tiemeier, Natalia Campos-Obando, Oscar H. Franco, Andre G. Utterlinden, Linda Broer, Natasja M. Van Schoor, Annelies C. Ham, M. Arfan Ikram, David Karasik, Renée De Mutsert, Frits R. Rosendaal, Martin Den Heijer, Thomas J. Wang, Lars Lind, Eric S. Orwoll, Dennis O. Mook-Kanamori, Karl Michaëlsson, Bryan Kestenbaum, Claes Ohlsson, Dan Mellström, Lisette C. P. G. M. De Groot, Struan F. A. Grant, Douglas P. Kiel, M. Carola Zillikens, Fernando Rivadeneira, Stephen Sawcer, Nicholas J. Timpson, J. Brent Richards

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Vitamin D insufficiency is common, correctable, and influenced by genetic factors, and it has been associated with risk of several diseases. We sought to identify low-frequency genetic variants that strongly increase the risk of vitamin D insufficiency and tested their effect on risk of multiple sclerosis, a disease influenced by low vitamin D concentrations. We used whole-genome sequencing data from 2,619 individuals through the UK10K program and deep-imputation data from 39,655 individuals genotyped genome-wide. Meta-analysis of the summary statistics from 19 cohorts identified in CYP2R1 the low-frequency (minor allele frequency = 2.5%) synonymous coding variant g.14900931G>A ...


Reach: Study Protocol Of A Randomised Trial Of Rehabilitation Very Early In Congenital Hemiplegia, Roslyn N. Boyd, Jenny Ziviani, Leanne Sakzewski, Iona Novak, Nadia Badawi, Kerstin Pannek, Catherine Elliott, Susan Greaves, Andrea Guzzetta, Koa Whittingham, Jane Valentine, Cathy Morgan, Margaret Wallen, Ann-Christin Eliasson, Lisa Findlay, Robert Ware, Simona Fiori, Stephen Rose Jan 2017

Reach: Study Protocol Of A Randomised Trial Of Rehabilitation Very Early In Congenital Hemiplegia, Roslyn N. Boyd, Jenny Ziviani, Leanne Sakzewski, Iona Novak, Nadia Badawi, Kerstin Pannek, Catherine Elliott, Susan Greaves, Andrea Guzzetta, Koa Whittingham, Jane Valentine, Cathy Morgan, Margaret Wallen, Ann-Christin Eliasson, Lisa Findlay, Robert Ware, Simona Fiori, Stephen Rose

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives: Congenital hemiplegia is the most common form of cerebral palsy (CP). Children with unilateral CP show signs of upper limb asymmetry by 8 months corrected age (ca) but are frequently not referred to therapy until after 12 months ca. This study compares the efficacy of infant-friendly modified constraint-induced movement therapy (Baby mCIMT) to infant friendly bimanual therapy (Baby BIM) on upper limb, cognitive and neuroplasticity outcomes in a multisite randomised comparison trial. Methods and analysis: 150 infants (75 in each group), aged between 3 and 6 months ca, with asymmetric brain injury and clinical signs of upper extremity asymmetry ...


Air Pollution Exposure During Pregnancy And Childhood Autistic Traits In Four European Population-Based Cohort Studies: The Escape Project, Mònica Guxens, Akhgar Ghassabian, Tong Gong, Raquel Garcia-Esteban, Daniela Porta, Lise Giorgis-Allemand, Catarina Almqvist, Aritz Aranbarri, Rob Beelen, Chiara Badaloni, Giulia Cesaroni, Audrey De Nazelle, Marisa Estarlich, Francesco Forastiere, Joan Forns, Ulrike Gehring, Jesús Ibarluzea, Vincent W. V. Jaddoe, Michal Korek, Paul Lichtenstein, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Marisa Rebagliato, Rémy Slama, Henning Tiemeier, Frank C. Verhulst, Heather E. Volk, Göran Pershagen, Bert Brunekreef, Jordi Sunyer Jan 2016

Air Pollution Exposure During Pregnancy And Childhood Autistic Traits In Four European Population-Based Cohort Studies: The Escape Project, Mònica Guxens, Akhgar Ghassabian, Tong Gong, Raquel Garcia-Esteban, Daniela Porta, Lise Giorgis-Allemand, Catarina Almqvist, Aritz Aranbarri, Rob Beelen, Chiara Badaloni, Giulia Cesaroni, Audrey De Nazelle, Marisa Estarlich, Francesco Forastiere, Joan Forns, Ulrike Gehring, Jesús Ibarluzea, Vincent W. V. Jaddoe, Michal Korek, Paul Lichtenstein, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Marisa Rebagliato, Rémy Slama, Henning Tiemeier, Frank C. Verhulst, Heather E. Volk, Göran Pershagen, Bert Brunekreef, Jordi Sunyer

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Prenatal exposure to air pollutants has been suggested as a possible etiologic factor for the occurrence of autism spectrum disorder. Objectives: We aimed to assess whether prenatal air pollution exposure is associated with childhood autistic traits in the general population. Methods: Ours was a collaborative study of four European population-based birth/child cohorts—CATSS (Sweden), Generation R (the Netherlands), GASPII (Italy), and INMA (Spain). Nitrogen oxides (NO2, NOx) and particulate matter (PM) with diameters of ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), ≤ 10 μm (PM10), and between 2.5 and 10 μm (PMcoarse), and PM2.5 absorbance were estimated for birth ...


Are Adolescents More Vulnerable To The Harmful Effects Of Cannabis Than Adults? A Placebo-Controlled Study In Human Males, Claire Mokrysz, Tom P. Freeman, S. Korkki, K. Griffiths, Helen V. Curran Jan 2016

Are Adolescents More Vulnerable To The Harmful Effects Of Cannabis Than Adults? A Placebo-Controlled Study In Human Males, Claire Mokrysz, Tom P. Freeman, S. Korkki, K. Griffiths, Helen V. Curran

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Preclinical research demonstrates that cannabinoids have differing effects in adolescent and adult animals. Whether these findings translate to humans has not yet been investigated. Here we believe we conducted the first study to compare the acute effects of cannabis in human adolescent (n=20; 16–17 years old) and adult (n=20; 24–28 years old) male cannabis users, in a placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over design. After inhaling vaporized active or placebo cannabis, participants completed tasks assessing spatial working memory, episodic memory and response inhibition, alongside measures of blood pressure and heart rate, psychotomimetic symptoms and subjective drug effects (for example ...


Hippocampal Harms, Protection And Recovery Following Regular Cannabis Use, Murat Yücel, Valentina Lorenzetti, C. Suo, Andrew Zalesky, Alex Fornito, Michael J. Takagi, Dan I. Lubman, Nadia Solowij Jan 2016

Hippocampal Harms, Protection And Recovery Following Regular Cannabis Use, Murat Yücel, Valentina Lorenzetti, C. Suo, Andrew Zalesky, Alex Fornito, Michael J. Takagi, Dan I. Lubman, Nadia Solowij

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Shifting policies towards legalisation of cannabis for therapeutic and recreational use raise significant ethical issues for health-care providers seeking evidence-based recommendations. We investigated whether heavy cannabis use is associated with persistent harms to the hippocampus, if exposure to cannabidiol offers protection, and whether recovery occurs with abstinence. To do this, we assessed 111 participants: 74 long-term regular cannabis users (with an average of 15.4 years of use) and 37 non-user healthy controls. Cannabis users included subgroups of participants who were either exposed to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) but not to cannabidiol (CBD) or exposed to both, and former users with sustained ...


The Role Of Cannabinoids In Neuroanatomic Alterations In Cannabis Users, Valentina Lorenzetti, Nadia Solowij, Murat Yücel Jan 2016

The Role Of Cannabinoids In Neuroanatomic Alterations In Cannabis Users, Valentina Lorenzetti, Nadia Solowij, Murat Yücel

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The past few decades have seen a marked change in the composition of commonly smoked cannabis. These changes primarily involve an increase of the psychoactive compound ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and a decrease of the potentially therapeutic compound cannabidiol (CBD). This altered composition of cannabis may be linked to persistent neuroanatomic alterations typically seen in regular cannabis users. In this review, we summarize recent findings from human structural neuroimaging investigations. We examine whether neuroanatomic alterations are 1) consistently observed in samples of regular cannabis users, particularly in cannabinoid receptor–high areas, which are vulnerable to the effects of high circulating levels of ...


Alterations In Dorsal And Ventral Posterior Cingulate Connectivity In Apoe Ε4 Carriers At Risk Of Alzheimer's Disease, Rebecca Kerestes, Pramit M. Phal, Chris Steward, Bradford A. Moffat, Simon Salinas, Kay L. Cox, Kathryn A. Ellis, Elizabeth V. Cyarto, David Ames, Ralph N. Martins, Colin L. Masters, Christopher C. Rowe, Matthew J. Sharman, Oliver Salvado, Cassandra Szoeke, Michelle Lai, Nicola T. Lautenschlager, Patricia M. Desmond Jan 2015

Alterations In Dorsal And Ventral Posterior Cingulate Connectivity In Apoe Ε4 Carriers At Risk Of Alzheimer's Disease, Rebecca Kerestes, Pramit M. Phal, Chris Steward, Bradford A. Moffat, Simon Salinas, Kay L. Cox, Kathryn A. Ellis, Elizabeth V. Cyarto, David Ames, Ralph N. Martins, Colin L. Masters, Christopher C. Rowe, Matthew J. Sharman, Oliver Salvado, Cassandra Szoeke, Michelle Lai, Nicola T. Lautenschlager, Patricia M. Desmond

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Recent evidence suggests that exercise plays a role in cognition and that the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) can be divided into dorsal and ventral subregions based on distinct connectivity patterns. Aims To examine the effect of physical activity and division of the PCC on brain functional connectivity measures in subjective memory complainers (SMC) carrying the epsilon 4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE 4) allele. Method Participants were 22 SMC carrying the APOE ɛ4 allele (ɛ4+; mean age 72.18 years) and 58 SMC non-carriers (ɛ4–; mean age 72.79 years). Connectivity of four dorsal and ventral seeds was examined ...


Characterising Upper Limb Movements In Huntington's Disease And The Impact Of Restricted Visual Cues, Jessica Despard, Anne-Marie Ternes, Bleydy Dimech-Betancourt, Govinda Poudel, Andrew Churchyard, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis Jan 2015

Characterising Upper Limb Movements In Huntington's Disease And The Impact Of Restricted Visual Cues, Jessica Despard, Anne-Marie Ternes, Bleydy Dimech-Betancourt, Govinda Poudel, Andrew Churchyard, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Voluntary motor deficits are a common feature in Huntington's disease (HD), characterised by movement slowing and performance inaccuracies. This deficit may be exacerbated when visual cues are restricted. Objective: To characterize the upper limb motor profile in HD with various levels of difficulty, with and without visual targets. Methods: Nine premanifest HD (pre-HD), nine early symptomatic HD (symp-HD) and nine matched controls completed a motor task incorporating Fitts' law, a model of human movement enabling the quantification of movement timing, via the manipulation of task difficulty (i.e., target size, and distance between targets). The task required participants ...