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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Higher Body Mass Index In Adolescence Predicts Cardiomyopathy Risk In Midlife: Long-Term Follow-Up Among Swedish Men, Josefina Robertson, Maria Schaufelberger, Martin Lindgren, Martin Adiels, Linus Schiöler, Kjell Torén, John J. V. Mcmurray, Naveed Sattar, Maria Åberg, Annika Rosengren Jan 2019

Higher Body Mass Index In Adolescence Predicts Cardiomyopathy Risk In Midlife: Long-Term Follow-Up Among Swedish Men, Josefina Robertson, Maria Schaufelberger, Martin Lindgren, Martin Adiels, Linus Schiöler, Kjell Torén, John J. V. Mcmurray, Naveed Sattar, Maria Åberg, Annika Rosengren

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Modifiable lifestyle factors in relation to risk for cardiomyopathy, a common and increasing cause of heart failure in the young, have not been widely studied. We sought to investigate a potential link between obesity, a recognized predictor of early heart failure, in adolescence and being diagnosed with cardiomyopathy in adulthood. Methods: This was a nationwide register-based prospective cohort study of 1 668 893 adolescent men (mean age, 18.3 years; SD, 0.7 years) who enlisted for compulsory military service from 1969 to 2005. At baseline, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, and medical disorders were registered, along with ...


Energy Availability In Athletics: Health, Performance, And Physique, Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam S. Tenforde, Margo Mountjoy Jan 2019

Energy Availability In Athletics: Health, Performance, And Physique, Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam S. Tenforde, Margo Mountjoy

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The reported prevalence of low energy availability (LEA) in female and male track and field athletes is between 18% and 58% with the highest prevalence among athletes in endurance and jump events. In male athletes, LEA may result in reduced testosterone levels and libido along with impaired training capacity. In female track and field athletes, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea as consequence of LEA has been reported among 60% of elite middle- and long-distance athletes and 23% among elite sprinters. Health concerns with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea include impaired bone health, elevated risk for bone stress injury, and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, LEA negatively ...


Hemopoietic Cell Kinase Amplification With Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor T Depletion Leads To Polycythemia, Aberrant Marrow Erythoid Maturation, And Splenomegaly, Matthew Ku, Ruth N. Mackinnon, Meaghan Wall, Nisha Narayan, Carl Walkley, Heung-Chin Cheng, Lynda J. Campbell, Louise E. Purton, Harshal Nandurkar Jan 2019

Hemopoietic Cell Kinase Amplification With Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor T Depletion Leads To Polycythemia, Aberrant Marrow Erythoid Maturation, And Splenomegaly, Matthew Ku, Ruth N. Mackinnon, Meaghan Wall, Nisha Narayan, Carl Walkley, Heung-Chin Cheng, Lynda J. Campbell, Louise E. Purton, Harshal Nandurkar

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Deletion of long arm of chromosome 20 [del(20q)] is the second most frequent recurrent chromosomal abnormality in hematological malignancies. It is detected in 10% of myeloproliferative neoplasms, 4–5% of myelodysplastic syndromes, and 1–2% of acute myeloid leukaemia. Recurrent, non-random occurrence of del(20q) indicates that it is a pathogenic driver in myeloid malignancies. Genetic mapping of patient samples has identified two regions of interest on 20q – the “Common Deleted Region” (CDR) and “Common Retained Region” (CRR), which was often amplified. We proposed that the CDR contained tumor suppressor gene(s) (TSG) and the CRR harbored oncogene(s ...


Alteration To Hippocampal Volume And Shape Confined To Cannabis Dependence: A Multi-Site Study [Accepted Manuscript], Yann Chye, Valentina Lorenzetti, Chao Suo, Albert Batalla, Janna Cousijn, Anna E. Goudriaan, Mark Jenkinson, Rocio Martin-Santos, Sarah Whittle, Murat Yücel, Nadia Solowij Jan 2019

Alteration To Hippocampal Volume And Shape Confined To Cannabis Dependence: A Multi-Site Study [Accepted Manuscript], Yann Chye, Valentina Lorenzetti, Chao Suo, Albert Batalla, Janna Cousijn, Anna E. Goudriaan, Mark Jenkinson, Rocio Martin-Santos, Sarah Whittle, Murat Yücel, Nadia Solowij

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Cannabis use is highly prevalent and often considered to be relatively harmless. Nonetheless, a subset of regular cannabis users may develop dependence, experiencing poorer quality of life and greater mental health problems relative to non‐dependent users. The neuroanatomy characterizing cannabis use versus dependence is poorly understood. We aimed to delineate the contributing role of cannabis use and dependence on morphology of the hippocampus, one of the most consistently altered brain regions in cannabis users, in a large multi‐site dataset aggregated across four research sites. We compared hippocampal volume and vertex‐level hippocampal shape differences (1) between 121 non ...


A Novel Method For Extracting Hierarchical Functional Subnetworks Based On A Multisubject Spectral Clustering Approach [Accepted Manuscript], Xiaoyun Liang, Chun-Hung Yeh, Alan Connelly, Fernando Calamante Jan 2019

A Novel Method For Extracting Hierarchical Functional Subnetworks Based On A Multisubject Spectral Clustering Approach [Accepted Manuscript], Xiaoyun Liang, Chun-Hung Yeh, Alan Connelly, Fernando Calamante

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Brain network modularity analysis has attracted increasing interest due to its capability in measuring the level of integration and segregation across subnetworks. Most studies have focused on extracting modules at a single level, although brain network modules are known to be organized in a hierarchical manner. A few techniques have been developed to extract hierarchical modularity in human functional brain networks using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data; however, the focus of those methods is binary networks produced by applying arbitrary thresholds of correlation coefficients to the connectivity matrices. In this study, we propose a new multisubject spectral clustering ...


Dimensionality Reduction Of Diffusion Mri Measures For Improved Tractometry Of The Human Brain, Maxime Chamberland, Erika P. Raven, Sila Genc, Kate Duffy, Maxime Descoteaux, Greg D. Parker, Chantal M. W. Tax, Derek K. Jones Jan 2019

Dimensionality Reduction Of Diffusion Mri Measures For Improved Tractometry Of The Human Brain, Maxime Chamberland, Erika P. Raven, Sila Genc, Kate Duffy, Maxime Descoteaux, Greg D. Parker, Chantal M. W. Tax, Derek K. Jones

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Various diffusion MRI (dMRI) measures have been proposed for characterising tissue microstructure over the last 15 years. Despite the growing number of experiments using different dMRI measures in assessments of white matter, there has been limited work on: 1) examining their covariance along specific pathways; and on 2) combining these different measures to study tissue microstructure. Indeed, it quickly becomes intractable for existing analysis pipelines to process multiple measurements at each voxel and at each vertex forming a streamline, highlighting the need for new ways to visualise or analyse such high-dimensional data. In a sample of 36 typically developing children ...


Increased Autophagy In Ephrinb2-Deficient Osteocytes Is Associated With Elevated Secondary Mineralization And Brittle Bone, Christina Vrahnas, Martha Blank, Toby A. Dite, Liliana Tatarczuch, Niloufar Ansari, Blessing Crimeen-Irwin, Huynh Nguyen, Mark R. Forwood, Yifang Hu, Mike Ikegame, Keith R. Bambery, Cyril Petibois, Eleanor J. Mackie, Mark J. Tobin, Gordon K. Smyth, Jonathan S. Oakhill, T. John Martin, Natalie A. Sims Jan 2019

Increased Autophagy In Ephrinb2-Deficient Osteocytes Is Associated With Elevated Secondary Mineralization And Brittle Bone, Christina Vrahnas, Martha Blank, Toby A. Dite, Liliana Tatarczuch, Niloufar Ansari, Blessing Crimeen-Irwin, Huynh Nguyen, Mark R. Forwood, Yifang Hu, Mike Ikegame, Keith R. Bambery, Cyril Petibois, Eleanor J. Mackie, Mark J. Tobin, Gordon K. Smyth, Jonathan S. Oakhill, T. John Martin, Natalie A. Sims

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Mineralized bone forms when collagen-containing osteoid accrues mineral crystals. This is initiated rapidly (primary mineralization), and continues slowly (secondary mineralization) until bone is remodeled. The interconnected osteocyte network within the bone matrix differentiates from bone-forming osteoblasts; although osteoblast differentiation requires EphrinB2, osteocytes retain its expression. Here we report brittle bones in mice with osteocyte-targeted EphrinB2 deletion. This is not caused by low bone mass, but by defective bone material. While osteoid mineralization is initiated at normal rate, mineral accrual is accelerated, indicating that EphrinB2 in osteocytes limits mineral accumulation. No known regulators of mineralization are modified in the brittle cortical ...


Optimization Of Graph Construction Can Significantly Increase The Power Of Structural Brain Network Studies, Eirini Messaritaki, Stavros I. Dimitriadis, Derek K. Jones Jan 2019

Optimization Of Graph Construction Can Significantly Increase The Power Of Structural Brain Network Studies, Eirini Messaritaki, Stavros I. Dimitriadis, Derek K. Jones

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Structural brain networks derived from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data have been used extensively to describe the human brain, and graph theory has allowed quantification of their network properties. Schemes used to construct the graphs that represent the structural brain networks differ in the metrics they use as edge weights and the algorithms they use to define the network topologies. In this work, twenty graph construction schemes were considered. The schemes use the number of streamlines, the fractional anisotropy, the mean diffusivity or other attributes of the tracts to define the edge weights, and either an absolute threshold or a ...


Differences In Brain Processing Of Proprioception Related To Postural Control In Patients With Recurrent Non-Specific Low Back Pain And Healthy Controls, Nina Goossens, Lotte Janssens, Karen Caeyenberghs, Geneviève Albouy, Simon Brumagne Jan 2019

Differences In Brain Processing Of Proprioception Related To Postural Control In Patients With Recurrent Non-Specific Low Back Pain And Healthy Controls, Nina Goossens, Lotte Janssens, Karen Caeyenberghs, Geneviève Albouy, Simon Brumagne

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Patients with non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) show an impaired postural control during standing and a slower performance of sit-to-stand-to-sit (STSTS) movements. Research suggests that these impairments could be due to an altered use of ankle compared to back proprioception. However, the neural correlates of these postural control impairments in NSLBP remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated brain activity during ankle and back proprioceptive processing by applying local muscle vibration during functional magnetic resonance imaging in 20 patients with NSLBP and 20 controls. Correlations between brain activity during proprioceptive processing and (Airaksinen et al., 2006) proprioceptive use during postural control, evaluated ...


Impulsivity And Body Fat Accumulation Are Linked To Cortical And Subcortical Brain Volumes Among Adolescents And Adults, Naomi Kakoschke, Valentina Lorenzetti, Karen Caeyenberghs, Antonio Verdejo-García Jan 2019

Impulsivity And Body Fat Accumulation Are Linked To Cortical And Subcortical Brain Volumes Among Adolescents And Adults, Naomi Kakoschke, Valentina Lorenzetti, Karen Caeyenberghs, Antonio Verdejo-García

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Obesity is associated not only with metabolic and physical health conditions, but with individual variations in cognition and brain health. This study examined the association between body fat (an index of excess weight severity), impulsivity (a vulnerability factor for obesity), and brain structure among adolescents and adults across the body mass index (BMI) spectrum. We used 3D T1 weighted anatomic magnetic resonance imaging scans to map the association between body fat and volumes in regions associated with obesity and impulsivity. Participants were 127 individuals (BMI: 18–40 kg/m2; M = 25.69 ± 5.15), aged 14 to 45 years (M ...


Amp-Activated Protein Kinase Complexes Containing The Beta2 Regulatory Subunit Are Up-Regulated During And Contribute To Adipogenesis, Omar J. Katwan, Fatmah Alghamdi, Tarek A. Almabrouk, Sarah J. Mancini, Simon Kennedy, Jonathan S. Oakhill, John W. Scott, Ian P. Salt Jan 2019

Amp-Activated Protein Kinase Complexes Containing The Beta2 Regulatory Subunit Are Up-Regulated During And Contribute To Adipogenesis, Omar J. Katwan, Fatmah Alghamdi, Tarek A. Almabrouk, Sarah J. Mancini, Simon Kennedy, Jonathan S. Oakhill, John W. Scott, Ian P. Salt

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimer of α-catalytic and β- and γ-regulatory subunits that acts to regulate cellular and whole-body nutrient metabolism. The key role of AMPK in sensing energy status has led to significant interest in AMPK as a therapeutic target for dysfunctional metabolism in type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and obesity. Despite the actions of AMPK in the liver and skeletal muscle being extensively studied, the role of AMPK in adipose tissue and adipocytes remains less well characterised. Small molecules that selectively influence AMPK heterotrimers containing specific AMPKβ subunit isoforms have been developed, including MT47-100, which selectively ...


Comparing Mri Metrics To Quantify White Matter Microstructural Damage In Multiple Sclerosis, Ilona Lipp, Derek K. Jones, Sonya Bells, Eleonora Sgarlata, Catherine Foster, Rachael Stickland, Alison E. Davidson, Emma C. Tallantyre, Neil P. Robertson, Richard G. Wise, Valentina Tomassini Jan 2019

Comparing Mri Metrics To Quantify White Matter Microstructural Damage In Multiple Sclerosis, Ilona Lipp, Derek K. Jones, Sonya Bells, Eleonora Sgarlata, Catherine Foster, Rachael Stickland, Alison E. Davidson, Emma C. Tallantyre, Neil P. Robertson, Richard G. Wise, Valentina Tomassini

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Quantifying white matter damage in vivo is becoming increasingly important for investigating the effects of neuroprotective and repair strategies in multiple sclerosis (MS). While various approaches are available, the relationship between MRI‐based metrics of white matter microstructure in the disease, that is, to what extent the metrics provide complementary versus redundant information, remains largely unexplored. We obtained four microstructural metrics from 123 MS patients: fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), myelin water fraction (MWF), and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR). Coregistration of maps of these four indices allowed quantification of microstructural damage through voxel‐wise damage scores relative to healthy ...


Fat From Dairy Foods And 'Meat' Consumed Within Recommended Levels Is Associated With Favourable Serum Cholesterol Levels In Institutionalised Older Adults, Yusi Liu, Shirley Poon, Ego Seeman, David L. Hare, Minh Q. Bui, Sandra Iuliano Jan 2019

Fat From Dairy Foods And 'Meat' Consumed Within Recommended Levels Is Associated With Favourable Serum Cholesterol Levels In Institutionalised Older Adults, Yusi Liu, Shirley Poon, Ego Seeman, David L. Hare, Minh Q. Bui, Sandra Iuliano

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

CVD is common in older adults. Consumption of ‘meat’ (beef, pork, lamb, game, poultry, seafood, eggs) and dairy foods (milk, cheese, yoghurt) is encouraged in older adults as these foods provide protein and nutrients such as essential fatty acids, Ca, Fe, Zn and vitamins A, D and B12 required for healthy ageing. However, these foods also contain saturated fats considered detrimental to cardiovascular health. To determine the effect of their consumption on CVD risk we assessed associations between fat intake from ‘meat’ and dairy foods and serum cholesterol levels in 226 aged-care residents (mean age 85·5 years, 70 % female ...


Fornix White Matter Glia Damage Causes Hippocampal Gray Matter Damage During Age-Dependent Limbic Decline, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, Jilu P. Mole, Rebecca Sims, Fabrizio Fasano, John Evans, Derek K. Jones, John P. Aggleton, Roland J. Baddeley Jan 2019

Fornix White Matter Glia Damage Causes Hippocampal Gray Matter Damage During Age-Dependent Limbic Decline, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, Jilu P. Mole, Rebecca Sims, Fabrizio Fasano, John Evans, Derek K. Jones, John P. Aggleton, Roland J. Baddeley

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Aging leads to gray and white matter decline but their causation remains unclear. We explored two classes of models of age and dementia risk related brain changes. The first class of models emphasises the importance of gray matter: age and risk-related processes cause neurodegeneration and this causes damage in associated white matter tracts. The second class of models reverses the direction of causation: aging and risk factors cause white matter damage and this leads to gray matter damage. We compared these models with linear mediation analysis and quantitative MRI indices (from diffusion, quantitative magnetization transfer and relaxometry imaging) of tissue ...


High Versus Low Dietary Protein Intake And Bone Health In Older Adults: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Inge Groenendijk, Laura Den Boeft, J. C. Van Loon, Lisette C. P. G. M. De Groot Jan 2019

High Versus Low Dietary Protein Intake And Bone Health In Older Adults: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Inge Groenendijk, Laura Den Boeft, J. C. Van Loon, Lisette C. P. G. M. De Groot

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Protein may play a beneficial role in the prevention of bone loss and in slowing down osteoporosis. The effect of dietary protein may be different in older adults compared to younger adults, since this population has a greater need for protein. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the impact of a dietary protein intake above the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 0.8 g/kg body weight/day from any source on Bone Mineral Density (BMD)/Bone Mineral Content (BMC), bone turnover markers, and fracture risk in older adults compared to a lower dietary protein ...


Import Of Extracellular Atp In Yeast And Man Modulates Ampk And Torc1 Signalling, Gabriella M. Forte, Elizabeth Davie, Shervi Lie, Mirita Franz-Wachtel, Ashley J. Ovens, Tingting Wang, Jonathan S. Oakhill, Boris MačEk, Iain M. Hagan, Janni Petersen Jan 2019

Import Of Extracellular Atp In Yeast And Man Modulates Ampk And Torc1 Signalling, Gabriella M. Forte, Elizabeth Davie, Shervi Lie, Mirita Franz-Wachtel, Ashley J. Ovens, Tingting Wang, Jonathan S. Oakhill, Boris MačEk, Iain M. Hagan, Janni Petersen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling coordinate cell growth, proliferation, metabolism and cell survival with the nutrient environment of cells. The poor vasculature and nutritional stress experienced by cells in solid tumours raises the question: how do they assimilate sufficient nutrients to survive? Here, we show that human and fission yeast cells import ATP and AMP from their external environment to regulate AMPK and TOR signalling. Exposure of fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and human cells to external AMP impeded cell growth; however, in yeast this restraining impact required AMPK. In contrast, external ATP rescued the growth defect ...


Increased Cortical Porosity And Reduced Trabecular Density Are Not Necessarily Synonymous With Bone Loss And Microstructural Deterioration, Roger M. Zebaze, Elizabeth J. Atkinson, Yu Peng, Minh Bui, Ali Ghasem-Zadeh, Sundeep Khosla, Ego Seeman Jan 2019

Increased Cortical Porosity And Reduced Trabecular Density Are Not Necessarily Synonymous With Bone Loss And Microstructural Deterioration, Roger M. Zebaze, Elizabeth J. Atkinson, Yu Peng, Minh Bui, Ali Ghasem-Zadeh, Sundeep Khosla, Ego Seeman

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Absolute values of cortical porosity and trabecular density are used to estimate fracture risk, but these values are the net result of their growth‐related assembly and age‐related deterioration. Because bone loss affects both cortical and trabecular bone, we hypothesized that a surrogate measure of bone fragility should capture the age‐related deterioration of both traits, and should do so independently of their peak values. Accordingly, we developed a structural fragility score (SFS), which quantifies the increment in distal radial cortical porosity and decrement in trabecular density relative to their premenopausal mean values in 99 postmenopausal women with forearm ...


Inhibition Of Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase-3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase Signaling Leads To Hypercholesterolemia And Promotes Hepatic Steatosis And Insulin Resistance, Kim Loh, Shanna Tam, Lisa Murray-Segal, Kevin Huynh, Peter J. Meikle, John W. Scott, Bryce J. Van Denderen, Zhiping Chen, Rohan Steel, Nicholas D. Leblond, Leah A. Burkovsky, Conor O'Dwyer, Julia R. C. Nunes, Gregory R. Steinberg, Morgan D. Fullerton, Sandra Galic, Bruce E. Kemp Jan 2019

Inhibition Of Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase-3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase Signaling Leads To Hypercholesterolemia And Promotes Hepatic Steatosis And Insulin Resistance, Kim Loh, Shanna Tam, Lisa Murray-Segal, Kevin Huynh, Peter J. Meikle, John W. Scott, Bryce J. Van Denderen, Zhiping Chen, Rohan Steel, Nicholas D. Leblond, Leah A. Burkovsky, Conor O'Dwyer, Julia R. C. Nunes, Gregory R. Steinberg, Morgan D. Fullerton, Sandra Galic, Bruce E. Kemp

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates multiple signaling pathways involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in response to changes in hormonal and nutrient status. Cell culture studies have shown that AMPK phosphorylation and inhibition of the rate‐limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway 3‐hydroxy‐3‐methylglutaryl (HMG) coenzyme A (CoA) reductase (HMGCR) at serine‐871 (Ser871; human HMGCR Ser872) suppresses cholesterol synthesis. In order to evaluate the role of AMPK‐HMGCR signaling in vivo, we generated mice with a Ser871‐alanine (Ala) knock‐in mutation (HMGCR KI). Cholesterol synthesis was significantly suppressed in wild‐type (WT) but not ...


Quantitative Proteomic Analyses Of Dynamic Signalling Events In Cortical Neurons Undergoing Excitotoxic Cell Death, Ashfaqul Hoque, Nicholas A. Williamson, S. Sadia Ameen, Giuseppe D. Ciccotosto, Mohammed Iqbal Hossain, Jonathan S. Oakhill, Dominic C. H. Ng, Ching-Seng Ang, Heung-Chin Cheng Jan 2019

Quantitative Proteomic Analyses Of Dynamic Signalling Events In Cortical Neurons Undergoing Excitotoxic Cell Death, Ashfaqul Hoque, Nicholas A. Williamson, S. Sadia Ameen, Giuseppe D. Ciccotosto, Mohammed Iqbal Hossain, Jonathan S. Oakhill, Dominic C. H. Ng, Ching-Seng Ang, Heung-Chin Cheng

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Excitotoxicity, caused by overstimulation or dysregulation of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs), is a pathological process directing neuronal death in many neurological disorders. The aberrantly stimulated iGluRs direct massive influx of calcium ions into the affected neurons, leading to changes in expression and phosphorylation of specific proteins to modulate their functions and direct their participation in the signalling pathways that induce excitotoxic neuronal death. To define these pathways, we used quantitative proteomic approaches to identify these neuronal proteins (referred to as the changed proteins) and determine how their expression and/or phosphorylation dynamically changed in association with excitotoxic cell death. Our ...


Sex-Specific Effects Of Central Adiposity And Inflammatory Markers On Limbic Microstructure, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, Jilu P. Mole, Erika Leonaviciude, Rebecca Sims, Emma J. Kidd, Benyamin Ertefai, Aurora Kelso-Mitchell, Florence Gidney, Fabrizio Fasano, John Evans, Derek K. Jones, Roland J. Baddeley Jan 2019

Sex-Specific Effects Of Central Adiposity And Inflammatory Markers On Limbic Microstructure, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, Jilu P. Mole, Erika Leonaviciude, Rebecca Sims, Emma J. Kidd, Benyamin Ertefai, Aurora Kelso-Mitchell, Florence Gidney, Fabrizio Fasano, John Evans, Derek K. Jones, Roland J. Baddeley

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Midlife obesity is a risk factor of late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) but why this is the case remains unknown. As systemic inflammation is involved in both conditions, obesity-related neuroinflammation may contribute to damage in limbic structures important in LOAD. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that systemic inflammation would mediate central obesity related effects on limbic tissue microstructure in 166 asymptomatic individuals (38–71 years old). We employed MRI indices sensitive to myelin and neuroinflammation [macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) and kf] from quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) together with indices from neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) to investigate ...


The Cueped Trial: How Does Environmental Complexity Impact Cue Effectiveness? A Comparison Of Tonic And Phasic Visual Cueing In Simple And Complex Environments In A Parkinson’S Disease Population With Freezing Of Gait, Rodney Marsh, Michael H. Cole, Nadeeka N. W. Dissanayaka, Tiffany R. Au, Sandra Clewett, John D. O'Sullivan, Peter A. Silburn Jan 2019

The Cueped Trial: How Does Environmental Complexity Impact Cue Effectiveness? A Comparison Of Tonic And Phasic Visual Cueing In Simple And Complex Environments In A Parkinson’S Disease Population With Freezing Of Gait, Rodney Marsh, Michael H. Cole, Nadeeka N. W. Dissanayaka, Tiffany R. Au, Sandra Clewett, John D. O'Sullivan, Peter A. Silburn

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background. The optimal prescription of cueing for the treatment of freezing of gait (FoG) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is currently a difficult problem for clinicians due to the heterogeneity of cueing modalities, devices, and the limited comparative trial evidence. There has been a rise in the development of motion-sensitive, wearable cueing devices for the treatment of FoG in PD. These devices generally produce cues after signature gait or electroencephalographic antecedents of FoG episodes are detected (phasic cues). It is not known whether these devices offer benefit over simple (tonic) cueing devices. Methods. We assembled 20 participants with PD and ...


The Structural Connectome In Traumatic Brain Injury: A Meta-Analysis Of Graph Metrics [Accepted Manuscript], Phoebe Imms, Adam Clemente, Mark Cook, Wendyl D'Souza, Peter H. Wilson, Derek K. Jones, Karen Caeyenberghs Jan 2019

The Structural Connectome In Traumatic Brain Injury: A Meta-Analysis Of Graph Metrics [Accepted Manuscript], Phoebe Imms, Adam Clemente, Mark Cook, Wendyl D'Souza, Peter H. Wilson, Derek K. Jones, Karen Caeyenberghs

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Although recent structural connectivity studies of traumatic brain injury (TBI) have used graph theory to evaluate alterations in global integration and functional segregation, pooled analysis is needed to examine the robust patterns of change in graph metrics across studies. Following a systematic search, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria for review. Of these, ten studies were included in a random-effects meta-analysis of global graph metrics, and subgroup analyses examined the confounding effects of severity and time since injury. The meta-analysis revealed significantly higher values of normalised clustering coefficient (gö=ö1.445, CI=[0.512, 2.378], pö=ö0.002) and ...


The Superoanterior Fasciculus (Saf): A Novel White Matter Pathway In The Human Brain?, Szabolcs David, Anneriet M. Heemskerk, Francesco Corrivetti, Michel Thiebaut De Schotten, Silvio Sarubbo, Francesco Corsini, Alessandro De Benedictis, Laurent Petit, Max A. Viergever, Derek K. Jones, Emmanuel Mandonnet, Hubertus Axer, John Evans, Tomáš Paus, Alexander Leemans Jan 2019

The Superoanterior Fasciculus (Saf): A Novel White Matter Pathway In The Human Brain?, Szabolcs David, Anneriet M. Heemskerk, Francesco Corrivetti, Michel Thiebaut De Schotten, Silvio Sarubbo, Francesco Corsini, Alessandro De Benedictis, Laurent Petit, Max A. Viergever, Derek K. Jones, Emmanuel Mandonnet, Hubertus Axer, John Evans, Tomáš Paus, Alexander Leemans

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Fiber tractography (FT) using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is widely used for investigating microstructural properties of white matter (WM) fiber-bundles and for mapping structural connections of the human brain. While studying the architectural configuration of the brain’s circuitry with FT is not without controversy, recent progress in acquisition, processing, modeling, analysis, and visualization of dMRI data pushes forward the reliability in reconstructing WM pathways. Despite being aware of the well-known pitfalls in analyzing dMRI data and several other limitations of FT discussed in recent literature, we present the superoanterior fasciculus (SAF), a novel bilateral fiber tract in the ...


Alternate Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Parameters To Manage Motor Symptoms Of Parkinson's Disease: Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis [Accepted Manuscript], Zachary J. Conway, Peter A. Silburn, Wesley Thevathasan, Karen O'Maley, Geraldine Naughton, Michael H. Cole Jan 2019

Alternate Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Parameters To Manage Motor Symptoms Of Parkinson's Disease: Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis [Accepted Manuscript], Zachary J. Conway, Peter A. Silburn, Wesley Thevathasan, Karen O'Maley, Geraldine Naughton, Michael H. Cole

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background The use of alternate frequencies, amplitudes, and pulse widths to manage motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN‐DBS) is of clinical interest, but currently lacks systematic evidence. Objective/Hypothesis Systematically review whether alternate STN‐DBS settings influence the therapy's efficacy for managing PD motor symptoms. Methods Systematic searches identified studies that; involved bilateral STN‐DBS PD patients; manipulated ≥ 1 STN‐DBS parameter (e.g., amplitude); assessed ≥ 1 motor symptom (e.g., tremor); and contrasted the experimental and chronic stimulation settings. A Mantel‐Haenszel random‐effects meta‐analysis compared the ...


White Matter Organization In Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Pilot Study Exploring The Added Value Of Constrained Spherical Deconvolution, Christian Hyde, Ian Fuelscher, Peter G. Enticott, Derek K. Jones, Shawna Farquharson, Tim J. Silk, Jacqueline Williams, Karen Caeyenberghs Jan 2019

White Matter Organization In Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Pilot Study Exploring The Added Value Of Constrained Spherical Deconvolution, Christian Hyde, Ian Fuelscher, Peter G. Enticott, Derek K. Jones, Shawna Farquharson, Tim J. Silk, Jacqueline Williams, Karen Caeyenberghs

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Previous studies of white matter organization in sensorimotor tracts in developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have adopted diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a method unable to reconcile pathways with ‘crossing fibres’. In response to limitations of the commonly adopted DTI approach, the present study employed a framework that can reconcile the ‘crossing fibre’ problem (i.e., constrained spherical deconvolution- CSD) to characterize white matter tissue organization of sensorimotor tracts in young adults with DCD. Participants were 19 healthy adults aged 18–46: 7 met diagnostic criteria for DCD (4 females) and 12 were controls (3 females). All underwent high angular diffusion MRI ...


Efficacy Of Treatments For Demodex Blepharitis: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Valentin Navel, Aurélien Mulliez, Cédric Benoist D'Azy, Julien S. Baker, Jean Malecaze, Frédéric Chiambaretta, Frederic Dutheil Jan 2019

Efficacy Of Treatments For Demodex Blepharitis: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Valentin Navel, Aurélien Mulliez, Cédric Benoist D'Azy, Julien S. Baker, Jean Malecaze, Frédéric Chiambaretta, Frederic Dutheil

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Purpose We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of different treatment for Demodex blepharitis. Parameters studied were mites count, improvement of symptoms and mites’ eradication, stratified on type of treatments and mode of delivery of treatments (local or systemic). Method The PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, Google scholar and Science Direct databases were searched for studies reporting an efficacy of treatments for Demodex blepharitis. Results We included 19 studies (14 observational and 5 randomized clinical trials), for a total of 934 patients, 1741 eyes, and 13 different treatments. For mites count, eradication rate, and symptoms ...


High Dietary Fat Intake Increases Fat Oxidation And Reduces Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Respiration In Trained Humans [Accepted Manuscript], Jill J. Leckey, Nolan J. Hoffman, Evelyn B. Parr, Brooke L. Devlin, Adam J. Trewin, Nigel K. Stepto, James P. Morton, Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley Jun 2018

High Dietary Fat Intake Increases Fat Oxidation And Reduces Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Respiration In Trained Humans [Accepted Manuscript], Jill J. Leckey, Nolan J. Hoffman, Evelyn B. Parr, Brooke L. Devlin, Adam J. Trewin, Nigel K. Stepto, James P. Morton, Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

High-fat, low-carbohydrate (CHO) diets increase whole-body rates of fat oxidation and down-regulate CHO metabolism. We measured substrate utilization and skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration to determine whether these adaptations are driven by high fat or low CHO availability. In a randomized crossover design, 8male cyclists consumed5dof a high-CHO diet [>70%energy intake (EI)], followed by 5dof either an isoenergetic high-fat (HFAT; >65% EI) or high-protein diet (HPRO; >65% EI) with CHO intake clamped at


Geography Of Fracture Incidence In Postmenopausal Women With Osteoporosis Treated With Abaloparatide, Michael Mcclung, Gregory C. Williams, Gary Hattersley, Lorraine A. Fitzpatrick, Yamei Wang, Paul Miller Jan 2018

Geography Of Fracture Incidence In Postmenopausal Women With Osteoporosis Treated With Abaloparatide, Michael Mcclung, Gregory C. Williams, Gary Hattersley, Lorraine A. Fitzpatrick, Yamei Wang, Paul Miller

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Geographic heterogeneity has been observed in fracture risk and efficacy of therapeutic intervention in postmenopausal osteoporosis. The objectives of these analyses were to assess across geographic and ethnic subgroups the heterogeneity of fracture incidence and baseline risk, and consistency of effect of abaloparatide-SC vs placebo on fracture risk reduction in the 18-month, phase 3, multinational, ACTIVE randomized controlled trial. Prespecified exploratory analyses of geographic subgroups (North America, South America, Europe, Asia) and post hoc analyses of ethnic subgroups (Hispanic or Latino, other) of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis enrolled in the abaloparatide-SC and placebo cohorts (n = 1645) were performed. Country-specific FRAX ...


Interactive Roles For Ampk And Glycogen From Cellular Energy Sensing To Exercise Metabolism, Natalie Janzen, Jamie Whitfield, Nolan Hoffman Jan 2018

Interactive Roles For Ampk And Glycogen From Cellular Energy Sensing To Exercise Metabolism, Natalie Janzen, Jamie Whitfield, Nolan Hoffman

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric complex with central roles in cellular energy sensing and the regulation of metabolism and exercise adaptations. AMPK regulatory β subunits contain a conserved carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) that binds glycogen, the major tissue storage form of glucose. Research over the past two decades has revealed that the regulation of AMPK is impacted by glycogen availability, and glycogen storage dynamics are concurrently regulated by AMPK activity. This growing body of research has uncovered new evidence of physical and functional interactive roles for AMPK and glycogen ranging from cellular energy sensing to the regulation of ...


Individual Differences Influencing Immediate Effects Of Internal And External Focus Instructions On Children’S Motor Performance, Femke Van Abswoude, Nienke B. Nuijen, John Van Der Kamp, Bert Steenbergen Jan 2018

Individual Differences Influencing Immediate Effects Of Internal And External Focus Instructions On Children’S Motor Performance, Femke Van Abswoude, Nienke B. Nuijen, John Van Der Kamp, Bert Steenbergen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Purpose: A large pool of evidence supports the beneficial effect of an external focus of attention on motor skill performance in adults. In children, this effect has been studied less and results are inconclusive. Importantly, individual differences are often not taken into account. We investigated the role of working memory, conscious motor control, and task-specific focus preferences on performance with an internal and external focus of attention in children. Methods: Twenty-five children practiced a golf putting task in both an internal focus condition and external focus condition. Performance was defined as the average distance toward the hole in 3 blocks ...