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How Well Do Seniors Estimate Distance To Food? The Accuracy Of Older Adults' Reported Proximity To Local Grocery Stores, Benjamin W. Chrisinger, Abby C. King, Jenna Hua, Brian E. Saelens, Lawrence D. Frank, Terry L. Conway, Kelli L. Cain, James F. Sallis Jan 2019

How Well Do Seniors Estimate Distance To Food? The Accuracy Of Older Adults' Reported Proximity To Local Grocery Stores, Benjamin W. Chrisinger, Abby C. King, Jenna Hua, Brian E. Saelens, Lawrence D. Frank, Terry L. Conway, Kelli L. Cain, James F. Sallis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

(1) Background: Findings from observational studies of relations between neighborhood environments and health outcomes underscore the importance of both objective and perceived experiences of those environments. A clearer understanding of the factors associated with discrepancies between these two assessment approaches is needed to tailor public health interventions to specific populations. This study examined how individual and neighborhood characteristics affect perceptions of supermarket distance, particularly when perceptions do not match objective measures. (2) Methods: Participants were older adults (n = 880) participating in the Senior Neighborhood Quality of Life Study in the Seattle/King County, WA or Baltimore/Washington, DC regions. Two ...


Modeling Human Rna Spliceosome Mutations In The Mouse: Not All Mice Were Created Equal [Accepted Manuscript], Jane Jialu Xu, Monique F. Smeets, Shuh Ying Tan, Meaghan Wall, Louise E. Purton, Carl R. Walkley Jan 2019

Modeling Human Rna Spliceosome Mutations In The Mouse: Not All Mice Were Created Equal [Accepted Manuscript], Jane Jialu Xu, Monique F. Smeets, Shuh Ying Tan, Meaghan Wall, Louise E. Purton, Carl R. Walkley

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and related myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPNs) are clonal stem cell disorders, primarily affecting patients over 65 years of age. Mapping of the MDS and MDS/MPN genome identified recurrent heterozygous mutations in the RNA splicing machinery, with the SF3B1, SRSF2, and U2AF1 genes being frequently mutated. To better understand how spliceosomal mutations contribute to MDS pathogenesis in vivo, numerous groups have sought to establish conditional murine models of SF3B1, SRSF2, and U2AF1 mutations. The high degree of conservation of hematopoiesis between mice and human and the well-established phenotyping and genetic modification approaches make murine models an ...


Patterns Of Objectively Assessed Sedentary Time And Physical Activity Among Japanese Workers: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study, Satoshi Kurita, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Neville Owen, Koichiro Oka Jan 2019

Patterns Of Objectively Assessed Sedentary Time And Physical Activity Among Japanese Workers: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study, Satoshi Kurita, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Neville Owen, Koichiro Oka

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives: To examine patterns of sedentary behaviour and physical activity, among Japanese workers with differing occupational activity types. Design: A cross-sectional observational study in 2013–2015. Setting: Two local communities in Japan. Participants: Full-time workers aged 40–64 years (n=345; 55% men) and who lived in two cities. Main outcome measures: From accelerometer data for 7 days, mean overall sedentary time, prolonged bouts of sedentary time and light-and moderate-to vigorous-intensity of physical activity (LPA and MVPA) as a proportion of accelerometer wear time and number of breaks per sedentary hour were identified for four time periods: working hours, workdays ...


Do Physical Activity Social Cohesion, And Loneliness Mediate The Association Between Time Spent Visiting Green Space And Mental Health?, Magdalena M. Van Den Berg, Mireille Van Poppel, Irene Van Kamp, Annemarie Ruijsbroek, Margarita Triguero-Mas, Christopher Gidlow, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Regina Gražulevičiene, Willem Van Mechelen, Hanneke Kruize, Jolanda Maas Jan 2019

Do Physical Activity Social Cohesion, And Loneliness Mediate The Association Between Time Spent Visiting Green Space And Mental Health?, Magdalena M. Van Den Berg, Mireille Van Poppel, Irene Van Kamp, Annemarie Ruijsbroek, Margarita Triguero-Mas, Christopher Gidlow, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Regina Gražulevičiene, Willem Van Mechelen, Hanneke Kruize, Jolanda Maas

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

This cross-sectional study investigated whether physical activity, social cohesion, and loneliness mediate the association between time spent visiting green spaces and perceived mental health and vitality. Questionnaire data were collected from 3,948 residents from 124 neighborhoods across four European cities. Multilevel linear regression analysis revealed positive, but weak, associations between time spent visiting green space and Medical Outcome Study Short Form (SF-36) mental health and vitality score, which suggest small mental health benefits. Single mediation analyses showed that different indicators of physical activity (total, during leisure time, and walking during leisure time), social cohesion, and loneliness were mediators. Multiple ...


Pubertal Timing And Adult Fracture Risk In Men: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Liesbeth Vandenput, Jenny M. Kindblom, Maria Bygdell, Maria Nethander, Claes Ohlsson Jan 2019

Pubertal Timing And Adult Fracture Risk In Men: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Liesbeth Vandenput, Jenny M. Kindblom, Maria Bygdell, Maria Nethander, Claes Ohlsson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Puberty is a critical period for bone mass accrual, and late puberty in boys is associated with reduced bone mass in adult men. The role of variations in pubertal timing within the normal range for adult fracture risk in men is, however, unknown. We, therefore, assessed the association between age at peak height velocity (PHV), an objective measure of pubertal timing, and fracture risk in adult men. Methods and findings: In the BMI Epidemiology Study Gothenburg, 31,971 Swedish men born between January 1, 1945, and December 31, 1961, with detailed growth data (height and weight) available from centrally ...


Increased Autophagy In Ephrinb2-Deficient Osteocytes Is Associated With Elevated Secondary Mineralization And Brittle Bone, Christina Vrahnas, Martha Blank, Toby A. Dite, Liliana Tatarczuch, Niloufar Ansari, Blessing Crimeen-Irwin, Huynh Nguyen, Mark R. Forwood, Yifang Hu, Mike Ikegame, Keith R. Bambery, Cyril Petibois, Eleanor J. Mackie, Mark J. Tobin, Gordon K. Smyth, Jonathan S. Oakhill, T. John Martin, Natalie A. Sims Jan 2019

Increased Autophagy In Ephrinb2-Deficient Osteocytes Is Associated With Elevated Secondary Mineralization And Brittle Bone, Christina Vrahnas, Martha Blank, Toby A. Dite, Liliana Tatarczuch, Niloufar Ansari, Blessing Crimeen-Irwin, Huynh Nguyen, Mark R. Forwood, Yifang Hu, Mike Ikegame, Keith R. Bambery, Cyril Petibois, Eleanor J. Mackie, Mark J. Tobin, Gordon K. Smyth, Jonathan S. Oakhill, T. John Martin, Natalie A. Sims

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Mineralized bone forms when collagen-containing osteoid accrues mineral crystals. This is initiated rapidly (primary mineralization), and continues slowly (secondary mineralization) until bone is remodeled. The interconnected osteocyte network within the bone matrix differentiates from bone-forming osteoblasts; although osteoblast differentiation requires EphrinB2, osteocytes retain its expression. Here we report brittle bones in mice with osteocyte-targeted EphrinB2 deletion. This is not caused by low bone mass, but by defective bone material. While osteoid mineralization is initiated at normal rate, mineral accrual is accelerated, indicating that EphrinB2 in osteocytes limits mineral accumulation. No known regulators of mineralization are modified in the brittle cortical ...


Personal Assessment Of The External Exposome During Pregnancy And Childhood In Europe [Accepted Manuscript], David Donaire Gonzalez, Ariadna Curto, Antònia Valentin, Sandra Andrusaityte, Xavier Basagaña, Maribel Casas, Leda Chatzi, Jeroen De Bont, Montserrat De Castro, Audrius Dedele, Berit Granum, Regina Grazuleviciene, Mariza Kampouri, Sarah Lyon-Caen, Cyntia B. Manzano-Salgado, Gunn Marit Aasvang, Rosemary R. C. Mceachan, Carin Helena Meinhard-Kjellstad, Eirini Michalaki, Pau Pañella, Inga Petraviciene, Per E. Schwarze, Rémy Slama, Oliver Robinson, Ibon Tamayo-Uria, Marina Vafeiadi, Dagmar Waiblinger, John Wright, Martine Vrijheid Jan 2019

Personal Assessment Of The External Exposome During Pregnancy And Childhood In Europe [Accepted Manuscript], David Donaire Gonzalez, Ariadna Curto, Antònia Valentin, Sandra Andrusaityte, Xavier Basagaña, Maribel Casas, Leda Chatzi, Jeroen De Bont, Montserrat De Castro, Audrius Dedele, Berit Granum, Regina Grazuleviciene, Mariza Kampouri, Sarah Lyon-Caen, Cyntia B. Manzano-Salgado, Gunn Marit Aasvang, Rosemary R. C. Mceachan, Carin Helena Meinhard-Kjellstad, Eirini Michalaki, Pau Pañella, Inga Petraviciene, Per E. Schwarze, Rémy Slama, Oliver Robinson, Ibon Tamayo-Uria, Marina Vafeiadi, Dagmar Waiblinger, John Wright, Martine Vrijheid

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The human exposome affects child development and health later in life, but its personal external levels, variability, and correlations are largely unknown. We characterized the personal external exposome of pregnant women and children in eight European cities. Panel studies included 167 pregnant women and 183 children (aged 6–11 years). A personal exposure monitoring kit composed of smartphone, accelerometer, ultraviolet (UV) dosimeter, and two air pollution monitors were used to monitor physical activity (PA), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, traffic-related noise, UV-B radiation, and natural outdoor environments (NOE). 77% of women performed the adult recommendation of ≥150 min ...


Increased Cortical Porosity And Reduced Trabecular Density Are Not Necessarily Synonymous With Bone Loss And Microstructural Deterioration, Roger M. Zebaze, Elizabeth J. Atkinson, Yu Peng, Minh Bui, Ali Ghasem-Zadeh, Sundeep Khosla, Ego Seeman Jan 2019

Increased Cortical Porosity And Reduced Trabecular Density Are Not Necessarily Synonymous With Bone Loss And Microstructural Deterioration, Roger M. Zebaze, Elizabeth J. Atkinson, Yu Peng, Minh Bui, Ali Ghasem-Zadeh, Sundeep Khosla, Ego Seeman

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Absolute values of cortical porosity and trabecular density are used to estimate fracture risk, but these values are the net result of their growth‐related assembly and age‐related deterioration. Because bone loss affects both cortical and trabecular bone, we hypothesized that a surrogate measure of bone fragility should capture the age‐related deterioration of both traits, and should do so independently of their peak values. Accordingly, we developed a structural fragility score (SFS), which quantifies the increment in distal radial cortical porosity and decrement in trabecular density relative to their premenopausal mean values in 99 postmenopausal women with forearm ...


Special Environments: Altitude And Heat, Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Robert F. Chapman, Julien D. Périard Jan 2019

Special Environments: Altitude And Heat, Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Robert F. Chapman, Julien D. Périard

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

High-level athletes are always looking at ways to maximize training adaptations for competition performance, and using altered environmental conditions to achieve this outcome has become increasingly popular by elite athletes. Furthermore, a series of potential nutrition and hydration interventions may also optimize the adaptation to altered environments. Altitude training was first used to prepare for competition at altitude, and it still is today; however, more often now, elite athletes embark on a series of altitude training camps to try to improve sea-level performance. Similarly, the use of heat acclimation/acclimatization to optimize performance in hot/humid environmental conditions is a ...


Contemporary Nutrition Interventions To Optimize Performance In Middle-Distance Runners, Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim, Jamie Whitfield Jan 2019

Contemporary Nutrition Interventions To Optimize Performance In Middle-Distance Runners, Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim, Jamie Whitfield

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Middle-distance runners utilize the full continuum of energy systems throughout training, and given the infinite competition tactical scenarios, this event group is highly complex from a performance intervention point of view. However, this complexity results in numerous potential periodized nutrition interventions to optimize middle-distance training adaptation and competition performance. Middle-distance race intensity is extreme, with 800- to 5,000-m races being at ∼95% to 130% of VO2max. Accordingly, elite middle-distance runners have primarily Type IIa/IIx fiber morphology and rely almost exclusively on carbohydrate (primarily muscle glycogen) metabolic pathways for producing adenosine triphosphate. Consequently, the principle nutritional interventions that should ...


Environmental, Health, Wellbeing, Social And Equity Effects Of Urban Green Space Interventions: A Meta-Narrative Evidence Synthesis, Ruth F. Hunter, C. Cleland, A. Cleary, Mariël Droomers, Benedict W. Wheeler, D. Sinnett, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, M. Braubach Jan 2019

Environmental, Health, Wellbeing, Social And Equity Effects Of Urban Green Space Interventions: A Meta-Narrative Evidence Synthesis, Ruth F. Hunter, C. Cleland, A. Cleary, Mariël Droomers, Benedict W. Wheeler, D. Sinnett, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, M. Braubach

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background As populations become increasingly urbanised, the preservation of urban green space (UGS) becomes paramount. UGS is not just dedicated recreational space such as public parks, but other types of informal green space are important, for example, street trees and roof gardens. Despite the potential from cross-sectional evidence, we know little about how to design new, or improve or promote existing UGS for health, wellbeing, social and environmental benefits, or known influencing factors such as physical activity. Objectives To perform a meta-narrative review of the evidence regarding the health, wellbeing, social, environmental and equity effects, or known influencing factors of ...


Expoapp: An Integrated System To Assess Multiple Personal Environmental Exposures, David Donaire-Gonzalez, Antònia Valentín, Erik Van Nunen, Ariadna Curto, Albert Rodriguez, Mario Fernandez-Nieto, Alessio Naccarati, Sonia Tarallo, Ming-Yi Tsai, Nicole M. Probst-Hensch, Roel Vermeulen, Gerard Hoek, Paolo Vineis, John Gulliver, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen Jan 2019

Expoapp: An Integrated System To Assess Multiple Personal Environmental Exposures, David Donaire-Gonzalez, Antònia Valentín, Erik Van Nunen, Ariadna Curto, Albert Rodriguez, Mario Fernandez-Nieto, Alessio Naccarati, Sonia Tarallo, Ming-Yi Tsai, Nicole M. Probst-Hensch, Roel Vermeulen, Gerard Hoek, Paolo Vineis, John Gulliver, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

To assess environmental exposures at the individual level, new assessment methods and tools are required. We developed an exposure assessment system (ExpoApp) for smartphones. ExpoApp integrates: (i) geo-location and accelerometry measurements from a waist attached smartphone, (ii) data from portable monitors, (iii) geographic information systems, and (iv) individual's information. ExpoApp calculates time spent in microenvironments, physical activity level, inhalation rate, and environmental exposures and doses (e.g., green spaces, inhaled ultrafine particles- UFP). We deployed ExpoApp in a panel study of 158 adults from five cities (Amsterdam and Utrecht- the Netherlands, Basel- Switzerland, Norwich- UK, and Torino- Italy) with ...


Traffic Related Air Pollution And The Burden Of Childhood Asthma In The Contiguous United States In 2000 And 2010, Raed Alotaibi, Mathew Bechle, Julian D. Marshall, Tara Ramani, Josias Zietsman, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Haneen Khreis Jan 2019

Traffic Related Air Pollution And The Burden Of Childhood Asthma In The Contiguous United States In 2000 And 2010, Raed Alotaibi, Mathew Bechle, Julian D. Marshall, Tara Ramani, Josias Zietsman, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Haneen Khreis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Asthma is one of the leading chronic airway diseases among children in the United States (US). Emerging evidence indicates that Traffic Related Air Pollution (TRAP), as opposed to ambient air pollution, leads to the onset of childhood asthma. We estimated the number of incident asthma cases among children attributable to TRAP in the contiguous US, for the years 2000 and 2010. Methods The number of incident childhood asthma cases and percentage due to TRAP were estimated using standard burden of disease assessment methods. We combined children (<18 years) counts and pollutant exposures at populated US census blocks with a national asthma incidence rate and meta-analysis derived concentration response functions (CRF). NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 were used as surrogates of TRAP exposures, with NO2 being most specific. Annual average concentrations were obtained from previously validated land-use regression (LUR) models. Asthma incidence rate and a CRF for each pollutant were obtained from the literature. Estimates were stratified by urban or rural living and by median household income. We also estimated the number of preventable cases among blocks that exceeded the limit for two counterfactual scenarios. The first scenario used the recommended air quality annual averages from the World Health Organization (WHO) as a limit. The second scenario used the minimum modeled concentration for each pollutant, in either year, as a limit. Results Average concentrations in 2000 and 2010, respectively, were 20.6 and 13.2 μg/m3 for NO2, 12.1 and 9 μg/m3 for PM2.5 and 21.5 and 17.9 μg/m3 for PM10. Attributable number of cases ranged between 209,100–331,200 for the year 2000 and 141,900–286,500 for 2010, depending on the pollutant. Asthma incident cases due to TRAP represented 27%–42% of all cases in 2000 and 18%–36% in 2010. Percentage of cases due to TRAP were higher (1) in urban areas than rural areas, and (2) in block groups with lowest median household income. Online open-access interactive maps and tables summarizing findings at the county level and 498 major US cities, are available at [https://carteehdata.org/l/s/TRAP-burden-of-childhood-asthma]. Assuming that pollutants did not exceed WHO air quality recommendations, the number of incident cases that could have been prevented ranged between 300 and 53,400, depending on the pollutant and year. Assuming that pollutant levels were limited to the minimum modeled concentration, the number of childhood asthma incident cases that could have been prevented ranged between 127,700 and 317,600, depending on the pollutant and year. Conclusion This is the first study to estimate the burden of incident childhood asthma attributable to TRAP at a national scale in the US. The attributable burden of childhood asthma dropped by 33% between 2000 and 2010. However, a significant proportion of cases can be prevented.


Controlled Ecological Evaluation Of An Implemented Exercise-Training Programme To Prevent Lower Limb Injuries In Sport: Population-Level Trends In Hospital-Treated Injuries, Caroline F. Finch, Shannon E. Gray, Muhammad Akram, Alex Donaldson, David G. Lloyd, Jill L. Cook Jan 2019

Controlled Ecological Evaluation Of An Implemented Exercise-Training Programme To Prevent Lower Limb Injuries In Sport: Population-Level Trends In Hospital-Treated Injuries, Caroline F. Finch, Shannon E. Gray, Muhammad Akram, Alex Donaldson, David G. Lloyd, Jill L. Cook

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective: Exercise-training programmes have reduced lower limb injuries in trials, but their population-level effectiveness has not been reported in implementation trials. This study aimed to demonstrate that routinely collected hospital data can be used to evaluate population-level programme effectiveness. Method: A controlled ecological design was used to evaluate the effect of FootyFirst, an exercise-training programme, on the number of hospital-treated lower limb injuries sustained by males aged 16–50 years while participating in community-level Australian Football. FootyFirst was implemented with ‘support’ (FootyFirst+S) or ‘without support’ (FootyFirst+NS) in different geographic regions of Victoria, Australia: 22 clubs in region 1 ...


The Gut Microbiota Is A Major Regulator Of Androgen Metabolism In Intestinal Contents, Hannah Colldén, Andreas Landin, Ville Wallenius, Erik Elebring, Lars Fändriks, Maria E. Nilsson, Henrik Ryberg, Matti Poutanen, Klara Sjögren, Liesbeth Vandenput, Claes Ohlsson Jan 2019

The Gut Microbiota Is A Major Regulator Of Androgen Metabolism In Intestinal Contents, Hannah Colldén, Andreas Landin, Ville Wallenius, Erik Elebring, Lars Fändriks, Maria E. Nilsson, Henrik Ryberg, Matti Poutanen, Klara Sjögren, Liesbeth Vandenput, Claes Ohlsson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Androgens exert important effects both in androgen-responsive tissues and in the intestinal tract. To determine the impact of the gut microbiota (GM) on intestinal androgen metabolism, we measured unconjugated (free) and glucuronidated androgen levels in intestinal contents from the small intestine, with a low bacterial density, and from cecum and colon, with a high bacterial density. Using a specific, sensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method, we detected high levels of glucuronidated testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in small intestinal content of mice of both sexes, whereas in the distal intestine we observed remarkably high levels of free DHT, exceeding serum ...


Effect Of Concentric And Eccentric Hamstring Training On Sprint Recovery, Strength And Muscle Architecture In Inexperienced Athletes [Accepted Manuscript], Steven J. Duhig, Matthew N. Bourne, Robert L. Buhmann, Morgan Williams, Geoffrey M. Minett, Llion A. Roberts, Ryan Gregory Timmins, Casey Sims, Anthony J. Shield Jan 2019

Effect Of Concentric And Eccentric Hamstring Training On Sprint Recovery, Strength And Muscle Architecture In Inexperienced Athletes [Accepted Manuscript], Steven J. Duhig, Matthew N. Bourne, Robert L. Buhmann, Morgan Williams, Geoffrey M. Minett, Llion A. Roberts, Ryan Gregory Timmins, Casey Sims, Anthony J. Shield

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives

To investigate whether five-weeks of concentric (CON) or eccentric (ECC) hamstring strength training have different effects on recovery from sprint running, eccentric strength and architecture of the biceps femoris long head (BFLH).

Design

Cohort study.

Methods

Thirty males (age, 22.8 ± 4.1 y; height, 180.1 ± 6.4 cm; weight, 85.2 ± 14.6 kg) were allocated into either a CON or ECC group, both performing nine sessions of resistance training. Prior to and immediately after the five-week intervention, each participant’s BFLH fascicle length (FL), pennation angle (PA), muscle thickness (MT), peak isometric KF torque ...


A Novel Device To Assess Hip Strength: Concurrent Validity And Normative Values In Male Athletes [Accepted Manuscript], Michael O'Brien, Matthew N. Bourne, Joshua Heerey, Ryan Gregory Timmins, Tania Pizzari Jan 2019

A Novel Device To Assess Hip Strength: Concurrent Validity And Normative Values In Male Athletes [Accepted Manuscript], Michael O'Brien, Matthew N. Bourne, Joshua Heerey, Ryan Gregory Timmins, Tania Pizzari

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives

To assess concurrent validity of the new, novel externally-fixed dynamometer (GroinBar) with hand-held dynamometry (HHD); to provide normative GroinBar scores for elite Australian rules football (AFL) and football (Soccer) players; and to evaluate preliminary predictive validity of the GroinBar and HHD in this population by comparing strength results with patient-reported outcome scores.

Design

Cross-sectional and reliability study

Participants

Total of 67 athletes, 36 AFL players and 31 football (Soccer) players

Setting

Elite AFL and football (Soccer) teams

Main Outcome Measures The GroinBar system, HHD, The Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS) Questionnaire.

Results

Moderate to good correlations were ...


Health Benefits Of Physical Activity Related To An Urban Riverside Regeneration, Cristina Vert, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Mireia Gascon, James Grellier, Lora E. Fleming, Mathew P. White, David Rojas-Rueda Jan 2019

Health Benefits Of Physical Activity Related To An Urban Riverside Regeneration, Cristina Vert, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Mireia Gascon, James Grellier, Lora E. Fleming, Mathew P. White, David Rojas-Rueda

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The promotion of physical activity through better urban design is one pathway by which health and well-being improvements can be achieved. This study aimed to quantify health and health-related economic impacts associated with physical activity in an urban riverside park regeneration project in Barcelona, Spain. We used data from Barcelona local authorities and meta-analysis assessing physical activity and health outcomes to develop and apply the “Blue Active Tool”. We estimated park user health impacts in terms of all-cause mortality, morbidity (ischemic heart disease; ischemic stroke; type 2 diabetes; cancers of the colon and breast; and dementia), disability-adjusted life years (DALYs ...


High Versus Low Dietary Protein Intake And Bone Health In Older Adults: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Inge Groenendijk, Laura Den Boeft, J. C. Van Loon, Lisette C. P. G. M. De Groot Jan 2019

High Versus Low Dietary Protein Intake And Bone Health In Older Adults: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Inge Groenendijk, Laura Den Boeft, J. C. Van Loon, Lisette C. P. G. M. De Groot

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Protein may play a beneficial role in the prevention of bone loss and in slowing down osteoporosis. The effect of dietary protein may be different in older adults compared to younger adults, since this population has a greater need for protein. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the impact of a dietary protein intake above the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 0.8 g/kg body weight/day from any source on Bone Mineral Density (BMD)/Bone Mineral Content (BMC), bone turnover markers, and fracture risk in older adults compared to a lower dietary protein ...


Inhibition Of Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase-3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase Signaling Leads To Hypercholesterolemia And Promotes Hepatic Steatosis And Insulin Resistance, Kim Loh, Shanna Tam, Lisa Murray-Segal, Kevin Huynh, Peter J. Meikle, John W. Scott, Bryce J. Van Denderen, Zhiping Chen, Rohan Steel, Nicholas D. Leblond, Leah A. Burkovsky, Conor O'Dwyer, Julia R. C. Nunes, Gregory R. Steinberg, Morgan D. Fullerton, Sandra Galic, Bruce E. Kemp Jan 2019

Inhibition Of Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase-3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase Signaling Leads To Hypercholesterolemia And Promotes Hepatic Steatosis And Insulin Resistance, Kim Loh, Shanna Tam, Lisa Murray-Segal, Kevin Huynh, Peter J. Meikle, John W. Scott, Bryce J. Van Denderen, Zhiping Chen, Rohan Steel, Nicholas D. Leblond, Leah A. Burkovsky, Conor O'Dwyer, Julia R. C. Nunes, Gregory R. Steinberg, Morgan D. Fullerton, Sandra Galic, Bruce E. Kemp

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates multiple signaling pathways involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in response to changes in hormonal and nutrient status. Cell culture studies have shown that AMPK phosphorylation and inhibition of the rate‐limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway 3‐hydroxy‐3‐methylglutaryl (HMG) coenzyme A (CoA) reductase (HMGCR) at serine‐871 (Ser871; human HMGCR Ser872) suppresses cholesterol synthesis. In order to evaluate the role of AMPK‐HMGCR signaling in vivo, we generated mice with a Ser871‐alanine (Ala) knock‐in mutation (HMGCR KI). Cholesterol synthesis was significantly suppressed in wild‐type (WT) but not ...


Long-Term Impacts Of Prenatal And Infant Exposure To Fine Particulate Matter On Wheezing And Asthma, Jingyi Shao, Amanda J. Wheeler, Graeme R. Zosky, Fay H. Johnston Jan 2019

Long-Term Impacts Of Prenatal And Infant Exposure To Fine Particulate Matter On Wheezing And Asthma, Jingyi Shao, Amanda J. Wheeler, Graeme R. Zosky, Fay H. Johnston

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: This systematic review aimed to summarize epidemiologic evidence regarding long-term effects of prenatal and infant particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 [micro]m (PM2.5) exposure on wheezing and asthma. Methods: Epidemiologic data investigating the associations between ambient PM2.5 exposures during prenatal or the first 2 years of life and wheezing or asthma throughout life were extracted from five databases. All included studies were assessed according to the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklists. We performed meta-analyses if >=2 studies estimated the effects of continuous PM2.5. Results: Nine of 18 eligible studies were suitable ...


Morning Exercise Mitigates The Impact Of Prolonged Sitting On Cerebral Blood Flow In Older Adults [Accepted Manuscript], Michael J. Wheeler, David W. Dunstan, Brianne Smith, Kurt J. Smith, Anna Scheer, Jaye Lewis, Louise H. Naylor, Ilkka Heinonen, Kathryn A. Ellis, Ester Cerin, Philip N. Ainslie, Daniel J. Green Jan 2019

Morning Exercise Mitigates The Impact Of Prolonged Sitting On Cerebral Blood Flow In Older Adults [Accepted Manuscript], Michael J. Wheeler, David W. Dunstan, Brianne Smith, Kurt J. Smith, Anna Scheer, Jaye Lewis, Louise H. Naylor, Ilkka Heinonen, Kathryn A. Ellis, Ester Cerin, Philip N. Ainslie, Daniel J. Green

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Preventing declines in cerebral blood flow is important for maintaining optimal brain health with aging. We compared the effects of a morning bout of moderate-intensity exercise, with and without subsequent light-intensity walking breaks from sitting, on cerebral blood velocity over 8 h in older adults. In a randomized crossover trial, overweight/obese older adults (n = 12, 70 ± 7 yr; 30.4 ± 4.3 kg/m2), completed three acute conditions (6-day washout); SIT: prolonged sitting (8 h, control); EX+SIT: sitting (1 h), moderate-intensity walking (30 min), followed by uninterrupted sitting (6.5 h); and EX + BR: sitting (1 h), moderate-intensity ...


Physical Activity Is Associated With Attenuated Disease Progression In Chronic Obstructive Disease [Accepted Manuscript], Heleen Demeyer, David Donaire-Gonzalez, Elena Gimeno-Santos, Maria A. Ramon, Jordie De Battle, Marta Benet, Ignasi Serra, Stefano Guerra, Eva Farrero, Esther Rodriguez, Jaume Ferrer, Jaume Sauleda, Eduard Monso, Joaquim Gea, Robert Rodriguez-Roisin, Alvar Agusti, Josep M. Antó, Judith Garcia-Aymerich Jan 2019

Physical Activity Is Associated With Attenuated Disease Progression In Chronic Obstructive Disease [Accepted Manuscript], Heleen Demeyer, David Donaire-Gonzalez, Elena Gimeno-Santos, Maria A. Ramon, Jordie De Battle, Marta Benet, Ignasi Serra, Stefano Guerra, Eva Farrero, Esther Rodriguez, Jaume Ferrer, Jaume Sauleda, Eduard Monso, Joaquim Gea, Robert Rodriguez-Roisin, Alvar Agusti, Josep M. Antó, Judith Garcia-Aymerich

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) progression is variable and affects several disease domains, including decline in lung function, exercise capacity, muscle strength, and health status as well as changes in body composition. We aimed to assess the longitudinal association of physical activity (PA) with these a priori selected components of disease progression. Methods: We studied 114 COPD patients from the PAC-COPD cohort (94% male, mean [SD], 70 yr [8 yr] of age, 54 [16] forced expiratory volume in 1 s % predicted) at baseline and 2.6 yr (0.6 yr) later. Baseline PA was assessed by accelerometry. Multivariable general ...


Physical Activity Of Children With Physical Disabilities: Associations With Environmental And Behavioral Variables At Home And School, Cindy H. P. Sit, Ru Li, Thomas L. Mckenzie, Ester Cerin, Stephen H. Wong, Raymond Sum, Elean Leung Jan 2019

Physical Activity Of Children With Physical Disabilities: Associations With Environmental And Behavioral Variables At Home And School, Cindy H. P. Sit, Ru Li, Thomas L. Mckenzie, Ester Cerin, Stephen H. Wong, Raymond Sum, Elean Leung

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The purpose of this study was to examine the physical activity (PA) of children with physical disabilities (PD) and its associated environmental and behavioral factors at home and at school. One hundred and forty-seven Hong Kong children (mean age = 13.5 ± 2.5 years) with PD from three special schools participated. We used BEACHES (Behaviors of Eating and Activity for Children’s Health: Evaluation System) to assess their PA and associated variables at home (before dinner) and during four school settings (before classes, recess, lunch breaks, after classes) on four school days. Overall, the children were typically inactive and spent ...


Sedentary Behaviour And Physical Activity Patterns In Adults With Traumatic Limb Fracture, Christina L. Ekegren, Rachel E. Climie, William G. Veitch, Neville Owen, David W. Dunstan, Lara A. Kimmel, Belinda J. Gabbe Jan 2019

Sedentary Behaviour And Physical Activity Patterns In Adults With Traumatic Limb Fracture, Christina L. Ekegren, Rachel E. Climie, William G. Veitch, Neville Owen, David W. Dunstan, Lara A. Kimmel, Belinda J. Gabbe

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective: To describe patterns of sedentary behaviour and physical activity in adults two weeks post-hospital discharge following an upper or lower limb fracture, and identify associated predictive factors. Design: Observational study. Setting: Level 1 Trauma Centre. Participants: Adults aged 18–69 years with an isolated upper (UL) or lower (LL) limb fracture. Main Outcome Measures: Sitting time and steps measured via a triaxial accelerometer and inclinometer-based device (activPAL) (anterior thigh); and moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) measured via triaxial accelerometer (ActiGraph) (hip) for ten days. Results: Of 83 participants, 63% were men and 55% had sustained LL fractures; mean (SD) age ...


The Cueped Trial: How Does Environmental Complexity Impact Cue Effectiveness? A Comparison Of Tonic And Phasic Visual Cueing In Simple And Complex Environments In A Parkinson’S Disease Population With Freezing Of Gait, Rodney Marsh, Michael H. Cole, Nadeeka N. W. Dissanayaka, Tiffany R. Au, Sandra Clewett, John D. O'Sullivan, Peter A. Silburn Jan 2019

The Cueped Trial: How Does Environmental Complexity Impact Cue Effectiveness? A Comparison Of Tonic And Phasic Visual Cueing In Simple And Complex Environments In A Parkinson’S Disease Population With Freezing Of Gait, Rodney Marsh, Michael H. Cole, Nadeeka N. W. Dissanayaka, Tiffany R. Au, Sandra Clewett, John D. O'Sullivan, Peter A. Silburn

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background. The optimal prescription of cueing for the treatment of freezing of gait (FoG) in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is currently a difficult problem for clinicians due to the heterogeneity of cueing modalities, devices, and the limited comparative trial evidence. There has been a rise in the development of motion-sensitive, wearable cueing devices for the treatment of FoG in PD. These devices generally produce cues after signature gait or electroencephalographic antecedents of FoG episodes are detected (phasic cues). It is not known whether these devices offer benefit over simple (tonic) cueing devices. Methods. We assembled 20 participants with PD and ...


The Impact Of A Park Refurbishment In A Low Socioeconomic Area On Physical Activity: A Cost-Effectiveness Study, Anita Lal, Marj Moodie, Gavin Abbott, Alison Carver, Jo Salmon, Billie Giles-Corti, Anna Timperio, Jenny Veitch Jan 2019

The Impact Of A Park Refurbishment In A Low Socioeconomic Area On Physical Activity: A Cost-Effectiveness Study, Anita Lal, Marj Moodie, Gavin Abbott, Alison Carver, Jo Salmon, Billie Giles-Corti, Anna Timperio, Jenny Veitch

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Physical inactivity is the fourth highest cause of death globally and is a major contributor to increases in healthcare expenditure. Improving public open spaces such as parks in areas of low socio-economic position (SEP) may increase recreational physical activity in disadvantaged populations. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of the installation of a play-space in a large metropolitan park in a low socioeconomic area based on changes in physical activity. Methods Observational data of visitor counts and activities undertaken in the park before the installation of the new play-scape (T1), at two months (T2) and 14 months post-installation (T3) were obtained ...


Multi-Segment Spine Kinematics: Relationship With Dance Training And Low Back Pain [Accepted Manuscript], Christopher T. V. Swain, Douglas G. Whyte, Christina L. Ekegren, Paul Taylor, Kate Mcmaster, Connor Lee Dow, Elizabeth J. Bradshaw Jan 2019

Multi-Segment Spine Kinematics: Relationship With Dance Training And Low Back Pain [Accepted Manuscript], Christopher T. V. Swain, Douglas G. Whyte, Christina L. Ekegren, Paul Taylor, Kate Mcmaster, Connor Lee Dow, Elizabeth J. Bradshaw

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Spine posture, range of motion (ROM) and movement asymmetry can contribute to low back pain (LBP). These variables may have greater impact in populations required to perform repetitive spine movements, such as dancers; however, there is limited evidence to support this.

Research question: What is the influence of dance and LBP on spinal kinematics?

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, multi-segment spinal kinematics were examined in 60 female participants, including dancers (n = 21) and non-dancers (n = 39) with LBP (n = 33) and without LBP (n = 27). A nine-camera motion analysis system sampling at 100 Hz was used to assess standing ...


Associations Between Latent Classes Of Perceived Neighborhood Destination Accessibility And Walking Behaviors In Older Adults Of A Low-Density And High-Density City [Accepted Manuscript], Ernest Boakye-Dankwa, Anthony Barnett, Nancy A. Pachana, Gavin Turrell, Ester Cerin Jan 2019

Associations Between Latent Classes Of Perceived Neighborhood Destination Accessibility And Walking Behaviors In Older Adults Of A Low-Density And High-Density City [Accepted Manuscript], Ernest Boakye-Dankwa, Anthony Barnett, Nancy A. Pachana, Gavin Turrell, Ester Cerin

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

To examine associations between perceived destination accessibility within different distances from home and self-reported overall amounts of walking for different purposes among older adults (aged ≥ 65 years) in Brisbane, Australia (N = 793) and Hong Kong, China (N = 484). Perceived neighborhood destination accessibility types were derived from latent class analysis using comparable measures of perceived distance to 12 destinations from epidemiological studies in the two cities. Associations of perceived destination accessibility with measures of within-neighborhood walking were also estimated in Hong Kong participants. Better perceived destination accessibility was positively associated with the likelihood of walking in Brisbane participants only. Perceived destination ...


Differences In Brain Processing Of Proprioception Related To Postural Control In Patients With Recurrent Non-Specific Low Back Pain And Healthy Controls, Nina Goossens, Lotte Janssens, Karen Caeyenberghs, Geneviève Albouy, Simon Brumagne Jan 2019

Differences In Brain Processing Of Proprioception Related To Postural Control In Patients With Recurrent Non-Specific Low Back Pain And Healthy Controls, Nina Goossens, Lotte Janssens, Karen Caeyenberghs, Geneviève Albouy, Simon Brumagne

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Patients with non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) show an impaired postural control during standing and a slower performance of sit-to-stand-to-sit (STSTS) movements. Research suggests that these impairments could be due to an altered use of ankle compared to back proprioception. However, the neural correlates of these postural control impairments in NSLBP remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated brain activity during ankle and back proprioceptive processing by applying local muscle vibration during functional magnetic resonance imaging in 20 patients with NSLBP and 20 controls. Correlations between brain activity during proprioceptive processing and (Airaksinen et al., 2006) proprioceptive use during postural control, evaluated ...