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Energy Availability In Athletics: Health, Performance, And Physique, Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam S. Tenforde, Margo Mountjoy Jan 2019

Energy Availability In Athletics: Health, Performance, And Physique, Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam S. Tenforde, Margo Mountjoy

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The reported prevalence of low energy availability (LEA) in female and male track and field athletes is between 18% and 58% with the highest prevalence among athletes in endurance and jump events. In male athletes, LEA may result in reduced testosterone levels and libido along with impaired training capacity. In female track and field athletes, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea as consequence of LEA has been reported among 60% of elite middle- and long-distance athletes and 23% among elite sprinters. Health concerns with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea include impaired bone health, elevated risk for bone stress injury, and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, LEA negatively ...


Effect Of Concentric And Eccentric Hamstring Training On Sprint Recovery, Strength And Muscle Architecture In Inexperienced Athletes [Accepted Manuscript], Steven J. Duhig, Matthew N. Bourne, Robert L. Buhmann, Morgan Williams, Geoffrey M. Minett, Llion A. Roberts, Ryan Gregory Timmins, Casey Sims, Anthony J. Shield Jan 2019

Effect Of Concentric And Eccentric Hamstring Training On Sprint Recovery, Strength And Muscle Architecture In Inexperienced Athletes [Accepted Manuscript], Steven J. Duhig, Matthew N. Bourne, Robert L. Buhmann, Morgan Williams, Geoffrey M. Minett, Llion A. Roberts, Ryan Gregory Timmins, Casey Sims, Anthony J. Shield

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives

To investigate whether five-weeks of concentric (CON) or eccentric (ECC) hamstring strength training have different effects on recovery from sprint running, eccentric strength and architecture of the biceps femoris long head (BFLH).

Design

Cohort study.

Methods

Thirty males (age, 22.8 ± 4.1 y; height, 180.1 ± 6.4 cm; weight, 85.2 ± 14.6 kg) were allocated into either a CON or ECC group, both performing nine sessions of resistance training. Prior to and immediately after the five-week intervention, each participant’s BFLH fascicle length (FL), pennation angle (PA), muscle thickness (MT), peak isometric KF torque ...


Contemporary Nutrition Interventions To Optimize Performance In Middle-Distance Runners, Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim, Jamie Whitfield Jan 2019

Contemporary Nutrition Interventions To Optimize Performance In Middle-Distance Runners, Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim, Jamie Whitfield

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Middle-distance runners utilize the full continuum of energy systems throughout training, and given the infinite competition tactical scenarios, this event group is highly complex from a performance intervention point of view. However, this complexity results in numerous potential periodized nutrition interventions to optimize middle-distance training adaptation and competition performance. Middle-distance race intensity is extreme, with 800- to 5,000-m races being at ∼95% to 130% of VO2max. Accordingly, elite middle-distance runners have primarily Type IIa/IIx fiber morphology and rely almost exclusively on carbohydrate (primarily muscle glycogen) metabolic pathways for producing adenosine triphosphate. Consequently, the principle nutritional interventions that should ...


The Potential To Change Pacing And Performance During 4000-M Cycling Time Trials Using Hyperoxia And Inspired Gas-Content Deception [Accepted Manuscript], Michael J. Davies, Bradley Clark, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, Christopher J. Gore, Kevin G. Thompson Jan 2019

The Potential To Change Pacing And Performance During 4000-M Cycling Time Trials Using Hyperoxia And Inspired Gas-Content Deception [Accepted Manuscript], Michael J. Davies, Bradley Clark, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, Christopher J. Gore, Kevin G. Thompson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Purpose: To determine if a series of trials with fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) content deception could improve 4000-m cycling time-trial (TT) performance. Methods: A total of 15 trained male cyclists (mean [SD] body mass 74.2 [8.0] kg, peak oxygen uptake 62 [6] mL·kg−1·min−1) completed six 4000-m cycling TTs in a semirandomized order. After a familiarization TT, cyclists were informed in 2 initial trials they were inspiring normoxic air (NORM, FiO2 0.21); however, in 1 trial (deception condition), they inspired hyperoxic air (NORM-DEC, FiO2 0.36). During 2 subsequent TTs, cyclists were informed ...


How Do Neighbourhood Definitions Influence The Associations Between Built Environment And Physical Activity?, Suzanne Mavoa, Nasser Bagheri, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Andrew T. Kaczynski, Karen Elaine Lamb, Koichiro Oka, David O'Sullivan, Karen Witten Jan 2019

How Do Neighbourhood Definitions Influence The Associations Between Built Environment And Physical Activity?, Suzanne Mavoa, Nasser Bagheri, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Andrew T. Kaczynski, Karen Elaine Lamb, Koichiro Oka, David O'Sullivan, Karen Witten

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Researchers investigating relationships between the neighbourhood environment and health first need to decide on the spatial extent of the neighbourhood they are interested in. This decision is an important and ongoing methodological challenge since different methods of defining and delineating neighbourhood boundaries can produce different results. This paper explores this issue in the context of a New Zealand-based study of the relationship between the built environment and multiple measures of physical activity. Geographic information systems were used to measure three built environment attributes—dwelling density, street connectivity, and neighbourhood destination accessibility—using seven different neighbourhood definitions (three administrative unit boundaries ...


Sports Foods And Dietary Supplements For Optimal Function And Performance Enhancement In Track And Field Athletes, Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier De Hon, Louise M. Burke Jan 2019

Sports Foods And Dietary Supplements For Optimal Function And Performance Enhancement In Track And Field Athletes, Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier De Hon, Louise M. Burke

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Numerous nutritional products are marketed with claims of optimizing athlete health and function and/or enhancing performance. Products that fall under the banner of “Sports Foods” or “Dietary Supplements,” may be used to support performance during training and competition or for enhancing aspects of training adaptation, recovery, immune function, and/or overall athlete health. Effective marketing campaigns and athlete endorsements may convince us that certain sports foods and supplements are fundamental in allowing athletes to reach their sporting goals. However, this approach is naive in understanding the true foundations of athlete success, such as the inherent genetic predisposition for athletic ...


A Novel Device To Assess Hip Strength: Concurrent Validity And Normative Values In Male Athletes [Accepted Manuscript], Michael O'Brien, Matthew N. Bourne, Joshua Heerey, Ryan Gregory Timmins, Tania Pizzari Jan 2019

A Novel Device To Assess Hip Strength: Concurrent Validity And Normative Values In Male Athletes [Accepted Manuscript], Michael O'Brien, Matthew N. Bourne, Joshua Heerey, Ryan Gregory Timmins, Tania Pizzari

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives

To assess concurrent validity of the new, novel externally-fixed dynamometer (GroinBar) with hand-held dynamometry (HHD); to provide normative GroinBar scores for elite Australian rules football (AFL) and football (Soccer) players; and to evaluate preliminary predictive validity of the GroinBar and HHD in this population by comparing strength results with patient-reported outcome scores.

Design

Cross-sectional and reliability study

Participants

Total of 67 athletes, 36 AFL players and 31 football (Soccer) players

Setting

Elite AFL and football (Soccer) teams

Main Outcome Measures The GroinBar system, HHD, The Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS) Questionnaire.

Results

Moderate to good correlations were ...


Associations Of Neighborhood Walkability With Sedentary Time In Nigerian Older Adults, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Sanda M. Kolo, Adamu A. Rufai, Adetoyeje Y. Oyeyemi, Babatunji A. Omotara, James F. Sallis Jan 2019

Associations Of Neighborhood Walkability With Sedentary Time In Nigerian Older Adults, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Sanda M. Kolo, Adamu A. Rufai, Adetoyeje Y. Oyeyemi, Babatunji A. Omotara, James F. Sallis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Previous studies have investigated the potential role of neighborhood walkability in reducing sedentary behavior. However, the majority of this research has been conducted in adults and Western developed countries. The purpose of the present study was to examine associations of neighborhood environmental attributes with sedentary time among older adults in Nigeria. Data from 353 randomly-selected community-dwelling older adults (60 years and above) in Maiduguri, Nigeria were analyzed. Perceived attributes of neighborhood environments and self-reported sedentary time were assessed using Nigerian-validated and reliable measures. Outcomes were weekly minutes of total sedentary time, minutes of sitting on a typical weekday, and minutes ...


Special Environments: Altitude And Heat, Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Robert F. Chapman, Julien D. Périard Jan 2019

Special Environments: Altitude And Heat, Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Robert F. Chapman, Julien D. Périard

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

High-level athletes are always looking at ways to maximize training adaptations for competition performance, and using altered environmental conditions to achieve this outcome has become increasingly popular by elite athletes. Furthermore, a series of potential nutrition and hydration interventions may also optimize the adaptation to altered environments. Altitude training was first used to prepare for competition at altitude, and it still is today; however, more often now, elite athletes embark on a series of altitude training camps to try to improve sea-level performance. Similarly, the use of heat acclimation/acclimatization to optimize performance in hot/humid environmental conditions is a ...


Gait Characteristics And Falls In Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis [Accepted Manuscript], Mark W. Creaby, Michael H. Cole Dec 2018

Gait Characteristics And Falls In Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis [Accepted Manuscript], Mark W. Creaby, Michael H. Cole

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Introduction: Given the high rate of falls during walking in people with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), identifying at risk individuals and developing targeted interventions to reduce falls incidence is paramount. Numerous studies have investigated gait-related risk factors for falls in PD, however findings are inconsistent across studies, and thus a synthesis of the current evidence is needed to guide clinical practice and the development of interventions to reduce falls risk. The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature regarding the association between walking biomechanics and falls in people with PD, and where possible, perform meta-analyses. Methods ...


The Combined Effect Of Training And Match Loads On Injury Risk In Professional Australian Footballers, Nicholas B. Murray Jan 2018

The Combined Effect Of Training And Match Loads On Injury Risk In Professional Australian Footballers, Nicholas B. Murray

Theses

Australian football is a dynamic team sport, which requires players to perform a large number of high-intensity efforts, combined with low-intensity activities throughout a match. Due to the complex and unique demands of the sport, players require an adequate training stimulus to develop and enhance the physical qualities required to succeed at the highest level. The ability to develop physically challenging but appropriate training at an individual level to 1) enhance the technical and physical qualities required, and 2) minimise the negative response to training (i.e. injury, illness, etc.) is a crucial task for practitioners involved in the preparation ...


Do Natural Experiments Of Changes In Neighborhood Built Environment Impact Physical Activity And Diet? A Systematic Review, Freya Macmillan, Emma S. George, Xiaoqi Feng, Dafna Merom, Andrew Bennie, Amelia Cook, Taren Sanders, Genevieve Dwyer, Bonnie Pang, Justin M. Guagliano, Gregory S. Kolt, Thomas Astell-Burt Jan 2018

Do Natural Experiments Of Changes In Neighborhood Built Environment Impact Physical Activity And Diet? A Systematic Review, Freya Macmillan, Emma S. George, Xiaoqi Feng, Dafna Merom, Andrew Bennie, Amelia Cook, Taren Sanders, Genevieve Dwyer, Bonnie Pang, Justin M. Guagliano, Gregory S. Kolt, Thomas Astell-Burt

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Physical activity and diet are major modifiable risk factors for chronic disease and have been shown to be associated with neighborhood built environment. Systematic review evidence from longitudinal studies on the impact of changing the built environment on physical activity and diet is currently lacking. A systematic review of natural experiments of neighborhood built environment was conducted. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize study characteristics, study quality, and impact of changes in neighborhood built environment on physical activity and diet outcomes among residents. Natural experiments of neighborhood built environment change, exploring longitudinal impacts on physical activity and ...


Cross-Sectional Associations Of Sedentary Behaviour And Physical Activity On Depression In Japanese Older Adults: An Isotemporal Substitution Approach, Akitomo Yasunaga, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Koichiro Oka Jan 2018

Cross-Sectional Associations Of Sedentary Behaviour And Physical Activity On Depression In Japanese Older Adults: An Isotemporal Substitution Approach, Akitomo Yasunaga, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Koichiro Oka

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives: Reducing sedentary behaviour (SB) and increasing physical activity (PA) have been shown to be associated with decreased depression. However, there are yet few studies examining the potential benefits on older adults’ depression, when SB is replaced with PA. This study aimed to examine the associations of objectively assessed SB, light-intensity PA (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) with depression among a sample of Japanese older adults, and to explore impacts of substituting SB with PA on older adults’ depression. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Setting: General community. Participants: A total of 276 older adults aged 65–85 years living in Japan. Main ...


The Influence Of Physical Qualities On Activity Profiles Of Female Australian Football Match Play [Accepted Manuscript], Georgia M. Black, Tim J. Gabbett, Richard D. Johnston, Michael H. Cole, Geraldine Naughton, Brian Dawson Jan 2018

The Influence Of Physical Qualities On Activity Profiles Of Female Australian Football Match Play [Accepted Manuscript], Georgia M. Black, Tim J. Gabbett, Richard D. Johnston, Michael H. Cole, Geraldine Naughton, Brian Dawson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Purpose: The transition of female Australian football (AF) players from amateur to semielite competitions has the potential for athletes to be underprepared for match play. To gain an understanding of the match demands of female football, the aims of this study were to highlight the physical qualities that discriminate selected and nonselected female AF players, investigate activity profiles of female AF players, and gain an understanding of the influence of physical qualities on performance in female AF Methods: Twenty-two female AF state academy players (mean [SD]: age = 23.2 [4.5] y) and 27 nonselected players (mean [SD]: age = 23 ...


What Strategies Do Desk-Based Workers Choose To Reduce Sitting Time And How Well Do They Work? Findings From A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial, Samantha K. Stephens, Elizabeth G. Eakin, Bronwyn K. Clark, Elizabeth A. H. Winkler, Neville Owen, Anthony D. Lamontagne, Marj Moodie, Sheleigh P. Lawler, David W. Dunstan, Genevieve N. Healy Jan 2018

What Strategies Do Desk-Based Workers Choose To Reduce Sitting Time And How Well Do They Work? Findings From A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial, Samantha K. Stephens, Elizabeth G. Eakin, Bronwyn K. Clark, Elizabeth A. H. Winkler, Neville Owen, Anthony D. Lamontagne, Marj Moodie, Sheleigh P. Lawler, David W. Dunstan, Genevieve N. Healy

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Large amounts of sitting at work have been identified as an emerging occupational health risk, and findings from intervention trials have been reported. However, few such reports have examined participant-selected strategies and their relationships with behaviour change. Methods: The Stand Up Victoria cluster-randomised controlled trial was a workplace-delivered intervention comprising organisational, environmental and individual level behaviour change strategies aimed at reducing sitting time in desk-based workers. Sit-stand workstations were provided, and participants (n = 134; intervention group only) were guided by health coaches to identify strategies for the ‘Stand Up’, ‘Sit Less’, and ‘Move More’ intervention targets, including how long ...


Trunk Exercises Improve Gait Symmetry In Parkinson Disease: A Blind Phase Ii Randomised-Controlled Trial [Accepted Manuscript], Ryan P. Hubble, Geraldine Naughton, Peter A. Silburn, Michael H. Cole Jan 2018

Trunk Exercises Improve Gait Symmetry In Parkinson Disease: A Blind Phase Ii Randomised-Controlled Trial [Accepted Manuscript], Ryan P. Hubble, Geraldine Naughton, Peter A. Silburn, Michael H. Cole

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective: Deficits in step-to-step symmetry and trunk muscle activations have been linked to falls in Parkinson disease. Given such symptoms are poorly managed with anti-parkinsonian medications, alternate therapies are needed. This blind phase II randomized controlled trial sought to establish whether exercise can improve step-to-step symmetry in Parkinson disease. Design: Twenty-four Parkinson disease patients with a falls history completed baseline assessments of symptom severity, balance confidence, mobility, and quality of life. Step-to-step symmetry was assessed by deriving harmonic ratios from three-dimensional accelerations collected for the head and trunk. Patients were randomly assigned to either 12 wks of exercise and falls ...


Don’T Turn Blind! The Relationship Between Exploration Before Ball Possession And On-Ball Performance In Association Football, Thomas B. Mcguckian, Michael H. Cole, Geir Jordet, Daniel Chalkley, Gert-Jan Pepping Jan 2018

Don’T Turn Blind! The Relationship Between Exploration Before Ball Possession And On-Ball Performance In Association Football, Thomas B. Mcguckian, Michael H. Cole, Geir Jordet, Daniel Chalkley, Gert-Jan Pepping

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Visual exploratory action – scanning movements expressed through left and right rotation of the head – allows perception of a surrounding environment and supports prospective actions. In the dynamically changing football environment, the extent to which exploratory action benefits a player’s subsequent performance with the ball is likely influenced by how and when the exploratory action occurs. Although few studies have examined the relationship between visual exploration and on-pitch football performance, it has been reported that a higher frequency of exploratory head movement up to 10-s before receiving the ball increases the likelihood of successful performance with the ball. This study ...


Mobile Bicycle Sharing: The Social Trend That May Change How We Move, Ding Ding, Yingnan Jia, Klaus Gebel Jan 2018

Mobile Bicycle Sharing: The Social Trend That May Change How We Move, Ding Ding, Yingnan Jia, Klaus Gebel

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

No abstract provided.


Associations Of Total Amount And Patterns Of Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior With Performance-Based Physical Function, Yung Liao, Hsiu-Hua Hsu, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Koichiro Oka Jan 2018

Associations Of Total Amount And Patterns Of Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior With Performance-Based Physical Function, Yung Liao, Hsiu-Hua Hsu, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Koichiro Oka

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Although greater sedentary time has been found to be associated with negative health impacts, little is known whether the specific pattern of sedentary behavior (i.e. sedentary bouts, breaks and durations) are associated with physical function among older adults. The present study examined the associations between objectively measured sedentary behavior and physical function among older Japanese adults. A total of 174 male and 107 female community-dwelling older Japanese adults aged 65–84 years (mean age: 74.5 ± 5.2 years) were recruited. Sedentary behavior and physical activity were assessed using a triaxial accelerometer. Physical function was measured through hand grip ...


Effectiveness Of The Stand More At (Smart) Work Intervention: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial, Charlotte L. Edwardson, Tom Yates, Stuart J. H. Biddle, Melanie J. Davies, David W. Dunstan, Dale W. Esliger, Laura J. Gray, Benjamin Jackson, Sophie E. O'Connell, Ghazala Waheed, Fehmidah Munir Jan 2018

Effectiveness Of The Stand More At (Smart) Work Intervention: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial, Charlotte L. Edwardson, Tom Yates, Stuart J. H. Biddle, Melanie J. Davies, David W. Dunstan, Dale W. Esliger, Laura J. Gray, Benjamin Jackson, Sophie E. O'Connell, Ghazala Waheed, Fehmidah Munir

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives: To evaluate the impact of a multicomponent intervention (Stand More AT (SMArT) Work) designed to reduce sitting time on short (three months), medium (six months), and longer term (12 months) changes in occupational, daily, and prolonged sitting, standing, and physical activity, and physical, psychological, and work related health. Design: Cluster two arm randomised controlled trial. Setting: National Health Service trust, England. Participants: 37 office clusters (146 participants) of desk based workers: 19 clusters (77 participants) were randomised to the intervention and 18 (69 participants) to control. Interventions: The intervention group received a height adjustable workstation, a brief seminar with ...


Validation Of A Blood Marker For Plasma Volume In Endurance Athletes During A Live-High Train-Low Altitude Training Camp [Accepted Manuscript], Louisa M. Lobigs, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Victor L. Vuong, Nicolin Tee, Christopher J. Gore, Peter Peeling, Brian Dawson, Yorck O. Schumacher Jan 2018

Validation Of A Blood Marker For Plasma Volume In Endurance Athletes During A Live-High Train-Low Altitude Training Camp [Accepted Manuscript], Louisa M. Lobigs, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Victor L. Vuong, Nicolin Tee, Christopher J. Gore, Peter Peeling, Brian Dawson, Yorck O. Schumacher

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Altitude is a confounding factor within the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) due, in part, to the plasma volume (PV) response to hypoxia. Here, a newly developed PV blood test is applied to assess the possible efficacy of reducing the influence of PV on the volumetric ABP markers; haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) and the OFF‐score. Endurance athletes (n=34) completed a 21‐night simulated live‐high train‐low (LHTL) protocol (14 h.d‐1 at 3000 m). Bloods were collected twice pre‐altitude; at days 3, 8, and 15 at altitude; and 1, 7, 21, and 42 days post‐altitude. A ...


Training Quantification And Periodization During Live High Train High At 2100 M In Elite Runners: An Observational Cohort Case Study, Avish P. Sharma, Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Julien E. Périard, Brad Clark, Christopher J. Gore, Benjamin P. Raysmith, Jamie Stanley, Eileen Y. Robertson, Kevin G. Thompson Jan 2018

Training Quantification And Periodization During Live High Train High At 2100 M In Elite Runners: An Observational Cohort Case Study, Avish P. Sharma, Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Julien E. Périard, Brad Clark, Christopher J. Gore, Benjamin P. Raysmith, Jamie Stanley, Eileen Y. Robertson, Kevin G. Thompson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The questionable efficacy of Live High Train High altitude training (LHTH) is compounded by minimal training quantification in many studies. We sought to quantify the training load (TL) periodization in a cohort of elite runners completing LHTH immediately prior to competition. Eight elite runners (6 males, 2 females) with a V̇O2peak of 70 ± 4 mL·kg-1·min-1 were monitored during 4 weeks of sea-level training, then 3-4 weeks LHTH in preparation for sea-level races following descent to sea-level. TL was calculated using the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) method, whereby duration of each training session was multiplied by ...


Exercise And Glut4 In Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue, Marcelo Flores-Opazo, Eva Boland, Andrew Garnham, Robyn M. Murphy, Sean L. Mcgee, Mark Hargreaves Jan 2018

Exercise And Glut4 In Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue, Marcelo Flores-Opazo, Eva Boland, Andrew Garnham, Robyn M. Murphy, Sean L. Mcgee, Mark Hargreaves

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

To examine the effect of acute and chronic exercise on adipose tissue GLUT4 expression, a total of 20 healthy, male subjects performed one of two studies. Ten subjects performed cycle ergometer exercise for 60 min at 73 ± 2% VO2 peak and abdominal adipose tissue samples were obtained immediately before and after exercise and after 3 h of recovery. Another 10 subjects completed 10 days of exercise training, comprising a combination of six sessions of 60 min at 75% VO2 peak and four sessions of 6 × 5 min at 90% VO2 peak, separated by 3 min at 40% VO2 peak. Abdominal ...


Agreement Between Cystatin-C And Creatinine Based Egfr Estimates After A 12-Month Exercise Intervention In Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease, Kassia S. Beetham, Erin J. Howden, Nicole M. Isbel, Jeff S. Coombes Jan 2018

Agreement Between Cystatin-C And Creatinine Based Egfr Estimates After A 12-Month Exercise Intervention In Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease, Kassia S. Beetham, Erin J. Howden, Nicole M. Isbel, Jeff S. Coombes

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Estimation of GFR (eGFR) using formulae based on serum creatinine concentrations are commonly used to assess kidney function. Physical exercise can increase creatinine turnover and lean mass; therefore, this method may not be suitable for use in exercising individuals. Cystatin-C based eGFR formulae may be a more accurate measure of kidney function when examining the impact of exercise on kidney function. The aim of this study was to assess the agreement of four creatinine and cystatin-C based estimates of GFR before and after a 12-month exercise intervention. Methods: One hundred forty-two participants with stage 3–4 chronic kidney disease ...


Measurement Of Upper Limb Range Of Motion Using Wearable Sensors: A Systematic Review, Corrin P. Walmsley, Sian A. Williams, Tiffany Grisbrook, Catherine Elliott, Christine Imms, Amity Campbell Jan 2018

Measurement Of Upper Limb Range Of Motion Using Wearable Sensors: A Systematic Review, Corrin P. Walmsley, Sian A. Williams, Tiffany Grisbrook, Catherine Elliott, Christine Imms, Amity Campbell

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Wearable sensors are portable measurement tools that are becoming increasingly popular for the measurement of joint angle in the upper limb. With many brands emerging on the market, each with variations in hardware and protocols, evidence to inform selection and application is needed. Therefore, the objectives of this review were related to the use of wearable sensors to calculate upper limb joint angle. We aimed to describe (i) the characteristics of commercial and custom wearable sensors, (ii) the populations for whom researchers have adopted wearable sensors, and (iii) their established psychometric properties. Methods: A systematic review of literature was ...


Age-Associated Impairments In Mitochondrial Adp Sensitivity Contribute To Redox Stress In Senescent Human Skeletal Muscle, Graham P. Holloway, Andrew M. Holwerda, Paula M. Miotto, Marlou L. Dirks, Lex B. Verdijk, Luc Van Loon Jan 2018

Age-Associated Impairments In Mitochondrial Adp Sensitivity Contribute To Redox Stress In Senescent Human Skeletal Muscle, Graham P. Holloway, Andrew M. Holwerda, Paula M. Miotto, Marlou L. Dirks, Lex B. Verdijk, Luc Van Loon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

It remains unknown if mitochondrial bioenergetics are altered with aging in humans. We established an in vitro method to simultaneously determine mitochondrial respiration and H2O2emission in skeletal muscle tissue across a range of biologically relevant ADP concentrations. Using this approach, we provide evidence that, although the capacity for mitochondrial H2O2emission is not increased with aging, mitochondrial ADP sensitivity is impaired. This resulted in an increase in mitochondrial H2O2and the fraction of electron leak to H2O2, in the presence of virtually all ADP concentrations examined. Moreover, although prolonged resistance training inolder individuals increased muscle mass, strength, and maximal mitochondrial respiration, exercise ...


Physical Fitness And Peak Running Periods During Female Australian Football Match-Play [Accepted Manuscript], Georgia M. Black, Tim J. Gabbett, Rich D. Johnston, Michael H. Cole, Geraldine Naughton, Brian Dawson Jan 2018

Physical Fitness And Peak Running Periods During Female Australian Football Match-Play [Accepted Manuscript], Georgia M. Black, Tim J. Gabbett, Rich D. Johnston, Michael H. Cole, Geraldine Naughton, Brian Dawson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective: To investigate the influence of physical fitness on peak periods of match-play. Methods: Forty-three female Australian footballers from three teams wore global positioning system units in matches during one competitive season. The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Level 1) was conducted as an estimate of physical fitness. One-, two-, three-, four- and five-minute rolling periods were analysed in order to determine the “peak” and “subsequent” periods during match-play. Results: Midfielders covered greater distances during peak periods than half-line players (Effect size, ES range = 0.33–0.86; likelihood ≥76%). Nomeaningful differences were reported between positional groups for high-speed distances during ...


The Effects Of Intensified Training On Resting Metabolic Rate (Rmr), Body Composition And Performance In Trained Cyclists, Amy L. Woods, Anthony J. Rice, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Alice M. Wallett, Bronwen Lundy, Margot A. Rogers, Marijke Welvaert, Shona Halson, Andrew Mckune, Kevin G. Thompson Jan 2018

The Effects Of Intensified Training On Resting Metabolic Rate (Rmr), Body Composition And Performance In Trained Cyclists, Amy L. Woods, Anthony J. Rice, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Alice M. Wallett, Bronwen Lundy, Margot A. Rogers, Marijke Welvaert, Shona Halson, Andrew Mckune, Kevin G. Thompson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Recent research has demonstrated decreases in resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance following a period of intensified training in elite athletes, however the underlying mechanisms of change remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate how an intensified training period, designed to elicit overreaching, affects RMR, body composition, and performance in trained endurance athletes, and to elucidate underlying mechanisms. Method: Thirteen (n = 13) trained male cyclists completed a six-week training program consisting of a “Baseline” week (100% of regular training load), a “Build” week (~120% of Baseline load), two “Loading” weeks (~140, 150 ...


Replacing Sedentary Time With Physical Activity: Effects On Health-Related Quality Of Life In Older Japanese Adults, Akitomo Yasunaga, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Shigeru Inoue, Takemi Sugiyama, Neville Owen, Koichiro Oka Jan 2018

Replacing Sedentary Time With Physical Activity: Effects On Health-Related Quality Of Life In Older Japanese Adults, Akitomo Yasunaga, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Shigeru Inoue, Takemi Sugiyama, Neville Owen, Koichiro Oka

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: The isotemporal substitution (IS) approach can be used to assess the effect of replacing one activity with the equal duration of another activity on relevant outcomes. This study examined the associations of objectively assessed sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in older Japanese adults, using the IS approach. Methods: Participants were 287 older Japanese adults (aged 65–84 years) who wore accelerometers for at least 7 days. We calculated the average daily time spent in SB (≤1.5 METs); light-intensity PA (LPA: >  1.5 to <  3.0 METs); and moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA: ≥3.0 METs) per day. HRQOL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-8 questionnaire. Results: The IS models showed replacing SB or LPA with MVPA to be significantly associated with better physical component summary scores. Replacing SB with MVPA was marginally associated with better mental component summary scores. Conclusion: These findings indicate that replacing SB with the same amount of MVPA may contribute to better physical HRQOL in older adults.


A Three Arm Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial To Test The Effectiveness And Cost-Effectiveness Of The Smart Work & Life Intervention For Reducing Daily Sitting Time In Office Workers: Study Protocol, Charlotte L. Edwardson, Stuart J. H. Biddle, Alexandra Clarke-Cornwell, Stacy Clemes, Melanie J. Davies, David W. Dunstan, Helen Eborall, Malcolm H. Granat, Laura J. Gray, Genevieve N. Healy, Gerry Richardson, Thomas Yates, Fehmidah Munir Jan 2018

A Three Arm Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial To Test The Effectiveness And Cost-Effectiveness Of The Smart Work & Life Intervention For Reducing Daily Sitting Time In Office Workers: Study Protocol, Charlotte L. Edwardson, Stuart J. H. Biddle, Alexandra Clarke-Cornwell, Stacy Clemes, Melanie J. Davies, David W. Dunstan, Helen Eborall, Malcolm H. Granat, Laura J. Gray, Genevieve N. Healy, Gerry Richardson, Thomas Yates, Fehmidah Munir

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Office-based workers typically spend 70–85% of working hours, and a large proportion of leisure time, sitting. High levels of sitting have been linked to poor health. There is a need for fully powered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with long-term follow-up to test the effectiveness of interventions to reduce sitting. This paper describes the methodology of a three-arm cluster RCT designed to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the SMART Work & Life intervention, delivered with and without a height-adjustable desk, for reducing daily sitting. Methods/design: A three-arm cluster RCT of 33 clusters (660 council workers) will be conducted in three areas in England (Leicester; Manchester; Liverpool). Office groups (clusters) will be randomised to the SMART Work & Life intervention delivered with (group 1) or without (group 2) a height-adjustable desk or a control group (group 3). SMART Work & Life includes organisational (e.g., management buy-in, provision/support for standing meetings), environmental (e.g., relocating waste bins, printers), and group/individual (education, action planning, goal setting, addressing barriers, coaching, self-monitoring, social support) level behaviour change strategies, with strategies driven by workplace champions. Baseline, 3, 12 and 24 month measures will be taken. Primary outcome: Objectively measured daily sitting time (activPAL3). Secondary outcomes: objectively measured sitting, standing, stepping, prolonged sitting and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity time and number of steps at work and daily; objectively measured sleep (wrist accelerometry). Adiposity, blood pressure, fasting glucose, glycated haemoglobin, cholesterol (total, HDL, LDL ...