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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Income Inequality And Outcomes In Heart Failure, Pooja Dewan, Rasmus Rørth, Pardeep S. Jhund, Joao Pedro Ferreira, Faiez Zannad, Li Shen, Lars Køber, William T. Abraham, Akshay S. Desai, Kenneth Dickstein, Milton Packer, Jean L. Rouleau, Scott D. Solomon, Karl Swedberg, Michael R. Zile, John J. V. Mcmurray Jan 2019

Income Inequality And Outcomes In Heart Failure, Pooja Dewan, Rasmus Rørth, Pardeep S. Jhund, Joao Pedro Ferreira, Faiez Zannad, Li Shen, Lars Køber, William T. Abraham, Akshay S. Desai, Kenneth Dickstein, Milton Packer, Jean L. Rouleau, Scott D. Solomon, Karl Swedberg, Michael R. Zile, John J. V. Mcmurray

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives This study examined the relationship between income inequality and heart failure outcomes. Background The income inequality hypothesis postulates that population health is influenced by income distribution within a society, with greater inequality associated with worse outcomes. Methods This study analyzed heart failure outcomes in 2 large trials conducted in 54 countries. Countries were divided by tertiles of Gini coefficients (where 0% represented absolute income equality and 100% represented absolute income inequality), and heart failure outcomes were adjusted for standard prognostic variables, country per capita income, education index, hospital bed density, and health worker density. Results Of the 15,126 ...


Higher Body Mass Index In Adolescence Predicts Cardiomyopathy Risk In Midlife: Long-Term Follow-Up Among Swedish Men, Josefina Robertson, Maria Schaufelberger, Martin Lindgren, Martin Adiels, Linus Schiöler, Kjell Torén, John J. V. Mcmurray, Naveed Sattar, Maria Åberg, Annika Rosengren Jan 2019

Higher Body Mass Index In Adolescence Predicts Cardiomyopathy Risk In Midlife: Long-Term Follow-Up Among Swedish Men, Josefina Robertson, Maria Schaufelberger, Martin Lindgren, Martin Adiels, Linus Schiöler, Kjell Torén, John J. V. Mcmurray, Naveed Sattar, Maria Åberg, Annika Rosengren

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Modifiable lifestyle factors in relation to risk for cardiomyopathy, a common and increasing cause of heart failure in the young, have not been widely studied. We sought to investigate a potential link between obesity, a recognized predictor of early heart failure, in adolescence and being diagnosed with cardiomyopathy in adulthood. Methods: This was a nationwide register-based prospective cohort study of 1 668 893 adolescent men (mean age, 18.3 years; SD, 0.7 years) who enlisted for compulsory military service from 1969 to 2005. At baseline, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, and medical disorders were registered, along with ...


Is Length Of Time In A Stroke Unit Associated With Better Outcomes For Patients With Stroke In Australia? An Observational Study, Doreen Busingye, Monique F. Kilkenny, Tara Purvis, Joosup Kim, Sandy Middleton, Bruce C. V. Campbell, Dominique A. Cadihac Jan 2018

Is Length Of Time In A Stroke Unit Associated With Better Outcomes For Patients With Stroke In Australia? An Observational Study, Doreen Busingye, Monique F. Kilkenny, Tara Purvis, Joosup Kim, Sandy Middleton, Bruce C. V. Campbell, Dominique A. Cadihac

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective: Spending at least 90% of hospital admission in a stroke unit (SU) is a recommended indicator of receiving high-quality stroke care. However, whether this makes a difference to patient outcomes is unknown. We aimed to investigate outcomes and factors associated with patients with acute stroke spending at least 90% of their admission in an SU, compared with those having less time in the SU. Design: Observational study using cross-sectional data. Setting Data from hospitals which participated in the 2015 Stroke Foundation National Audit: Acute Services (Australia) and had an SU. This audit includes an organisational survey and retrospective medical ...


Nutritional Status And Nutritional Treatment Are Related To Outcomes And Mortality In Older Adults With Hip Fracture, Vincenzo Malafarina, J. Y. Reginster, Sonia Cabrerizo, Olivier Bruyère, John A. Kanis, J. Alfredo Martinez, M. Angeles Zulet Jan 2018

Nutritional Status And Nutritional Treatment Are Related To Outcomes And Mortality In Older Adults With Hip Fracture, Vincenzo Malafarina, J. Y. Reginster, Sonia Cabrerizo, Olivier Bruyère, John A. Kanis, J. Alfredo Martinez, M. Angeles Zulet

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Malnutrition is very prevalent in geriatric patients with hip fracture. Nevertheless, its importance is not fully recognized. The objective of this paper is to review the impact of malnutrition and of nutritional treatment upon outcomes and mortality in older people with hip fracture. We searched the PubMed database for studies evaluating nutritional aspects in people aged 70 years and over with hip fracture. The total number of studies included in the review was 44, which analyzed 26,281 subjects (73.5% women, 83.6 ± 7.2 years old). Older people with hip fracture presented an inadequate nutrient intake for their ...


Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation For Improving Peripheral Nerve Health: Protocol For A Systematic Review, Alexis Ceecee Zhang, Richard Macisaac, Leslie Roberts, Jordan Kamel, Jennifer P. Craig, Lucy Busija, Laura E. Downie Jan 2018

Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation For Improving Peripheral Nerve Health: Protocol For A Systematic Review, Alexis Ceecee Zhang, Richard Macisaac, Leslie Roberts, Jordan Kamel, Jennifer P. Craig, Lucy Busija, Laura E. Downie

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Introduction
Damage to peripheral nerves occurs in a variety of health conditions. Preserving nerve integrity, to prevent progressive nerve damage, remains a clinical challenge. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are implicated in the development and maintenance of healthy nerves and may be beneficial for promoting peripheral nerve health. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the effects of oral omega-3 PUFA supplementation on peripheral nerve integrity, including both subjective and objective measures of peripheral nerve structure and/or function.
Methods and analysis
A systematic review of randomised controlled trials that have evaluated the effects of omega-3 PUFA supplementation ...


Renal Effects And Associated Outcomes During Angiotensin-Neprilysin Inhibition In Heart Failure, Kevin Damman, Mauro Gori, Brian L. Claggett, Pardeep Jhund, Michele Senni, Martin P. Lefkowitz, Margaret F. Prescott, Victor C. Shi, Jean L. Rouleau, Karl Swedberg, Michael R. Zile, Milton Packer, Akshay S. Desai, Scott Solomon, John Mcmurray Jan 2018

Renal Effects And Associated Outcomes During Angiotensin-Neprilysin Inhibition In Heart Failure, Kevin Damman, Mauro Gori, Brian L. Claggett, Pardeep Jhund, Michele Senni, Martin P. Lefkowitz, Margaret F. Prescott, Victor C. Shi, Jean L. Rouleau, Karl Swedberg, Michael R. Zile, Milton Packer, Akshay S. Desai, Scott Solomon, John Mcmurray

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the renal effects of sacubitril/valsartan in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction.
BACKGROUND
Renal function is frequently impaired in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and may deteriorate further after blockade of the renin–angiotensin system.
METHODS
In the PARADIGM-HF (Prospective Comparison of ARNI with ACE inhibition to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure) trial, 8,399 patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction were randomized to treatment with sacubitril/valsartan or enalapril. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was available ...


Cost-Effectiveness Of Sacubitril/Valsartan In The Treatment Of Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction, John Mcmurray, David Trueman, Elizabeth Hancock, Martin R. Cowie, Andrew Briggs, Mathew Taylor, Juliet Mumby-Croft, Fionn Woodcock, Michael Lacey, Rola Haroun, Celine Deschaseaux Jan 2018

Cost-Effectiveness Of Sacubitril/Valsartan In The Treatment Of Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction, John Mcmurray, David Trueman, Elizabeth Hancock, Martin R. Cowie, Andrew Briggs, Mathew Taylor, Juliet Mumby-Croft, Fionn Woodcock, Michael Lacey, Rola Haroun, Celine Deschaseaux

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective
Chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF) represents a major public health issue and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of sacubitril/valsartan (formerly LCZ696) compared with an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) (enalapril) in the treatment of HF-REF from the perspective of healthcare providers in the UK, Denmark and Colombia.
Methods
A cost-utility analysis was performed based on data from a multinational, Phase III randomised controlled trial. A decision-analytic model was developed based on a series of regression models, which extrapolated health-related quality of life, hospitalisation rates and survival over a lifetime horizon. The ...


Epidemiology Of Hip Fractures In Two Regions Of Ukraine, V. V. Povoroznyuk, N. V. Grygorieva, J. A. Kanis, E. V. Mccloskey, H. Johansson, S. S. Strafun, M. O. Korzh, V. M. Vaida, F. V. Klymovytsky, V. S. Forosenko, R. O. Vlasenko Jan 2018

Epidemiology Of Hip Fractures In Two Regions Of Ukraine, V. V. Povoroznyuk, N. V. Grygorieva, J. A. Kanis, E. V. Mccloskey, H. Johansson, S. S. Strafun, M. O. Korzh, V. M. Vaida, F. V. Klymovytsky, V. S. Forosenko, R. O. Vlasenko

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Worldwide, the number of hip fractures, the most important osteoporotic complication in the elderly, continues to increase in line with the ageing of the population. In some countries, however, including the Ukraine, data on the incidence of hip fracture are limited. This article describes the first analysis to characterize the incidence of hip fracture in the Ukrainian population from the age of 40 years. It is based on data from two regional studies, namely, the Vinnitsa city study and the STOP study, which were performed during 1997–2002 and 2011-2012 years, respectively. Hip fracture incidence rates were demonstrated to increase ...


Meyer's Loop Tractography For Image-Guided Surgery Depends On Imaging Protocol And Hardware, Maxime Chamberland, C. M. W. Tax, Derek Jones Jan 2018

Meyer's Loop Tractography For Image-Guided Surgery Depends On Imaging Protocol And Hardware, Maxime Chamberland, C. M. W. Tax, Derek Jones

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Introduction
Surgical resection is an effective treatment for temporal lobe epilepsy but can result in visual field defects. This could be minimized if surgeons knew the exact location of the anterior part of the optic radiation (OR), the Meyer's loop. To this end, there is increasing prevalence of image-guided surgery using diffusion MRI tractography. Despite considerable effort in developing analysis methods, a wide discrepancy in Meyer's loop reconstructions is observed in the literature. Moreover, the impact of differences in image acquisition on Meyer's loop tractography remains unclear. Here, while employing the same state-of-the-art analysis protocol, we explored ...


Multimorbidity In Patients With Heart Failure From 11 Asian Regions: A Prospective Cohort Study Using The Asian-Hf Registry, Jasper Tromp, Wan Ting Tay, Wouter Ouwekerk, Tiew-Hwa Katherine Teng, Jonathan Yap, Michael R. Macdonald, Kirsten Leineweber, John Mcmurray, Michael R. Zile, Inder S. Anand, Carolyn S. P. Lam Jan 2018

Multimorbidity In Patients With Heart Failure From 11 Asian Regions: A Prospective Cohort Study Using The Asian-Hf Registry, Jasper Tromp, Wan Ting Tay, Wouter Ouwekerk, Tiew-Hwa Katherine Teng, Jonathan Yap, Michael R. Macdonald, Kirsten Leineweber, John Mcmurray, Michael R. Zile, Inder S. Anand, Carolyn S. P. Lam

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background
Comorbidities are common in patients with heart failure (HF) and complicate treatment and outcomes. We identified patterns of multimorbidity in Asian patients with HF and their association with patients’ quality of life (QoL) and health outcomes.
Methods and findings
We used data on 6,480 patients with chronic HF (1,204 with preserved ejection fraction) enrolled between 1 October 2012 and 6 October 2016 in the Asian Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure (ASIAN-HF) registry. The ASIAN-HF registry is a prospective cohort study, with patients prospectively enrolled from in- and outpatient clinics from 11 Asian regions (Hong Kong, Taiwan ...


Participants' Experiences Of A Sexual Counseling Intervention During Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Nested Qualitative Study Within The Charms Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial, Maureen D'Eath, Molly Byrne, Patrick J. Murphy, Tiny Jaarsma, Jenny Mcsharry, Andrew W. Murphy, Sally Doherty, Chris Noone, Dympna Casey Jan 2018

Participants' Experiences Of A Sexual Counseling Intervention During Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Nested Qualitative Study Within The Charms Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial, Maureen D'Eath, Molly Byrne, Patrick J. Murphy, Tiny Jaarsma, Jenny Mcsharry, Andrew W. Murphy, Sally Doherty, Chris Noone, Dympna Casey

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background:
International guidelines recommend sexual assessment and counseling be offered to all patients with cardiovascular disease during cardiac rehabilitation. However, sexual problems are infrequently addressed. The Cardiac Health and Relationship Management and Sexuality (CHARMS) intervention is a complex, multilevel intervention designed to increase the provision of sexual counseling in cardiac rehabilitation. It was piloted in 2 cardiac rehabilitation centers to assess the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention and to inform and refine a definitive cluster randomized controlled trial protocol.
Objectives:
The aim of this study was to explore the experiences, perceptions, and opinions of patients, partners, and cardiac rehabilitation ...


Global Unmet Needs In Cardiac Surgery, Peter Zilla, Magdi H. Yacoub, Liesl Joanna Zuhlke, Friedhelm Beyersdorf, Karen Sliwa-Hahnle, Gennadiy Khubulava, Abdelmalek Bouzid, Ana O. Mocumbi, Devagourou Velayoudam, Devi Shetty, Chima Ofoegbu, Agneta Geldenhuys, Johan Brink, Jacques Scherman, Henning Du Toit, Saeid Hosseini, Hao Zhang, Xin-Jin Luo, Wei C. Wang, Juan Mejia, Theodoros Kofidis, Robert S. D. Higgins, Jose Pomar, R. Morton Bolman, Bongani Mayosi, Rajhmun Madansein, Joseph Bavaria, Alberto A. Yanes-Quintana, A. Sampath Kumar, Oladapo Adeoye, Risenga Frank Chauke, David F. Williams Jan 2018

Global Unmet Needs In Cardiac Surgery, Peter Zilla, Magdi H. Yacoub, Liesl Joanna Zuhlke, Friedhelm Beyersdorf, Karen Sliwa-Hahnle, Gennadiy Khubulava, Abdelmalek Bouzid, Ana O. Mocumbi, Devagourou Velayoudam, Devi Shetty, Chima Ofoegbu, Agneta Geldenhuys, Johan Brink, Jacques Scherman, Henning Du Toit, Saeid Hosseini, Hao Zhang, Xin-Jin Luo, Wei C. Wang, Juan Mejia, Theodoros Kofidis, Robert S. D. Higgins, Jose Pomar, R. Morton Bolman, Bongani Mayosi, Rajhmun Madansein, Joseph Bavaria, Alberto A. Yanes-Quintana, A. Sampath Kumar, Oladapo Adeoye, Risenga Frank Chauke, David F. Williams

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

More than 6 billion people live outside industrialized countries and have insufficient access to cardiac surgery. Given the recently confirmed high prevailing mortality for rheumatic heart disease in many of these countries together with increasing numbers of patients needing interventions for lifestyle diseases due to an accelerating epidemiological transition, a significant need for cardiac surgery could be assumed. Yet, need estimates were largely based on extrapolated screening studies while true service levels remained unknown. A multi-author effort representing 16 high-, middle-, and low-income countries was undertaken to narrow the need assessment for cardiac surgery including rheumatic and lifestyle cardiac diseases ...


Epidemiology Of Hip Fracture In Belarus: Development Of A Country-Specific Frax Model And Its Comparison To Neighboring Country Models, H. Ramanau, I. Chernyanin, E. Rudenka, Olga Lesnyak, A. Zakroyeva, John P. Bilezikian, Helena Johansson, Nicholas C. Harvey, Eugene Mccloskey, John A. Kanis Jan 2018

Epidemiology Of Hip Fracture In Belarus: Development Of A Country-Specific Frax Model And Its Comparison To Neighboring Country Models, H. Ramanau, I. Chernyanin, E. Rudenka, Olga Lesnyak, A. Zakroyeva, John P. Bilezikian, Helena Johansson, Nicholas C. Harvey, Eugene Mccloskey, John A. Kanis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Summary Fracture probabilities resulting from the newly generated FRAX model for Belarus based on regional estimates of the hip fracture incidence were compared with FRAX models of neighboring countries. Differences between the country-specific FRAX patterns and the rank orders of fracture probabilities were modest. Objective This paper describes the epidemiology of hip fractures in Belarus that was used to develop the country-specific fracture prediction FRAX® tool and illustrates its features compared to models for the neighboring countries of Poland, Russia, and Lithuania. Methods We carried out a population-based study in a region of Belarus (the city of Mozyr) representing approximately ...


Management Of Patients With High Baseline Hip Fracture Risk By Frax Reduces Hip Fractures—A Post Hoc Analysis Of The Scoop Study, Eugene Mccloskey, Helena Johansson, Nicholas C. Harvey, L. Shepstone, E. Lenaghan, Ric Fordham, I. Harvey, Amanda Howe, Cyrus Cooper, Shane Clarke, Neil Gittoes, A. Heawood, R. Holland, Tarnya Marshall, T. W. O'Neill, T. J. Peters, Niamh Redmond, David Torgerson, John A. Kanis Jan 2018

Management Of Patients With High Baseline Hip Fracture Risk By Frax Reduces Hip Fractures—A Post Hoc Analysis Of The Scoop Study, Eugene Mccloskey, Helena Johansson, Nicholas C. Harvey, L. Shepstone, E. Lenaghan, Ric Fordham, I. Harvey, Amanda Howe, Cyrus Cooper, Shane Clarke, Neil Gittoes, A. Heawood, R. Holland, Tarnya Marshall, T. W. O'Neill, T. J. Peters, Niamh Redmond, David Torgerson, John A. Kanis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The Screening for Osteoporosis in Older Women for the Prevention of Fracture (SCOOP) study was a community‐based screening intervention in women aged 70 to 85 years in the United Kingdom. In the screening arm, licensed osteoporosis treatments were recommended in women identified to be at high risk of hip fracture using the FRAX risk assessment tool (including bone mineral density measurement). In the control arm, standard care was provided. Screening led to a 28% reduction in hip fractures over 5 years. In this planned post hoc analysis, we wished to examine for interactions between screening effectiveness on fracture outcome ...


A Comparison Of The Prognostic Value Of Bnp Versus Nt-Probnp After Hospitalisation For Heart Failure, G. C. M. Linssen, T. Jaarsma, H. L. Hillege, A. A. Voors, D. J. Van Veldhuisen Jan 2018

A Comparison Of The Prognostic Value Of Bnp Versus Nt-Probnp After Hospitalisation For Heart Failure, G. C. M. Linssen, T. Jaarsma, H. L. Hillege, A. A. Voors, D. J. Van Veldhuisen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Aims: Concentrations of circulating B type natriuretic peptides provide important prognostic information in heart failure (HF) patients. We directly compared the prognostic performance of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) versus N terminal-proBNP (NT-proBNP) measurements in a large population of HF patients at hospital discharge after an admission for decompensated HF. Methods and results: BNP and NT-proBNP were measured in 563 stable HF patients before discharge. All patients were followed for a fixed period of 18 months. The primary endpoint was time to first major event (HF hospitalisation or death). Patients were in NYHA class II (47%) or III/IV (53%) at ...


Exposomics: Final Policy Workshop And Stakeholder Consultation, Michelle C. Turner, Paolo Vineis, Eduardo Seleiro, Michaela Dijmarescu, David Balshaw, Roberto Bertollini, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Timothy Gant, John Gulliver, Ayoung Jeong, Soterios Kyrtopoulos, Marco Martuzzi, Gary W. Miller, Timothy Nawrot, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, David H. Phillips, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Jonathan Samet, Roel Vermeulen, Jelle Vlaanderen, Martine Vrijheid, Christopher Wild, Manolis Kogevinas Jan 2018

Exposomics: Final Policy Workshop And Stakeholder Consultation, Michelle C. Turner, Paolo Vineis, Eduardo Seleiro, Michaela Dijmarescu, David Balshaw, Roberto Bertollini, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Timothy Gant, John Gulliver, Ayoung Jeong, Soterios Kyrtopoulos, Marco Martuzzi, Gary W. Miller, Timothy Nawrot, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, David H. Phillips, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Jonathan Samet, Roel Vermeulen, Jelle Vlaanderen, Martine Vrijheid, Christopher Wild, Manolis Kogevinas

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The final meeting of the EXPOsOMICS project “Final Policy Workshop and Stakeholder Consultation” took place 28–29 March 2017 to present the main results of the project and discuss their implications both for future research and for regulatory and policy activities. This paper summarizes presentations and discussions at the meeting related with the main results and advances in exposome research achieved through the EXPOsOMICS project; on other parallel research initiatives on the study of the exposome in Europe and in the United States and their complementarity to EXPOsOMICS; lessons learned from these early studies on the exposome and how they ...


Health Literacy In A Population-Based Sample Of Australian Women: A Cross-Sectional Profile Of The Geelong Osteoporosis Study, Sarah Hosking, Sharon Brennan-Olsen, Allison Beauchamp, Rachelle Buchbinder, Lana J. Williams, Julie Pasco Jan 2018

Health Literacy In A Population-Based Sample Of Australian Women: A Cross-Sectional Profile Of The Geelong Osteoporosis Study, Sarah Hosking, Sharon Brennan-Olsen, Allison Beauchamp, Rachelle Buchbinder, Lana J. Williams, Julie Pasco

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background:
The term health literacy refers to the abilities and resources required to find, understand and use health information in managing health. This definition is reflected in the recent development of multidimensional health literacy tools that measure multiple facets of health literacy. The aim of this study was to determine the health literacy profile of a randomly selected, population-based sample of Australian women using a multidimensional tool, the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ). A second aim was to investigate associations between independent HLQ scales, sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle and anthropometric risk factors for chronic disease.
Methods:
We surveyed women involved in ...


Impact Of The Social And Natural Environment On Preschool-Age Children Weight, Inga Petraviciene, Regina Grazuleviciene, Sandra Andrusaityte, Audrius Dedele, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen Jan 2018

Impact Of The Social And Natural Environment On Preschool-Age Children Weight, Inga Petraviciene, Regina Grazuleviciene, Sandra Andrusaityte, Audrius Dedele, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background:
The complex impact of environmental and social factors on preschool children being overweight/obese is unclear. We examined the associations between the levels of green space exposure and the risk of being overweight/obese for 4–6 year-old children and assessed the impact of maternal education on these associations.
Methods:
This cross-sectional study included 1489 mother-child pairs living in Kaunas, Lithuania, in 2012–2013. We assessed children overweight/obesity by standardized questionnaires using international body mass index cut-off points, and the level of greenness exposures by satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of each child’s home and by ...


Is There A Social Gradient Of Sarcopenia? A Meta-Analysis And Systematic Review Protocol, Darci Green, Gustavo Duque, Nick Fredman, Aoun Rizvi, Sharon Brennan-Olsen Jan 2018

Is There A Social Gradient Of Sarcopenia? A Meta-Analysis And Systematic Review Protocol, Darci Green, Gustavo Duque, Nick Fredman, Aoun Rizvi, Sharon Brennan-Olsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Introduction
Sarcopenia (or loss of muscle mass and function) is a relatively new area within the field of musculoskeletal research and medicine. Investigating whether there is a social gradient, including occupation type and income level, of sarcopenia, as observed for other diseases, will contribute significantly to the limited evidence base for this disease. This new information may inform the prevention and management of sarcopenia and widen the evidence base to support existing and future health campaigns.
Methods and analysis
We will conduct a systematic search of the databases PubMed, Ovid, CINAHL, Scopus and EMBASE to identify articles that investigate associations ...


Leucine Supplementation Does Not Attenuate Skeletal Muscle Loss During Leg Immobilization In Healthy, Young Men, E. M. P. Backx, Astrid M. H. Horstman, Gabriel N. Marzuca-Nassr, Janneau Van Kranenburg, Joey S. J. Smeets, Cas J. Fuchs, Anniek A. W. Janssen, Lisette C. P. G. M. De Groot, Tim Snijders, Lex B. Verdijk, Luc Van Loon Jan 2018

Leucine Supplementation Does Not Attenuate Skeletal Muscle Loss During Leg Immobilization In Healthy, Young Men, E. M. P. Backx, Astrid M. H. Horstman, Gabriel N. Marzuca-Nassr, Janneau Van Kranenburg, Joey S. J. Smeets, Cas J. Fuchs, Anniek A. W. Janssen, Lisette C. P. G. M. De Groot, Tim Snijders, Lex B. Verdijk, Luc Van Loon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background:
Short successive periods of physical inactivity occur throughout life and contribute considerably to the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass. The maintenance of muscle mass during brief periods of disuse is required to prevent functional decline and maintain metabolic health.
Objective:,br> To assess whether daily leucine supplementation during a short period of disuse can attenuate subsequent muscle loss in vivo in humans. Methods: Thirty healthy (22 ± 1 y) young males were exposed to a 7-day unilateral knee immobilization intervention by means of a full leg cast with (LEU, n = 15) or without (CON, n = 15) daily leucine supplementation ...


Measures Of Physical Performance And Muscle Strength As Predictors Of Fracture Risk Independent Of Frax, Falls, And Abmd: A Meta-Analysis Of The Osteoporotic Fractures In Men (Mros) Study, Nicholas C. Harvey, Anders Oden, E. Orwoll, Jodi Lapidus, T. Kwok, Magnus Karlsson, Björn E. Rosengren, Eva Ribom, Cyrus Cooper, Peggy M. Cawthon, John A. Kanis, Claes Ohlsson, Dan Mellström, Helena Johansson, Eugene Mccloskey Jan 2018

Measures Of Physical Performance And Muscle Strength As Predictors Of Fracture Risk Independent Of Frax, Falls, And Abmd: A Meta-Analysis Of The Osteoporotic Fractures In Men (Mros) Study, Nicholas C. Harvey, Anders Oden, E. Orwoll, Jodi Lapidus, T. Kwok, Magnus Karlsson, Björn E. Rosengren, Eva Ribom, Cyrus Cooper, Peggy M. Cawthon, John A. Kanis, Claes Ohlsson, Dan Mellström, Helena Johansson, Eugene Mccloskey

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Measures of muscle mass, strength, and function predict risk of incident fractures, but it is not known whether this risk information is additive to that from FRAX (fracture risk assessment tool) probability. In the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study cohorts (Sweden, Hong Kong, United States), we investigated whether measures of physical performance/appendicular lean mass (ALM) by DXA predicted incident fractures in older men, independently of FRAX probability. Baseline information included falls history, clinical risk factors for falls and fractures, femoral neck aBMD, and calculated FRAX probabilities. An extension of Poisson regression was used to investigate the relationship between ...


Muscle Atrophy Due To Nerve Damage Is Accompanied By Elevated Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis Rates, Henning Langer, Joan M. Senden, Annemie P. Gijsen, Stefan Kempa, Luc Van Loon, Simone Spuler Jan 2018

Muscle Atrophy Due To Nerve Damage Is Accompanied By Elevated Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis Rates, Henning Langer, Joan M. Senden, Annemie P. Gijsen, Stefan Kempa, Luc Van Loon, Simone Spuler

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Muscle loss is a severe complication of many medical conditions such as cancer, cardiac failure, muscular dystrophies, and nerve damage. The contribution of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) to the loss of muscle mass after nerve damage is not clear. Using deuterium oxide (D2O) labeling, we demonstrate that MPS is significantly increased in rat m. tibialis anterior (TA) compared to control (3.23 ± 0.72 [damaged] to 2.09 ± 0.26%∗day−1 [control]) after 4 weeks of nerve constriction injury. This is the case despite substantial loss of mass of the TA (350 ± 96 mg [damaged] to 946 ± 361 mg ...


Objectively Measured Neighborhood Walkability And Changed In Physical Activity In Older Japanese Adults: A Five-Year Cohort Study, Hiroyuki Kikuchi, Tomoki Nakaya, Tomoya Hanibuchi, Noritoshi Fukushima, Shiho Amagasa, Koichiro Oka, Jim Sallis, Shigeru Inoue Jan 2018

Objectively Measured Neighborhood Walkability And Changed In Physical Activity In Older Japanese Adults: A Five-Year Cohort Study, Hiroyuki Kikuchi, Tomoki Nakaya, Tomoya Hanibuchi, Noritoshi Fukushima, Shiho Amagasa, Koichiro Oka, Jim Sallis, Shigeru Inoue

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives:
This study investigated the longitudinal association between changes in older adults’ physical activity and neighborhood walkability measured by geographic information systems (GISs, (ArcGIS, ESRI Inc., Redlands, CA, USA)). Methods: A mail survey was conducted for Japanese older adults who were randomly selected from three different settlement types. Data on walking, total moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and sociodemographic characteristics were collected at baseline (in 2010) and follow-up (in 2015). Multiple linear regression analyses were employed to assess the association between MVPA change and neighborhood walkability, adjusted for potential confounders. Effect sizes for independent variables on MVPA change were ...


Post Hoc Analyses Of Shift And Paradigm-Hf Highlight The Importance Of Chronic Chagas' Cardiomyopathy Comment On: “Safety Profile And Efficacy Of Ivabradine In Heart Failure Due To Chagas Heart Disease: A Post Hoc Analysis Of The Shift Trial” By Bocchi Et Al., Felix Ramires, Felipe Martinez, Efrain Gomez, Caroline Demacq, Claudio Gimpelewicz, Jean Rouleau, Scott Solomon, Karl Sweberg, Michael R. Zile, Milton Packer, John Mcmurray Jan 2018

Post Hoc Analyses Of Shift And Paradigm-Hf Highlight The Importance Of Chronic Chagas' Cardiomyopathy Comment On: “Safety Profile And Efficacy Of Ivabradine In Heart Failure Due To Chagas Heart Disease: A Post Hoc Analysis Of The Shift Trial” By Bocchi Et Al., Felix Ramires, Felipe Martinez, Efrain Gomez, Caroline Demacq, Claudio Gimpelewicz, Jean Rouleau, Scott Solomon, Karl Sweberg, Michael R. Zile, Milton Packer, John Mcmurray

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Comment on:
“Safety profile and efficacy of ivabradine in heart failure due to Chagas heart disease: a post hoc analysis of the SHIFT trial” by Bocchi et al.


Prognostic Importance Of Emerging Cardiac, Inflammatory, And Renal Biomarkers In Chronic Heart Failure Patients With Reduced Ejection Fraction And Anaemia: Red-Hf Study, Paul Welsh, Lei Kou, Changhong Yu, Inder S. Anand, Dirk J. Van Veldhuisen, Aldo Pietro Maggioni, Akshay S. Desai, Scott Solomon, Marc A. Pfeffer, Sunfa Cheng, Lars Gullestad, Pål Aukrust, Thor Ueland, Karl Swedberg, James B. Young, Michael W. Kattan, Naveed Sattar, John Mcmurray Jan 2018

Prognostic Importance Of Emerging Cardiac, Inflammatory, And Renal Biomarkers In Chronic Heart Failure Patients With Reduced Ejection Fraction And Anaemia: Red-Hf Study, Paul Welsh, Lei Kou, Changhong Yu, Inder S. Anand, Dirk J. Van Veldhuisen, Aldo Pietro Maggioni, Akshay S. Desai, Scott Solomon, Marc A. Pfeffer, Sunfa Cheng, Lars Gullestad, Pål Aukrust, Thor Ueland, Karl Swedberg, James B. Young, Michael W. Kattan, Naveed Sattar, John Mcmurray

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Aims
To test the prognostic value of emerging biomarkers in the Reduction of Events by Darbepoetin Alfa in Heart Failure (RED‐HF) trial.
Methods and results
Circulating cardiac [N‐terminal pro‐B‐type natriuretic peptide (NT‐proBNP), and high‐sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT)], neurohumoral [mid‐regional pro‐adrenomedullin (MR‐proADM) and copeptin], renal (cystatin C), and inflammatory [high‐sensitivity C‐reactive protein (hsCRP)] biomarkers were measured at randomization in 1853 participants with complete data. The relationship between these biomarkers and the primary composite endpoint of heart failure hospitalization or cardiovascular death over 28 months of follow‐up (n = 834) was ...


Risk Factors For Incident Heart Failure With Preserved Or Reduced Ejection Fraction, And Valvular Heart Failure, In A Community-Based Cohort, Fei Fei Gong, Michael Jelinek, Julian M. Castro, Jennifer M. Coller, Michele Mcgrady, Umberto Boffa, Louise Shiel, Danny Liew, R. Wolfe, Simon Stewart, Alice J. Owen, Henry Krum, Christopher Reid, David Prior, Duncan J. Campbell Jan 2018

Risk Factors For Incident Heart Failure With Preserved Or Reduced Ejection Fraction, And Valvular Heart Failure, In A Community-Based Cohort, Fei Fei Gong, Michael Jelinek, Julian M. Castro, Jennifer M. Coller, Michele Mcgrady, Umberto Boffa, Louise Shiel, Danny Liew, R. Wolfe, Simon Stewart, Alice J. Owen, Henry Krum, Christopher Reid, David Prior, Duncan J. Campbell

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background
The lack of effective therapies for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) reflects an incomplete understanding of its pathogenesis. Design We analysed baseline risk factors for incident HFpEF, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and valvular heart failure (VHF) in a community-based cohort.
Methods
We recruited 2101 men and 1746 women ≥60 years of age with hypertension, diabetes, ischaemic heart disease (IHD), abnormal heart rhythm, cerebrovascular disease or renal impairment. Exclusion criteria were known heart failure, left ventricular ejection fraction <50% or valve abnormality >mild in severity. Median follow-up was 5.6 (IQR 4.6–6.3) years.
Results
Median time ...


Sex Differences In The Impact Of Body Mass Index On The Risk Of Future Atrial Fibrillation: Insights From The Longitudinal Population-Based Tromso Study, Jocasta Ball, Maja-Lisa Loechen, Tom Wilsgaard, Henrik Schirmer, Laila Arnesdatter Hopstock, Bente Morseth, Ellisiv Bøgeberg Mathiesen, Inger Njolstad, Sweta Tiwari, Ekaterina Sharashova Jan 2018

Sex Differences In The Impact Of Body Mass Index On The Risk Of Future Atrial Fibrillation: Insights From The Longitudinal Population-Based Tromso Study, Jocasta Ball, Maja-Lisa Loechen, Tom Wilsgaard, Henrik Schirmer, Laila Arnesdatter Hopstock, Bente Morseth, Ellisiv Bøgeberg Mathiesen, Inger Njolstad, Sweta Tiwari, Ekaterina Sharashova

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background:
Atrial fibrillation (AF) prevalence is increasing, and body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for AF. However, sex differences in the impact of BMI on AF risk have not been fully elucidated.
Methods and Results:
Data from the fourth survey (1994–1995) of the Tromsø Study (Norway) were used to investigate the association of single-measurement BMI on future AF risk. To analyze the influence of BMI changes on AF risk, data from individuals who attended the third and fourth study surveys were used. AF diagnosis was derived from record linkage and end point adjudication. Cox regression analysis was ...


Effect Of Sacubitril/Valsartan On Recurrent Events In The Prospective Comparison Of Arni With Acei To Determine Impact On Global Mortality And Morbidity In Heart Failure Trial (Paradigm-Hf), Ulrik M. Mogensen, Jianjian Gong, Pardeep Jhund, Li Shen, Lars Kober, Akshay S. Desai, Martin P. Lefkowitz, Milton Packer, Jean L. Rouleau, Scott Solomon, Brian L. Claggett, Karl Sweberg, Michael R. Zile, Guenr Mueller-Velten, John Mcmurray Jan 2018

Effect Of Sacubitril/Valsartan On Recurrent Events In The Prospective Comparison Of Arni With Acei To Determine Impact On Global Mortality And Morbidity In Heart Failure Trial (Paradigm-Hf), Ulrik M. Mogensen, Jianjian Gong, Pardeep Jhund, Li Shen, Lars Kober, Akshay S. Desai, Martin P. Lefkowitz, Milton Packer, Jean L. Rouleau, Scott Solomon, Brian L. Claggett, Karl Sweberg, Michael R. Zile, Guenr Mueller-Velten, John Mcmurray

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Aims
Recurrent hospitalizations are a major part of the disease burden in heart failure (HF), but conventional analyses consider only the first event. We compared the effect of sacubitril/valsartan vs. enalapril on recurrent events, incorporating all HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular (CV) deaths in PARADIGM‐HF, using a variety of statistical approaches advocated for this type of analysis.
Methods and results
In PARADIGM‐HF, a total of 8399 patients were randomized and followed for a median of 27 months. We applied various recurrent event analyses, including a negative binomial model, the Wei, Lin and Weissfeld (WLW), and Lin, Wei, Ying ...


Web-Based Physical Activity Intervention For Latina Adolescents: Feasibility, Acceptability, And Potential Efficacy Of The Niñas Saludables Study, Britta Larsen, Tanya Benitez, Mayra Cano, Shira S. Dunsiger, Bess Marcus, Andrea Mendoza-Vasconez, Jim Sallis, Michelle Zive Jan 2018

Web-Based Physical Activity Intervention For Latina Adolescents: Feasibility, Acceptability, And Potential Efficacy Of The Niñas Saludables Study, Britta Larsen, Tanya Benitez, Mayra Cano, Shira S. Dunsiger, Bess Marcus, Andrea Mendoza-Vasconez, Jim Sallis, Michelle Zive

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background:
Physical activity is markedly low in Latina adolescents, yet few physical activity interventions have been attempted in this population. Web-based interventions can incorporate theory-based components, be appealing to adolescents, and have potential for low-cost dissemination.
Objective:
This study aimed to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a Web-based physical activity intervention for Latina adolescents in a single-arm pilot trial.
Methods:
A total of 21 Latina adolescents (aged 12-18 years) who could read and write in English and were underactive (<90 min/week) participated in a 12-week, theory-informed Web-based physical activity intervention. The intervention website was modified from a previous Web-based intervention for Latina adults. Web content was individually tailored based on the responses to monthly questionnaires. Feasibility was measured by recruitment, retention, and adherence/engagement, and acceptability was measured by satisfaction surveys. Physical activity was measured at baseline and follow-up (12 weeks) using the 7-day physical activity recall (PAR) interview and accelerometers.
Results:
Baseline activity as measured by the 7-day PAR and accelerometers was 24.7 (SD 26.11) and ...


Incidence Of Hospitalisation For Heart Failure And Case-Fatality Among 3.25 Million People With And Without Diabetes [Accepted Manuscript], David A. Mcallister, Stephanie H. Read, Jan Kerssens, Shona Livingstone, Stuart Mcgurnaghan, Pardeep Jhund, John Petrie, Naveed Sattar, Colin Fischbacher, Soren Lund Kristensen, John Mcmurray, Helen M. Colhoun, Sarah H. Wild Jan 2018

Incidence Of Hospitalisation For Heart Failure And Case-Fatality Among 3.25 Million People With And Without Diabetes [Accepted Manuscript], David A. Mcallister, Stephanie H. Read, Jan Kerssens, Shona Livingstone, Stuart Mcgurnaghan, Pardeep Jhund, John Petrie, Naveed Sattar, Colin Fischbacher, Soren Lund Kristensen, John Mcmurray, Helen M. Colhoun, Sarah H. Wild

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background:
Recent clinical trials of new glucose-lowering treatments have drawn attention to the importance of hospitalization for heart failure as a complication of diabetes mellitus. However, the epidemiology is not well described, particularly for type 1 diabetes mellitus. We examined the incidence and case-fatality of heart failure hospitalizations in the entire population aged ≥30 years resident in Scotland during 2004 to 2013.
Methods:
Date and type of diabetes mellitus diagnosis were linked to heart failure hospitalizations and deaths using the national Scottish registers. Incidence rates and case-fatality were estimated in regression models (quasi-Poisson and logistic regression respectively). All estimates are ...