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Metformin Use And Cardiovascular Events In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes And Chronic Kidney Disease [Accepted Manuscript], David M. Charytan, Scott D. Solomon, Peter Ivanovich, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Mark E. Cooper, Janet B. Mcgill, Hans-Henrik Parving, Patrick Parfrey, Ajay K. Singh, Emmanuel A. Burdmann, Andrew S. Levey, Kai-Uwe Eckardt, John J. V. Mcmurray, Larry A. Weinrauch, Jiankang Liu, Brian L. Claggett, Eldrin F. Lewis, Marc A. Pfeffer Jan 2019

Metformin Use And Cardiovascular Events In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes And Chronic Kidney Disease [Accepted Manuscript], David M. Charytan, Scott D. Solomon, Peter Ivanovich, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Mark E. Cooper, Janet B. Mcgill, Hans-Henrik Parving, Patrick Parfrey, Ajay K. Singh, Emmanuel A. Burdmann, Andrew S. Levey, Kai-Uwe Eckardt, John J. V. Mcmurray, Larry A. Weinrauch, Jiankang Liu, Brian L. Claggett, Eldrin F. Lewis, Marc A. Pfeffer

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Aims Metformin could have benefits on cardiovascular disease and kidney disease progression but is often withheld from individuals with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) because of a concern that it may increase the risk of lactic acidosis. Materials and methods All‐cause mortality, cardiovascular death, cardiovascular events (death, hospitalization for heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke or myocardial ischemia), end stage renal disease (ESRD) and the kidney disease composite (ESRD or death) were compared in metformin users and non‐users with diabetes and CKD enrolled in the Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events with Aranesp (darbepoeitin‐alfa) Therapy (TREAT) (NCT00093015). Outcomes ...


Sex-Specific Effects Of Central Adiposity And Inflammatory Markers On Limbic Microstructure, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, Jilu P. Mole, Erika Leonaviciude, Rebecca Sims, Emma J. Kidd, Benyamin Ertefai, Aurora Kelso-Mitchell, Florence Gidney, Fabrizio Fasano, John Evans, Derek K. Jones, Roland J. Baddeley Jan 2019

Sex-Specific Effects Of Central Adiposity And Inflammatory Markers On Limbic Microstructure, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, Jilu P. Mole, Erika Leonaviciude, Rebecca Sims, Emma J. Kidd, Benyamin Ertefai, Aurora Kelso-Mitchell, Florence Gidney, Fabrizio Fasano, John Evans, Derek K. Jones, Roland J. Baddeley

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Midlife obesity is a risk factor of late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) but why this is the case remains unknown. As systemic inflammation is involved in both conditions, obesity-related neuroinflammation may contribute to damage in limbic structures important in LOAD. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that systemic inflammation would mediate central obesity related effects on limbic tissue microstructure in 166 asymptomatic individuals (38–71 years old). We employed MRI indices sensitive to myelin and neuroinflammation [macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) and kf] from quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) together with indices from neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) to investigate ...


Acute Effects Of Active Breaks During Prolonged Sitting On Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Gene Expression: An Ancillary Analysis Of A Randomised Controlled Trial, Megan S. Grace, Melissa F. Formosa, Kiymet Bozaoglu, Audrey Bergouignan, Marta Brozynska, Andrew L. Carey, Camilla Bertuzzo Veiga, Parneet Sethi, Francis Dillon, David A. Bertovic, Michael Inouye, Neville Owen, David W. Dunstan, Bronwyn A. Kingwell Jan 2019

Acute Effects Of Active Breaks During Prolonged Sitting On Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Gene Expression: An Ancillary Analysis Of A Randomised Controlled Trial, Megan S. Grace, Melissa F. Formosa, Kiymet Bozaoglu, Audrey Bergouignan, Marta Brozynska, Andrew L. Carey, Camilla Bertuzzo Veiga, Parneet Sethi, Francis Dillon, David A. Bertovic, Michael Inouye, Neville Owen, David W. Dunstan, Bronwyn A. Kingwell

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Active breaks in prolonged sitting has beneficial impacts on cardiometabolic risk biomarkers. The molecular mechanisms include regulation of skeletal muscle gene and protein expression controlling metabolic, inflammatory and cell development pathways. An active communication network exists between adipose and muscle tissue, but the effect of active breaks in prolonged sitting on adipose tissue have not been investigated. This study characterized the acute transcriptional events induced in adipose tissue by regular active breaks during prolonged sitting. We studied 8 overweight/obese adults participating in an acute randomized three-intervention crossover trial. Interventions were performed in the postprandial state and included: (i) prolonged ...


Lipotoxicity Plays A Key Role In The Development Of Both Insulin Resistance And Muscle Atrophy In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes, Ruth C. R. Meex, Ellen E. Blaak, Luc J. C. Van Loon Jan 2019

Lipotoxicity Plays A Key Role In The Development Of Both Insulin Resistance And Muscle Atrophy In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes, Ruth C. R. Meex, Ellen E. Blaak, Luc J. C. Van Loon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Insulin resistance and muscle mass loss often coincide in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Most patients with type 2 diabetes are overweight, and it is well established that obesity and derangements in lipid metabolism play an important role in the development of insulin resistance in these individuals. Specifically, increased adipose tissue mass and dysfunctional adipose tissue lead to systemic lipid overflow and to low‐grade inflammation via altered secretion of adipokines and cytokines. Furthermore, an increased flux of fatty acids from the adipose tissue may contribute to increased fat storage in the liver and in skeletal muscle, resulting in an ...


Using A Randomised Controlled Trial To Test The Effectiveness Of A Family-Oriented, Theoretically Based, Diabetes Self-Management Education Program To Improve Glycaemia, Self-Management And Self-Efficacy Of Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Living In Rural Thailand, Nutchanath Wichit Mar 2018

Using A Randomised Controlled Trial To Test The Effectiveness Of A Family-Oriented, Theoretically Based, Diabetes Self-Management Education Program To Improve Glycaemia, Self-Management And Self-Efficacy Of Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Living In Rural Thailand, Nutchanath Wichit

Theses

Introduction

Diabetes is increasing in prevalence throughout the world. This increase is also of concern to upper-middle-income countries such as Thailand. Diabetes mellitus develops gradually and is often undetected in the early stages, leading to long-term damage of several organs in the body with related complications. Diabetes self-management education (DSME) has been found to improve knowledge, self-care behaviours, glycaemic control, and quality of life for Thai individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Thailand is a country in which family members have a fundamental role in assisting other family members in sickness and in health. Family-oriented interventions, therefore, have the ...


Mitochondrial Coq Deficiency Is A Common Driver Of Mitochondrial Oxidants And Insulin Resistance, Daniel J. Fazakerley, Rima Chaudhuri, Pengyi Yang, Ghassan J. Maghzal, Kristen C. Thomas, James R. Krycer, Sean J. Humphrey, Benjamin Parker, Kelsey H. Fisher-Wellman, Christopher C. Meoli, Nolan Hoffman, Ciana Diskin, James G. Burchfield, Mark J. Cowley, Warren Kaplan, Zora Modrusan, Ganesh Kolumam, Jean Y. H. Yang, Daniel L. Chen, Dorit Samocha-Bonet, Jerry R. Greenfield, Kyle L. Hoehn, Roland Stocker, David E. James Jan 2018

Mitochondrial Coq Deficiency Is A Common Driver Of Mitochondrial Oxidants And Insulin Resistance, Daniel J. Fazakerley, Rima Chaudhuri, Pengyi Yang, Ghassan J. Maghzal, Kristen C. Thomas, James R. Krycer, Sean J. Humphrey, Benjamin Parker, Kelsey H. Fisher-Wellman, Christopher C. Meoli, Nolan Hoffman, Ciana Diskin, James G. Burchfield, Mark J. Cowley, Warren Kaplan, Zora Modrusan, Ganesh Kolumam, Jean Y. H. Yang, Daniel L. Chen, Dorit Samocha-Bonet, Jerry R. Greenfield, Kyle L. Hoehn, Roland Stocker, David E. James

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Insulin resistance in muscle, adipocytes and liver is a gateway to a number of metabolic diseases. Here, we show a selective deficiency in mitochondrial coenzyme Q (CoQ) in insulin-resistant adipose and muscle tissue. This defect was observed in a range of in vitro insulin resistance models and adipose tissue from insulin-resistant humans and was concomitant with lower expression of mevalonate/CoQ biosynthesis pathway proteins in most models. Pharmacologic or genetic manipulations that decreased mitochondrial CoQ triggered mitochondrial oxidants and insulin resistance while CoQ supplementation in either insulin-resistant cell models or mice restored normal insulin sensitivity. Specifically, lowering of mitochondrial CoQ ...


Retinopathy, Neuropathy, And Subsequent Cardiovascular Events In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes And Acute Coronary Syndrome In The Elixa: The Importance Of Disease Duration, Jelena P. Seferovic, Rhonda Bentley-Lewis, Brian L. Claggett, Rafael Diaz, Hertzel C. Gerstein, Lars V. Køber, Francesca C. Lawson, Eldrin F. Lewis, Aldo Pietro Maggioni, John J. V. Mcmurray, Jeffrey L. Probstfield, Matthew C. Riddle, Scott D. Solomon, Jean-Claud Tardif, Marc A. Pfeffer Jan 2018

Retinopathy, Neuropathy, And Subsequent Cardiovascular Events In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes And Acute Coronary Syndrome In The Elixa: The Importance Of Disease Duration, Jelena P. Seferovic, Rhonda Bentley-Lewis, Brian L. Claggett, Rafael Diaz, Hertzel C. Gerstein, Lars V. Køber, Francesca C. Lawson, Eldrin F. Lewis, Aldo Pietro Maggioni, John J. V. Mcmurray, Jeffrey L. Probstfield, Matthew C. Riddle, Scott D. Solomon, Jean-Claud Tardif, Marc A. Pfeffer

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Introduction. We investigated the association of diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy with increased risk of recurrent cardiovascular (CV) events in 6068 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) enrolled in the Evaluation of Lixisenatide in Acute Coronary Syndrome (ELIXA). Methods. History of retinopathy and neuropathy as well as duration of T2DM were self-reported at screening. Proportional hazards regression models were used to assess relationships between retinopathy, neuropathy, and recurrent CV events. Results. At screening, retinopathy and neuropathy were reported in 10.7% and 17.5% of patients, respectively, while 5.7% reported both. When adjusted ...


Agreement Between Cystatin-C And Creatinine Based Egfr Estimates After A 12-Month Exercise Intervention In Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease, Kassia S. Beetham, Erin J. Howden, Nicole M. Isbel, Jeff S. Coombes Jan 2018

Agreement Between Cystatin-C And Creatinine Based Egfr Estimates After A 12-Month Exercise Intervention In Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease, Kassia S. Beetham, Erin J. Howden, Nicole M. Isbel, Jeff S. Coombes

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Estimation of GFR (eGFR) using formulae based on serum creatinine concentrations are commonly used to assess kidney function. Physical exercise can increase creatinine turnover and lean mass; therefore, this method may not be suitable for use in exercising individuals. Cystatin-C based eGFR formulae may be a more accurate measure of kidney function when examining the impact of exercise on kidney function. The aim of this study was to assess the agreement of four creatinine and cystatin-C based estimates of GFR before and after a 12-month exercise intervention. Methods: One hundred forty-two participants with stage 3–4 chronic kidney disease ...


Prolonged Uninterrupted Sitting Increases Fatigue In Type 2 Diabetes [Accepted Manuscript], Paddy C. Dempsey, David W. Dunstan, Robyn N. Larsen, Gavin W. Lambert, Bronwyn A. Kingwell, Neville Owen Jan 2018

Prolonged Uninterrupted Sitting Increases Fatigue In Type 2 Diabetes [Accepted Manuscript], Paddy C. Dempsey, David W. Dunstan, Robyn N. Larsen, Gavin W. Lambert, Bronwyn A. Kingwell, Neville Owen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Fatigue is a prevalent, costly and disabling clinical complaint among those with type 2 diabetes. In a randomized crossover trial, prolonged uninterrupted sitting increased fatigue by 29% relative to days when sitting was regularly interrupted by brief activity-breaks. This may have implications for diabetes-related quality of life, occupational productivity and self-care.


Acute Effects Of Whole-Body Vibration On The Pain Level, Flexibility, And Cardiovascular Responses In Individuals With Metabolic Syndrome, Danubia C. Sa-Caputo, L. L. Paineiras-Domingos, Ricardo Oliveira, Mario F. T. Neves, Andrea Brandão, Pedro J. Marin, Borja Sañudo, Trentham Furness, Redha Taiar, Mario Bernado-Filho Jan 2018

Acute Effects Of Whole-Body Vibration On The Pain Level, Flexibility, And Cardiovascular Responses In Individuals With Metabolic Syndrome, Danubia C. Sa-Caputo, L. L. Paineiras-Domingos, Ricardo Oliveira, Mario F. T. Neves, Andrea Brandão, Pedro J. Marin, Borja Sañudo, Trentham Furness, Redha Taiar, Mario Bernado-Filho

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The aim of the study was to assess the acute effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise, with low frequency (5 Hz), on the pain level (PL), trunk flexibility, and cardiovascular responses (blood pressure [BP] and heart rate [HR]) in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Forty-four individuals were included in the study (control: 15) or in (WBV exercise: 29) groups. They were submitted to 3 bouts (1 minute each) of WBV exercise (5 Hz and peak-to-peak displacements of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mm, corresponding to peak accelerations of 0.12, 0.25, and 0.35 g, respectively, sitting ...


Baseline Characteristics And Enrichment Results From The Sonar Trial, Hiddo J. L. Heerspink, Dennis L. Andress, George Bakris, John J. Brennan, Ricardo Correa-Rotter, Fan Fan Hou, Dalane W. Kitzman, Donald Kohan, Hirofumi Makino, John Mcmurray, Vlado Perkovic, Sheldon Tobe, Melissa Wigderson, Tingting Yi, Hans-Henrik Parving, Dick De Zeeuw Jan 2018

Baseline Characteristics And Enrichment Results From The Sonar Trial, Hiddo J. L. Heerspink, Dennis L. Andress, George Bakris, John J. Brennan, Ricardo Correa-Rotter, Fan Fan Hou, Dalane W. Kitzman, Donald Kohan, Hirofumi Makino, John Mcmurray, Vlado Perkovic, Sheldon Tobe, Melissa Wigderson, Tingting Yi, Hans-Henrik Parving, Dick De Zeeuw

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Aim: The SONAR trial uses an enrichment design based on the individual response to the selective endothelin receptor antagonist atrasentan on efficacy (the degree of the individual response in the urinary albumin‐to‐creatinine ratio [UACR]) and safety/tolerability (signs of sodium retention and acute increases in serum creatinine) to assess the effects of this agent on major renal outcomes. The patient population and enrichment results are described here. Methods: Patients with type 2 diabetes with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) within 25 to 75 mL/min/1.73 m2 and UACR between 300 and 5000 mg/g were ...


Clinically Relevant Doses Of Vitamin A Decrease Cortical Bone Mass In Mice, Vikte Lionikaite, Karin L. Gustafsson, Anna Westerlund, Sara H. Windahl, Antti Koskela, Juha Tuukkanen, Helena Johansson, Claes Ohlsson, H. Herschel Conaway, Petra Henning, Ulf H. Lerner Jan 2018

Clinically Relevant Doses Of Vitamin A Decrease Cortical Bone Mass In Mice, Vikte Lionikaite, Karin L. Gustafsson, Anna Westerlund, Sara H. Windahl, Antti Koskela, Juha Tuukkanen, Helena Johansson, Claes Ohlsson, H. Herschel Conaway, Petra Henning, Ulf H. Lerner

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Excess vitamin A has been associated with decreased cortical bone thickness and increased fracture risk. While most studies in rodents have employed high dosages of vitamin A for short periods of time, we investigated the bone phenotype in mice after longer exposure to more clinically relevant doses. For 1, 4 and 10 weeks, mice were fed a control diet (4.5 µg retinyl acetate/g chow), a diet modeled from the human upper tolerable limit (UTL; 20 µg retinyl acetate/g chow) and a diet three times UTL (supplemented; 60 µg retinyl acetate/g chow). Time-dependent decreases in periosteal circumference ...


Exercise And Glut4 In Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue, Marcelo Flores-Opazo, Eva Boland, Andrew Garnham, Robyn M. Murphy, Sean L. Mcgee, Mark Hargreaves Jan 2018

Exercise And Glut4 In Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue, Marcelo Flores-Opazo, Eva Boland, Andrew Garnham, Robyn M. Murphy, Sean L. Mcgee, Mark Hargreaves

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

To examine the effect of acute and chronic exercise on adipose tissue GLUT4 expression, a total of 20 healthy, male subjects performed one of two studies. Ten subjects performed cycle ergometer exercise for 60 min at 73 ± 2% VO2 peak and abdominal adipose tissue samples were obtained immediately before and after exercise and after 3 h of recovery. Another 10 subjects completed 10 days of exercise training, comprising a combination of six sessions of 60 min at 75% VO2 peak and four sessions of 6 × 5 min at 90% VO2 peak, separated by 3 min at 40% VO2 peak. Abdominal ...


Sedentary Behavior As A Risk Factor For Cognitive Decline? A Focus On The Influence Of Glycemic Control In Brain Health, Michael Wheeler, Paddy C. Dempsey, Megan S. Grace, Kathryn A. Ellis, Paul A. Gardiner, Daniel Green, David Dunstan Jan 2017

Sedentary Behavior As A Risk Factor For Cognitive Decline? A Focus On The Influence Of Glycemic Control In Brain Health, Michael Wheeler, Paddy C. Dempsey, Megan S. Grace, Kathryn A. Ellis, Paul A. Gardiner, Daniel Green, David Dunstan

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Cognitive decline leading to dementia represents a global health burden. In the absence of targeted pharmacotherapy, lifestyle approaches remain the best option for slowing the onset of dementia. However, older adults spend very little time doing moderate to vigorous exercise and spend a majority of time in sedentary behavior. Sedentary behavior has been linked to poor glycemic control and increased risk of all-cause mortality. Here, we explore a potential link between sedentary behavior and brain health. We highlight the role of glycemic control in maintaining brain function and suggest that reducing and replacing sedentary behavior with intermittent light-intensity physical activity ...


Sulfonylurea Drug Pretreatment And Functional Outcome In Diabetic Patients With Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage [Accepted Manuscript], Jason J. Chang, Yasser Khorchid, Ali Kerro, L. Goodwin Burgess, Nitin Goyal, Anne W. Alexandrov, Andrei V. Alexandrov, Georgios Tsivgoulis Jan 2017

Sulfonylurea Drug Pretreatment And Functional Outcome In Diabetic Patients With Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage [Accepted Manuscript], Jason J. Chang, Yasser Khorchid, Ali Kerro, L. Goodwin Burgess, Nitin Goyal, Anne W. Alexandrov, Andrei V. Alexandrov, Georgios Tsivgoulis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Purpose: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with poor clinical outcome and high mortality. Sulfonylurea (SFU) use may be a viable therapy for inhibiting sulfonylurea receptor-1 and NCCa-ATP channels and reducing perihematomal edema and blood-brain barrierdisruption. We sought to evaluate the effects of prehospital SFU use with outcomes in diabetic patients with acute ICH. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of diabetic patients presenting with acute ICH at a tertiary care center. Study inclusion criteria included spontaneous ICH etiology and age > 18 years. Baseline clinical severity was documented using ICH-score. Hematoma volumes (HV) on admission were calculated using ABC/2 formula ...


Effects Of Vildagliptin On Ventricular Function In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Heart Failure. A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial, John Mcmurray, Piotr P. Ponikowski, Geremia B. Bolli, Valentina Lukashevich, Plamen Kozlovski, Wolfgang Kothny, James D. Lewsey, Henry Krum Jan 2017

Effects Of Vildagliptin On Ventricular Function In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus And Heart Failure. A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial, John Mcmurray, Piotr P. Ponikowski, Geremia B. Bolli, Valentina Lukashevich, Plamen Kozlovski, Wolfgang Kothny, James D. Lewsey, Henry Krum

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

No abstract provided.


Development And Psychometric Testing Of A Theory-Based Tool To Measure Self-Care In Diabetes Patients: The Self-Care Of Diabetes Inventory, Davide Ausili, Claudio Barbaranelli, Emanuela Rossi, Paola Rebora, Diletta Fabrizi, Chiara Coghi, Michela Luciani, Ercole Vellone, Stefania Di Mauro, Barbara Riegel Jan 2017

Development And Psychometric Testing Of A Theory-Based Tool To Measure Self-Care In Diabetes Patients: The Self-Care Of Diabetes Inventory, Davide Ausili, Claudio Barbaranelli, Emanuela Rossi, Paola Rebora, Diletta Fabrizi, Chiara Coghi, Michela Luciani, Ercole Vellone, Stefania Di Mauro, Barbara Riegel

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background:Self-care is essential for patients with diabetes mellitus. Both clinicians and researchers must be ableto assess the quality of that self-care. Available tools have various limitations and none are theoretically based. Theaims of this study were to develop and to test the psychometric properties of a new instrument based on themiddle range-theory of self-care of chronic illness: the Self-Care of Diabetes Inventory (SCODI).Methods:Forty SCODI items (5 point Likert type scale) were developed based on clinical recommendations andgrouped into 4 dimensions: self-care maintenance, self-care monitoring, self-care management and self-careconfidence based on the theory. Content validity was assessed by ...


Prevalence Of Prediabetes And Undiagnosed Diabetes In Patients With Hfpef And Hfref And Associated Clinical Outcomes, Søren L. Kristensen, Pardeep Jhund, Matthew M.Y. Lee, Lars Kober, Scott Solomon, Christopher B. Granger, Salim Yusuf, Marc A. Pfeffer, Karl Sweberg, John Mcmurray Jan 2017

Prevalence Of Prediabetes And Undiagnosed Diabetes In Patients With Hfpef And Hfref And Associated Clinical Outcomes, Søren L. Kristensen, Pardeep Jhund, Matthew M.Y. Lee, Lars Kober, Scott Solomon, Christopher B. Granger, Salim Yusuf, Marc A. Pfeffer, Karl Sweberg, John Mcmurray

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Purpose The prevalence and consequences of prediabetic dysglycemia and undiagnosed diabetes is unknown in patients with heart failure (HF) and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and has not been compared to heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Methods We examined the prevalence and outcomes associated with normoglycemia, prediabetic dysglycemia and diabetes (diagnosed and undiagnosed) among individuals with a baseline glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c) measurement stratified by HFrEF or HFpEF in the Candesartan in Heart failure Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity programme (CHARM). We studied the primary outcome of HF hospitalization or cardiovascular (CV) death, and all-cause death ...


Randomized Multicentre Pilot Study Of Sacubitril/Valsartan Versus Irbesartan In Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: United Kingdom Heart And Renal Protection (Harp)- Iii - Rationale, Trial Design And Baseline Data, P. K. Judge, R. Haynes, W. G. Herrington, B. C. Storey, N. Staplin, A. Bethel, L. Bowman, N. Brunskill, P. Cockwell, R. Dayanandan, M. Hill, P. A. Kalra, John Mcmurray, M. Taal, D. C. Wheeler, M. J. Landray, Colin Baigent Jan 2017

Randomized Multicentre Pilot Study Of Sacubitril/Valsartan Versus Irbesartan In Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease: United Kingdom Heart And Renal Protection (Harp)- Iii - Rationale, Trial Design And Baseline Data, P. K. Judge, R. Haynes, W. G. Herrington, B. C. Storey, N. Staplin, A. Bethel, L. Bowman, N. Brunskill, P. Cockwell, R. Dayanandan, M. Hill, P. A. Kalra, John Mcmurray, M. Taal, D. C. Wheeler, M. J. Landray, Colin Baigent

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at risk of progression to end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular disease. Data from other populations and animal experiments suggest that neprilysin inhibition (which augments the natriuretic peptide system) may reduce these risks, but clinical trials among patients with CKD are required to test this hypothesis. Methods UK Heart and Renal Protection III (HARP-III) is a multicentre, double-blind, randomized controlled trial comparing sacubitril/valsartan 97/103 mg two times daily (an angiotensin receptor–neprilysin inhibitor) with irbesartan 300 mg one time daily among 414 patients with CKD. Patients ≥18 years of age with ...


Randomized Controlled Trial Of A Family-Orientated Self-Management Program To Improve Self-Efficacy, Glycemic Control, And Quality Of Life Among Thai Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes, Nutchanath Wichit, George Mnatzaganian, Mary Courtney, Paula Schulz, Maree Johnson Jan 2017

Randomized Controlled Trial Of A Family-Orientated Self-Management Program To Improve Self-Efficacy, Glycemic Control, And Quality Of Life Among Thai Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes, Nutchanath Wichit, George Mnatzaganian, Mary Courtney, Paula Schulz, Maree Johnson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Aims: We evaluated a theoretically-derived family-oriented intervention aimed to improve self-efficacy, self-management, glycemic control and quality of life in individuals living with Type 2 diabetes in Thailand. Methods: In a single-blinded randomized controlled trial, 140 volunteer individuals with Type 2 diabetes, recruited from a diabetes clinic in rural Thailand, were randomly allocated to intervention and control arms. Those in the intervention arm received routine care plus a family-oriented program that included education classes, group discussions, a home visit, and a telephone follow-up while the control arm only received routine care. Improvement in outcomes over time (baseline, Week 3, and Week ...


Metabolomic Analysis Of Insulin Resistance Across Different Mouse Strains And Diets, Jacqueline Stockli, Kelsey H. Fisher-Wellman, Rima Chaudhuri, Xiao-Yi Zeng, Daniel J. Fazakerley, Christopher C. Meoli, Kristen C. Thomas, Nolan Hoffman, Salvatore P. Mangiafico, Chrysovalantou E. Xirouchaki, Chieh H. Yang, Olga Ilkayeva, Kari Wong, Gregory J. Cooney, Sofianos Andrikopoulos, Deborah M. Muoio, David E. James Jan 2017

Metabolomic Analysis Of Insulin Resistance Across Different Mouse Strains And Diets, Jacqueline Stockli, Kelsey H. Fisher-Wellman, Rima Chaudhuri, Xiao-Yi Zeng, Daniel J. Fazakerley, Christopher C. Meoli, Kristen C. Thomas, Nolan Hoffman, Salvatore P. Mangiafico, Chrysovalantou E. Xirouchaki, Chieh H. Yang, Olga Ilkayeva, Kari Wong, Gregory J. Cooney, Sofianos Andrikopoulos, Deborah M. Muoio, David E. James

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Insulin resistance is a major risk factor for many diseases. However, its underlying mechanism remains unclear in part because it is triggered by a complex relationship between multiple factors, including genes and the environment. Here, we used metabolomics combined with computational methods to identify factors that classified insulin resistance across individual mice derived from three different mouse strains fed two different diets. Three inbred ILSXISS strains were fed high-fat or chow diets and subjected to metabolic phenotyping and metabolomics analysis of skeletal muscle. There was significant metabolic heterogeneity between strains, diets, and individual animals. Distinct metabolites were changed with insulin ...


Transcriptomic And Epigenetic Responses To Short-Term Nutrient-Exercise Stress In Humans, R. C. Laker, C. Garde, Donny Camera, William Smiles, J. R. Zierath, John Hawley, R. Barrès Jan 2017

Transcriptomic And Epigenetic Responses To Short-Term Nutrient-Exercise Stress In Humans, R. C. Laker, C. Garde, Donny Camera, William Smiles, J. R. Zierath, John Hawley, R. Barrès

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

High fat feeding impairs skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility and induces insulin resistance, whereas exercise training exerts positive effects on substrate handling and improves insulin sensitivity. To identify the genomic mechanisms by which exercise ameliorates some of the deleterious effects of high fat feeding, we investigated the transcriptional and epigenetic response of human skeletal muscle to 9 days of a high-fat diet (HFD) alone (Sed-HFD) or in combination with resistance exercise (Ex- HFD), using genome-wide profiling of gene expression and DNA methylation. HFD markedly induced expression of immune and inflammatory genes, which was not attenuated by Ex. Conversely, Ex markedly remodelled ...


Effectiveness Of The Cardiac-Diabetes Transcare Program: Protocol For A Randomised Controlled Trial, Jo Wu, John J. Atherton, Richard Macisaac, Mary Courtney, Anne Chang, David Thompson, Karam Kostner, Andrew Macisaac, Michael C. D'Emden, Nicholas Graves, Steven Mcphail Jan 2017

Effectiveness Of The Cardiac-Diabetes Transcare Program: Protocol For A Randomised Controlled Trial, Jo Wu, John J. Atherton, Richard Macisaac, Mary Courtney, Anne Chang, David Thompson, Karam Kostner, Andrew Macisaac, Michael C. D'Emden, Nicholas Graves, Steven Mcphail

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

No abstract provided.


Comparative Effectiveness Of Telemedicine Strategies On Type 2 Diabetes Management: A Systematic Review And Network Meta-Analysis, Shaun Wen Huey Lee, Carina Ka Yee Chan, Siew Siang Chua, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk Jan 2017

Comparative Effectiveness Of Telemedicine Strategies On Type 2 Diabetes Management: A Systematic Review And Network Meta-Analysis, Shaun Wen Huey Lee, Carina Ka Yee Chan, Siew Siang Chua, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The effects of telemedicine strategies on the management of diabetes is not clear. This study aimed to investigate the impact of different telemedicine strategies on glycaemic control management of type 2 diabetes patients. A search was performed in 6 databases from inception until September 2016 for randomized controlled studies that examined the use of telemedicine in adults with type 2 diabetes. Studies were independently extracted and classified according to the following telemedicine strategies: teleeducation, telemonitoring, telecase-management, telementoring and teleconsultation. Traditional and network meta-analysis were performed to estimate the relative treatment effects. A total of 107 studies involving 20,501 participants ...


Type 2 Diabetes And Risk Of Hip Fractures And Non-Skeletal Fall Injuries In The Elderly: A Study From The Fractures And Fall Injuries In The Elderly Cohort (Frailco), Märit Wallander, Kristian F. Axelsson, Anna G. Nilsson, Dan Lundh, Mattias Lorentzon Jan 2017

Type 2 Diabetes And Risk Of Hip Fractures And Non-Skeletal Fall Injuries In The Elderly: A Study From The Fractures And Fall Injuries In The Elderly Cohort (Frailco), Märit Wallander, Kristian F. Axelsson, Anna G. Nilsson, Dan Lundh, Mattias Lorentzon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Questions remain about whether the increased risk of fractures in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is related mainly to increased risk of falling or to bone‐specific properties. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the risk of hip fractures and non‐skeletal fall injuries in older men and women with and without T2DM. We included 429,313 individuals (aged 80.8 ± 8.2 years [mean ± SD], 58% women) from the Swedish registry “Senior Alert” and linked the data to several nationwide registers. We identified 79,159 individuals with T2DM (45% with insulin [T2DM‐I], 41% with ...


Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Is Associated With Better Bone Microarchitecture But Lower Bone Material Strength And Poorer Physical Function In Elderly Women: A Population-Based Study, Anna G. Nilsson, Daniel Sundh, Lisa Johansson, Martin Nilsson, Dan Mellström, Robert Rudäng, Michail Zoulakis, Märit Wallander, Anna Darelid, Mattias Lorentzon Jan 2017

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Is Associated With Better Bone Microarchitecture But Lower Bone Material Strength And Poorer Physical Function In Elderly Women: A Population-Based Study, Anna G. Nilsson, Daniel Sundh, Lisa Johansson, Martin Nilsson, Dan Mellström, Robert Rudäng, Michail Zoulakis, Märit Wallander, Anna Darelid, Mattias Lorentzon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with an increased risk of fractures according to several studies. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear, although small case‐control studies indicate poor quality of the cortical bone. We have studied a population‐based sample of women aged 75 to 80 years in Gothenburg, randomly invited from the population register. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) was measured by dual‐energy X‐ray absorptiometry (Hologic Discovery A), bone microarchitecture by high‐resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR‐pQCT; ExtremeCT from Scanco Medical AG), and reference point indentation was performed with Osteoprobe (Active Life Scientific). Women ...


Impact Of Diet Composition On Blood Glucose Regulation, Wendy R. Russell, Athanasia Baka, Inger Bjorck, Nathalie Delzenne, Dan Gao, Helen R. Griffiths, Ellie Hadjilucas, Kristiina Juvonen, Sampo Lahtinen, Mirian Lansink, Luc Van Loon, Hannu Mykkanen, Elin Ostman, Gabrielle Riccardi, Sophie Vinoy, Martin O. Weickert Jan 2016

Impact Of Diet Composition On Blood Glucose Regulation, Wendy R. Russell, Athanasia Baka, Inger Bjorck, Nathalie Delzenne, Dan Gao, Helen R. Griffiths, Ellie Hadjilucas, Kristiina Juvonen, Sampo Lahtinen, Mirian Lansink, Luc Van Loon, Hannu Mykkanen, Elin Ostman, Gabrielle Riccardi, Sophie Vinoy, Martin O. Weickert

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Nutritional management of blood glucose levels is a strategic target in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus ( T2DM ). To implement such an approach, it is essential to understand the effect of food on glycemic regulation and on the underlying metabolic derangements. This comprehensive review summarizes the results from human dietary interventions exploring the impact of dietary components on blood glucose levels. Included are the major macronutrients; carbohydrate, protein and fat, micronutrient vitamins and minerals, nonnutrient phytochemicals and additional foods including low-calorie sweeteners, vinegar, and alcohol. Based on the evidence presented in this review, it is clear that ...


Salivary Leptin Concentrations In Bruneian Secondary School Children, Adi Idris, Ahmed Gharib Khamis, Nur Basirah Ghazali, Michael Steele, David Koh, Nik Ani Tuah Jan 2016

Salivary Leptin Concentrations In Bruneian Secondary School Children, Adi Idris, Ahmed Gharib Khamis, Nur Basirah Ghazali, Michael Steele, David Koh, Nik Ani Tuah

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective: To investigate the association between leptin levels and body mass index in Bruneian secondary school students. Methods: The body mass index of Bruneian secondary school students (aged 11–18 years) was determined before collecting their saliva using the passive drool technique. Salivary leptin concentration was determined by ELISA. Results: Correlation and partial correlation (controlled for age) analyses showed no significant differences between the levels of salivary leptin of normal weight and overweight students. Conclusions: No significant increase in the salivary leptin concentration was observed in overweight compared with normal weight Bruneian secondary school students.


Sarcopenia In Daily Practice: Assessment And Management, Charlotte Beaudart, Eugene Mccloskey, Olivier Bruyère, Matteo Cesari, Yves Rolland, Rene Rizzoli, Islène Araujo De Carvalho, Jotheeswaran Amuthavalli Thiyagarajan, Ivan Bautmans, Marie-Claude Bertière, Maria Luisa Brandi, Nasser M. Al-Daghri, Nansa Burlet, Etienne Cavalier, Francesca Cerreta, Antonio Cherubini, Roger Fielding, Evelien Gielen, Francesco Landi, Jean Petermans, Jean-Yves Reginster, Marjolein Visser, John Kanis, Cyrus Cooper Jan 2016

Sarcopenia In Daily Practice: Assessment And Management, Charlotte Beaudart, Eugene Mccloskey, Olivier Bruyère, Matteo Cesari, Yves Rolland, Rene Rizzoli, Islène Araujo De Carvalho, Jotheeswaran Amuthavalli Thiyagarajan, Ivan Bautmans, Marie-Claude Bertière, Maria Luisa Brandi, Nasser M. Al-Daghri, Nansa Burlet, Etienne Cavalier, Francesca Cerreta, Antonio Cherubini, Roger Fielding, Evelien Gielen, Francesco Landi, Jean Petermans, Jean-Yves Reginster, Marjolein Visser, John Kanis, Cyrus Cooper

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Sarcopenia is increasingly recognized as a correlate of ageing and is associated with increased likelihood of adverse outcomes including falls, fractures, frailty and mortality. Several tools have been recommended to assess muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance in clinical trials. Whilst these tools have proven to be accurate and reliable in investigational settings, many are not easily applied to daily practice.


Longer Duration Of Diabetes Strongly Impacts Fracture Risk Assessment: The Manitoba Bmd Cohort, Sumit R. Majumdar, William D. Leslie, Lisa M. Lix, Suzanne N. Morin, Helena Johansson, Anders Oden, Eugene V. Mccloskey, John A. Kanis Jan 2016

Longer Duration Of Diabetes Strongly Impacts Fracture Risk Assessment: The Manitoba Bmd Cohort, Sumit R. Majumdar, William D. Leslie, Lisa M. Lix, Suzanne N. Morin, Helena Johansson, Anders Oden, Eugene V. Mccloskey, John A. Kanis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Context: Type 2 diabetes is associated with a higher risk for major osteoporotic fracture ( MOF ) and hip fracture than predicted by the World Health Organization fracture risk assessment ( FRAX ) tool. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the impact of diabetes duration on fracture risk. Methods: Using a clinical dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry registry linked with the Manitoba administrative databases, we identified all women age 40 years or older with 10 or more years of prior health care coverage undergoing hip dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements ( 1996–2013 ). Incident MOF and incident hip fractures were each studied over 7 years ...