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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Cns Tuberculosis And Stroke, Burden, Management Challenges And Future Needs For Care And Research, A H Jokhio, Simon M Bell, Mohammad Wasay, Arshad Majid Jun 2020

Cns Tuberculosis And Stroke, Burden, Management Challenges And Future Needs For Care And Research, A H Jokhio, Simon M Bell, Mohammad Wasay, Arshad Majid

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

An estimated 10 million cases of Tuberculosis (TB) and 1.6 million deaths due to this disease occurred worldwide in 2017 (1). About 1.7 billion people, 23% of the world’s population are estimated to have latent TB infection and are thus at risk of developing active TB disease during their life time. TB is mostly common in developing countries and Pakistan ranks 5th among 30 high-burden countries and 5th for Drug Resistant TB (DRTB). The incidence of TB in Pakistan is 267 per 100,000 (1) with an estimated 525,000 cases in 2017 including 57,000 cases ...


Obstructive Sleep Apnea In Middle Age Male Smokers, Muhammad Hassan, Saad Ali Ansari, Farzana Salman, Raafay Kamal Khan, Waleed Shahzad, Ehsan-Ur- Rehman, Omer Hassaan, Aftab Ahmed, Mazhar Badshah Jun 2020

Obstructive Sleep Apnea In Middle Age Male Smokers, Muhammad Hassan, Saad Ali Ansari, Farzana Salman, Raafay Kamal Khan, Waleed Shahzad, Ehsan-Ur- Rehman, Omer Hassaan, Aftab Ahmed, Mazhar Badshah

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea is the most common type of sleep apnea. This was designed to establish the relationship between smoking and obstructive sleep apnea. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted at the outpatient department of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan, from August 2018 to November 2018 (dates mentioned in methods are different) and comprised of males aged 30-50 years. Participants were divided into two groups of smokers and non-smokers and Berlin questionnaire was used to collect data employing systemic random sampling. SPSS 22 was used for analysis. Results:There were 768 male participants in the study equally ...


Factors Influencing Severity In Acute Ischemic Strokes, Inam E Khuda, Intisar Siddiqui, Saad Munzar, Rashid Nazir, Arsalan Ahmed Jun 2020

Factors Influencing Severity In Acute Ischemic Strokes, Inam E Khuda, Intisar Siddiqui, Saad Munzar, Rashid Nazir, Arsalan Ahmed

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

Background: Stroke severity is one of the factors that determines stroke related disability. We explored possible associations between stroke severity and commonly evaluated clinical parameters of stroke patients. Objective: To determine the relationships between clinical features including routine in- hospital investigations done in first 24 hours of admission and variations in the stroke severity. Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective, analytical study performed in the Department of Neurology at Shifa International Hospital, Shifa Tameer-e-Millat University, Islamabad, Pakistan. Adult patients admitted with ischemic stroke, over a period of 39 months, with Middle Cerebral Artery infarctions, were included. National Institute of ...


A Review Of Brain Death Protocols Across The Globe And Need For Brain Death Guideline For Pakistan., Mohammad Wasay, Syeda Batool Mujtaba, Mughis Sheerani, Saleem Barech, Rashid Jooma Jun 2020

A Review Of Brain Death Protocols Across The Globe And Need For Brain Death Guideline For Pakistan., Mohammad Wasay, Syeda Batool Mujtaba, Mughis Sheerani, Saleem Barech, Rashid Jooma

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

The concept of brain death was first formally presented in United States of America in 1968 (Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School to examine the definition of Brain Death, 1968) in part to facilitate organ donation. It is a widely accepted term in most countries but some like Japan do not consider it as death. According toAAN, brain death is defined as death due to irreversible loss of function of the entire brain — comparable to circulatory death, which is defined as irreversible loss of function of the circulatory system. The purpose of our study is to review brain ...


Association Of Bipolar I Disorder With Conversion Disorder And Syncope- A Retrospective Clinical Study From Pakistan, Qurat Ul Ain Khan, Sana Younus, Hania Hasan, Muhammad Zaman Khan Jun 2020

Association Of Bipolar I Disorder With Conversion Disorder And Syncope- A Retrospective Clinical Study From Pakistan, Qurat Ul Ain Khan, Sana Younus, Hania Hasan, Muhammad Zaman Khan

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

Bipolar I disorder (BD I) is a chronic mood disorder that begins in early adulthood. Its association with conversion disorder and syncope has not been widely studied, especially in Pakistani population.


Knowledge And Use Of The International Classification Of Functioning, Disability And Health (Icf) Among Health Professionals In A Developing Country, Sidra K. Jafri, Olaf Kraus De Camargo Jun 2020

Knowledge And Use Of The International Classification Of Functioning, Disability And Health (Icf) Among Health Professionals In A Developing Country, Sidra K. Jafri, Olaf Kraus De Camargo

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

The World Health Organization’s (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) provides a biopsychosocial framework for understanding all the factors that should be considered while managing any health condition. The ICF has been employed for clinical, academic, research, and policymaking purposes in developed as well as developing countries. There is a great disparity in the representation in the literature regarding knowledge and potential application of the ICF in professional practice around the world especially from low middle-income countries like Pakistan. This study aims to evaluate the profile and knowledge of health professionals in Pakistan about the application ...


Concussion: A Review Of Epidemiology, Presentation And Treatment., Sidra Saleem, Arsalan Anwar, Fahham Asghar, Muhammad Wasay Jun 2020

Concussion: A Review Of Epidemiology, Presentation And Treatment., Sidra Saleem, Arsalan Anwar, Fahham Asghar, Muhammad Wasay

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

A direct impact on the head can cause a Mild Traumatic Brain Injury or Concussion. It is a neuronal brain injury with or without loss of consciousness. Each year, approximately 69 million people are estimated to suffer from Concussion. Around 80-90% of these Concussion cases resolve within a week. The most commonly reported post-concussion symptoms include headache, cognitive changes, sleep disturbances, and depression. Essential in the approach to patients with concussion includes a detailed history taking and physical examination. Imaging modalities like Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) of the brain may not show any significant changes; therefore more sensitive tests, like ...


A Rare Presentation Of Pulmonary Sarcomatoid Carcinoma With Left Atrial Involvement And Spinal Metastasis Presenting With An Ischemic Infarct., Hina Imtiaz, Muhammad Dawood Amir Sheikh Jun 2020

A Rare Presentation Of Pulmonary Sarcomatoid Carcinoma With Left Atrial Involvement And Spinal Metastasis Presenting With An Ischemic Infarct., Hina Imtiaz, Muhammad Dawood Amir Sheikh

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

Pulmonary Sarcomatoid Carcinoma is a rare, aggressive tumor comprising of both epithelial and mesenchymal cells. It is important to distinguish it from other lung tumors due to its poor prognosis and extensive metastasis. We present a case of a 36 year old female patient who initially presented with right sided weakness and slurred speech due to an ischemic infarct of the left basal ganglia. Further workup revealed a lung mass extending to the left atrium with spinal metastasis. Sarcomatoid Carcinoma remains a diagnostic challenge due to its early recurrence and atypical presentation.


Movement Disorder Associated With Celiac Disease And Thyroid Dysfunction:Case Report, Ramla Nayaib Hashmi, Ummul Kiram, Rabbia Tariq Jun 2020

Movement Disorder Associated With Celiac Disease And Thyroid Dysfunction:Case Report, Ramla Nayaib Hashmi, Ummul Kiram, Rabbia Tariq

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

Autoimmune movement disorders are uncommon yet likely treatable conditions. It is challenging to diagnose and manage these disorders, ultimately leading to a significant morbidity in terms of functional disability of patient. It is troublesome for practicing neurologists to identify whether the antibodies which are detected during the work up of these autoimmune movement disorders are merely incidental or have pathogenic role. This will help them to decide regarding whether to start immunotherapy or not. Here we have discussed two patients of movement disorder who were found to have positive work up for other autoimmune diseases. Available Literature on autoimmune movement ...


Acute Colonic Pseudo Obstruction (Ogilvie Syndrome) In A Patient With Hemorrhagic Stroke: A Case Report., Muhammad Dawood Sohail, Haroon Khan, Zainab Alam, Sardar M Alam Jun 2020

Acute Colonic Pseudo Obstruction (Ogilvie Syndrome) In A Patient With Hemorrhagic Stroke: A Case Report., Muhammad Dawood Sohail, Haroon Khan, Zainab Alam, Sardar M Alam

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO) or Ogilvie syndrome is a functional motility disorder of the colonic bowel without any organic or mechanical obstruction. Autonomic disturbance which is one of the underlying factors that can lead to Ogilvie syndrome, is caused by stroke. Acute colonic pseudo- obstruction (ACPO) in the setting of stroke is not often reported in medical literature. Various modalities of treatment strategies are recommended including conservative approaches, medical therapies, endoscopic and surgical procedures. We will discuss a patient suffering from a hemorrhagic stroke in the right basal ganglia that developed Acute Colonic Pseudo Obstruction and improved subsequently with conservative ...


Effects Of Intermittent Fasting On Taste Modulation And Perception, Sajid Hameed, Mohammad Wasay Jun 2020

Effects Of Intermittent Fasting On Taste Modulation And Perception, Sajid Hameed, Mohammad Wasay

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

No abstract provided.


Prediction Of Cognitive And Intellectual Competence In Kindergarten Schools Associated With General Measures Of Health: A Study On Children With Age Ranges Between 4 To 7 Years, Abeer Musaddiq, Yusra Saleem, Muhammad Bilal Siddiqui, Shamoon Noushad, Sadaf Ahmed Mar 2020

Prediction Of Cognitive And Intellectual Competence In Kindergarten Schools Associated With General Measures Of Health: A Study On Children With Age Ranges Between 4 To 7 Years, Abeer Musaddiq, Yusra Saleem, Muhammad Bilal Siddiqui, Shamoon Noushad, Sadaf Ahmed

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

BACKGROUND Stunting refers to the low “height-for-age” measurement. Literature suggests that it is associated with delayed or diminished physical development, cognition and intellectual abilities. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to estimate the physical growth measures among children under 4 to 7 years of age and to determine its relationship with cognitive deficits & intellectual performances.


Narcolepsy :A Review Amongst Sleep Disorders., Muhammad Umer Ahmed, Manahil Jeoffrey, Omer Ahmed Mar 2020

Narcolepsy :A Review Amongst Sleep Disorders., Muhammad Umer Ahmed, Manahil Jeoffrey, Omer Ahmed

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder known and studied about from time to time is a sleep disorder characterized by a combination of myriad of symptoms including excessive day time sleepiness with recurrent irresistible sleep attacks , hypnogogic hallucinations ,hypnopompic hallucinations ,sleep paralysis and cataplexy (sudden and bilateral loss of muscle tone.1 Narcolepsy may present it self long with cataplexy or without cataplexy. The pathogenesis behind narcolepsy is found to be due to degeneration of hypocretin/orexin secreting neurones in the central nervous system due to disorder of human leukocyte antigen DQB1*0602.Narcolepsy is a deblitating disorder which causes intense ...


Chikungunya Encephalitis: Usual Presentation At An Unusual Time. A Case Report, Muhammad Owais Hashmat, Dureshahwar Kanwar, Iffat Khanum Khanum Mar 2020

Chikungunya Encephalitis: Usual Presentation At An Unusual Time. A Case Report, Muhammad Owais Hashmat, Dureshahwar Kanwar, Iffat Khanum Khanum

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

CHIK is an arboviral infection caused by chikungunya virus transmitted by Aedes mosquito worldwide. It usually manifests as a self-limiting acute febrile illness with rash, body ache and severe polyarthralgia; in some patients, symptoms persist up to months or even years. Neurological manifestations are relatively uncommon. In recent years Pakistan and other South East Asian countries have been hit several times by its epidemics1. We report a case of a middle-aged male who presented in our hospital with acute febrile illness along with neurological manifestations. Extensive laboratory investigations were done and he was diagnosed with seropositive CHIKV. He was treated ...


Patterns Of Eeg(Electroencephalogram) Findings In Patients With Neurological Disorders, Saba Zaidi, Amsa Khan Mar 2020

Patterns Of Eeg(Electroencephalogram) Findings In Patients With Neurological Disorders, Saba Zaidi, Amsa Khan

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

OBJECTIVE: To study the patterns of EEG in patients with neurological disorders BACKGROUND: EEG is still relevant in the diagnosis and management of patients with seizure disorders and extends to other neurological conditions, however local data is limited


Myotonic Dystrophy In A Pakistani Family: A Case Series And Literature Review, Waleed Shahzad, Muhammad Hassan, Mazhar Badshah, Haris Majid Rajput, Zakir Jan, Tehmina Inayat Mar 2020

Myotonic Dystrophy In A Pakistani Family: A Case Series And Literature Review, Waleed Shahzad, Muhammad Hassan, Mazhar Badshah, Haris Majid Rajput, Zakir Jan, Tehmina Inayat

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

Myotonic dystrophy also known as (Steinert's disease) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous multisystem disorder with a prevalence of 1 in 8000 in the general population. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. It is characterized by myotonia, myopathy of voluntary and involuntary muscles, frontal baldness in men, cardiac conduction abnormalities, cataracts, intellectual deterioration and endocrinopathies. Affected men may have gonadal atrophy and infertility. On the other hand women are generally fertile. We report a case series of three individuals belonging to the same family presenting with characteristic features of myotonic dystrophy. The presentation of these cases depicts ...


Memory And Cognitive Flexibility In Physical Therapy Students Of Karachi, Sonya Arshad, Muhammad Faisal Qureshi, Syed Hasan Abbas Rizvi, Javeria Rizvi, Kanza Imtiaz, Kisa Hussain Rizvi, Khushbakht Ahmed, Khola Noman, Vishal Kumar Mar 2020

Memory And Cognitive Flexibility In Physical Therapy Students Of Karachi, Sonya Arshad, Muhammad Faisal Qureshi, Syed Hasan Abbas Rizvi, Javeria Rizvi, Kanza Imtiaz, Kisa Hussain Rizvi, Khushbakht Ahmed, Khola Noman, Vishal Kumar

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

Memory allows us to remember the skills that we have learnt and retrieve valuable information stored in the brain. Physical therapy is a multidimensional profession which demands efficient cognitive flexibility and decision-making skills with an excellent memory to help the therapist to multi-task.


Cutaneous Allodynia In Migraine, Dr. Ghulam Shabbir, Dr. Haris Majid Rajput, Dr. Zakir Jan Mar 2020

Cutaneous Allodynia In Migraine, Dr. Ghulam Shabbir, Dr. Haris Majid Rajput, Dr. Zakir Jan

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

OBJECTIVE: Objective of this study is to find out the presence and severity of cutaneous allodynia in migraine sufferers. BACKGROUND: Cutaneous allodynia is the perception of pain in response to non noxious stimuli. It occurs due to repeated stimulations that lead to sensitization and abnormal skin response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a descriptive case study and conducted at Neurology department Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences from June 2017 to May 2018. All patients of both genders above age 13 years of age with migraine diagnosed as having “Migraine without aura” or “Migraine with aura” according to the International Headache ...


Distance Learning For Neurology: Experiences From Mini-Fellowship In Movement Disorders., Danish Bhatti, John Bertoni Mar 2020

Distance Learning For Neurology: Experiences From Mini-Fellowship In Movement Disorders., Danish Bhatti, John Bertoni

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

Sub-speciality training in neurology is not available in Pakistan given lack of trained supervising faculty. Developing trained supervisors by sending faculty abroad for formal fellowships is too slow, resource intense and subject to attrition or brain-drain. Web-based learning methods have been used effectively in training in medicine. Meta-analysis of 201 eligible studies showed large positive effects of E-learning in health professionals compared with no interventions1. There are highly qualified academic neurologists available in developed countries of Pakistani origin providing opportunity to bridge the gap and transfer skills.


Covid-19 Infection; Loss Of Taste, Smell, And Neurogenic Respiratory Failure, Abdul Mannan Baig, Mohammad Wasay Mar 2020

Covid-19 Infection; Loss Of Taste, Smell, And Neurogenic Respiratory Failure, Abdul Mannan Baig, Mohammad Wasay

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

Neurological Signs and Symptoms in COVID-19: Like the rest of the world, Pakistan is been gripped by unprecedented and complex burden of COVID-19. While the diseases got upgraded to a pandemic, the preparedness of even the first world countries to combat COVID-19 is distressing, as there seems to be a lack of clear strategy to tackle the disease spread and treatment.


Factors Predicting Need For Post-Operative Ventilation After Microsurgical Clipping Of Cerebral Aneurysms – A Multivariate Analysis, Usman Siddiqui, Muhammad Faheem Khan, Saad Bin Anis, Bushra Ahmad, Muhammad Shahzad Shamim, Rida Mitha, Fouzia Anis Khan, Erfan Hussain Mar 2020

Factors Predicting Need For Post-Operative Ventilation After Microsurgical Clipping Of Cerebral Aneurysms – A Multivariate Analysis, Usman Siddiqui, Muhammad Faheem Khan, Saad Bin Anis, Bushra Ahmad, Muhammad Shahzad Shamim, Rida Mitha, Fouzia Anis Khan, Erfan Hussain

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

Patients with aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (aSAH) frequently require Intensive Care Unit (ICU) beds, pre-operatively and more often, post-operatively due to the need for ventilatory support and specialized monitoring. We aimed to evaluate the frequency of post-operative ventilatory requirement in patients with aSAH and identify the possible predictive factors that might influence the need of post-operative ventilation in these patients. METHODS: We retrospectively identified a five-year data of all patients with aSAH who underwent surgical clipping using a structured proforma. Aneurysm was confirmed by Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) or Computerized Tomographic Angiography (CTA).


Neurological Involvement In Covid-19 Infections; Pathophysiology, Presentation And Outcome., Dureshahwar Kanwar, Muhammad Imran, Mohammad Wasay Mar 2020

Neurological Involvement In Covid-19 Infections; Pathophysiology, Presentation And Outcome., Dureshahwar Kanwar, Muhammad Imran, Mohammad Wasay

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

Severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS CoV 2) seems to display an increasing affinity for the nervous system. The ongoing pandemic has made evident that diverse neurological manifestations may occur with COVID 19. Headache and dizziness remain the most common symptoms however stroke, seizures, encephalopathy, neuropathy and skeletal muscle injury may be seen. An increasing number of patients report initial anosmia and ageusia. Tendency for serious illness is believed to be in the elderly or people with a history of diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease. Many patients on immunosuppressive therapies such as multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis ...


Culture Bound Syndromes In Pakistan: Implications And Strategic Vision For Health Management, Lamae Zulfiqar, Nazish Idrees, Muhammad Rafiq Dec 2019

Culture Bound Syndromes In Pakistan: Implications And Strategic Vision For Health Management, Lamae Zulfiqar, Nazish Idrees, Muhammad Rafiq

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

Understanding the culture a person belongs to is crucial as it forms the beliefs, values, perspectives, worries and hopes. It can then be used to assess the problems a person goes through and devise a treatment plan with a focus on belief system of a person. Culture bound syndromes are common in every society but are usually overlooked or given less consideration by professionals. These syndromes are belief systems associated with various diseases and disorders and can be very helpful in treatment, if understood in the perspective of a particular person as every syndrome is perceived differently by an individual ...


Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder: A Case Report From Rehman Medical Institute, Peshawar., Dr. Muhammad Shahid Iqbal, Zainab Rustam, Omer Nasim Dec 2019

Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder: A Case Report From Rehman Medical Institute, Peshawar., Dr. Muhammad Shahid Iqbal, Zainab Rustam, Omer Nasim

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

Devic's disease or Neuromyelitis Optica is a serious, rare idiopathic neurological disorder which affects the optic nerve and the spinal cord. A 15-year-old girl was admitted in the neurology was with a previous history of 4 episodes of weakness in both the lower limbs and urinary retention. The patient gradually lost her eyesight in both eyes at the age of 8. Initially, she was diagnosed as a case of Multiple Sclerosis at the age of 11 when she presented with first episode of lower limb weakness. Later, Seropositivity for Aquaporin 4 IgG and clear MRI scan of the brain ...


Rare Presentation Of Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis, Haris Majid Rajput, Anam Anis, Iqra Athar, Neelma Naz Khattak, Hanin Tanich, Mazhar Badshah Dec 2019

Rare Presentation Of Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis, Haris Majid Rajput, Anam Anis, Iqra Athar, Neelma Naz Khattak, Hanin Tanich, Mazhar Badshah

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

We report case of a 16 year old girl with no known co-morbidities, presented with headache, quadriparesis and sudden vision loss. She had pallor and BMI was 33.09kg/m2. She had left 6th nerve palsy, bilateral papilledema and no perception of light. Motor examination showed power of 4/5 in all four limbs with bilateral extensor plantars. Neuroimaging was suggestive of superior saggital sinus thrombosis. CSF opening pressure was 72 cm of water.20 ml CSF was drained leading to improvement in headache and visual acuity. CVST presenting with quadriparesis and visual loss is a rare entity. Common presentations ...


Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis With Positive Dengue Serology, Sajid Hameed, Owais Hashmat, Mubashar Memon, Muhammad Wasay Dec 2019

Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis With Positive Dengue Serology, Sajid Hameed, Owais Hashmat, Mubashar Memon, Muhammad Wasay

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

Dengue fever is a viral febrile illness caused by dengue virus and spread by Aedes mosquito worldwide. It usually manifests as an acute fever associated with body ache, skin rash, and thrombocytopenia. Neurological manifestations are relatively uncommon but well-known. We report a case of a 25-year-old male patient who presented to our hospital with acute febrile illness, headache, and vomiting. Extensive laboratory investigations were done and he was diagnosed with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Dengue serology was positive. He was treated with anticoagulation and hydration with complete recovery. The treatment with anticoagulation is challenging due to accompanying thrombocytopenia. Only two ...


Can Early Orthotic Support And Physical Therapy Improve The Functional Level And Decrease Rate Of Surgical Interventions In Spastic Cerebral Palsy?, Sarfraz Ahmad, Syeda Rahat, Syeda Bushra Dec 2019

Can Early Orthotic Support And Physical Therapy Improve The Functional Level And Decrease Rate Of Surgical Interventions In Spastic Cerebral Palsy?, Sarfraz Ahmad, Syeda Rahat, Syeda Bushra

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

cerebral palsy is a disorder of movement and posture that results from a non progressive lesion of brain within 3 years of age. To determine the role of early orthotics and physical therapy in improving the functional status and in decreasing the rate of surgical interventions in management of spastic diplegic cerebral palsy child.


Development And Validation Of Juvenile Criminal Thinking Styles’ Inventory, Fatima Sana, Muhammad Rafiq Dec 2019

Development And Validation Of Juvenile Criminal Thinking Styles’ Inventory, Fatima Sana, Muhammad Rafiq

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

The current research explored the styles of criminal thinking among juvenile delinquents in Pakistani cultural context. Initially, 40 juvenile delinquents were interviewed individually to generate an item pool of 34 distinct thought statements. After excluding repetitive items a list of 19 items was piloted on 30 juvenile delinquents as a self-report measure of 5-point rating scale (Juvenile Criminal Thinking Styles’ Inventory). Finally, a sample of 211 juvenile delinquents were given the final list of 19 items, Measure of Criminal Social Identity (Boduszek, Adamson, Shevlin, & Hyland, 2012; Shagufta, 2015), and a demographic form. Principal Component factor analysis determined a three factor solution, namely ...


Mental Health Of University Male Students Viewing Internet Pornography: A Qualitative Study, Komal Razzaq, Muhammad Rafiq Dec 2019

Mental Health Of University Male Students Viewing Internet Pornography: A Qualitative Study, Komal Razzaq, Muhammad Rafiq

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

This research was carried out to explore psychosocial and mental health issues of adults viewing pornography on the internet. Study Design: For this purpose, a qualitative research design was used. Method: In- depth interviews were conducted with twenty five university male students to explore the psychosocial issues in cases of internet pornography. After gathering the data from participants, a software, NVivo11 Plus was used for data management and analysis. This was also used for labelling and themes and categories generation. Results: After data analysis, main three categories generated on psychosocial issues associated with viewing internet pornography which were psychological issues ...


Outcome In Patients With Myasthenia Gravis Managed With Or Without Thymectomy, Safia Bano, Muhammad Athar Javed, Waqas Arshad Dec 2019

Outcome In Patients With Myasthenia Gravis Managed With Or Without Thymectomy, Safia Bano, Muhammad Athar Javed, Waqas Arshad

Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS)

Myasthenia gravis is a chronic acquired autoimmune disorder in which autoantibodies are produced against acetylcholine receptors present on neuromuscular junction. It results in neuromuscular transmission blockage hence muscle weakness occurs. Thymus gland is considered as having crucial role in development of these antibodies. Screening patients for thymoma and removal of the thymus gland with surgery has an important aspect in management of disease.