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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

The Use Of Hallucinogens In The Treatment Of Mental Health Disorders, Brianna Gagen May 2022

The Use Of Hallucinogens In The Treatment Of Mental Health Disorders, Brianna Gagen

Honors College Theses

The percent of people with mental health disorders in the United States have skyrocketed over the past decade. With stigma surrounding the discussion of mental health and the symptoms associated with it, often those that are suffering do not receive sufficient treatment, as they might with a physical illness. The current, common treatment options for common psychological disorders, like depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder, are sometimes not effective in patients, due to resistance or poor response outcomes. Consequently, in order to research alternative therapeutic approaches for mental health disorders, scientists are researching the effects of several hallucinogenic drugs in ...


Discovering The Role Of Repeat Sequences In Regulation Of The Phaz Gene In Streptomyces Sp. Sfb5a, Harrison Senter, Stephen Baron Apr 2022

Discovering The Role Of Repeat Sequences In Regulation Of The Phaz Gene In Streptomyces Sp. Sfb5a, Harrison Senter, Stephen Baron

Honors Projects

Streptomyces sp. SFB5A is an actinomycete (filamentous bacterium) that degrades PHB using an extracellular PHB depolymerase. PHB depolymerase synthesis is induced by growth on PHB and repressed by glucose (or other preferred carbon sources)2, which suggests that there is transcriptional regulation of its corresponding gene, phaZ. Binding sites are suspected to be the repeat sequences found in the phaZ gene. There are 3 different sets of primers that can be made in order to emphasize specific functional repeats while disrupting the functionality of others. The goal of the project is to transform Streptomyces sp. 5A with constructs containing a ...


Learning From South Korea’S Covid-19 Response: Why Centralizing The United States Public Health System Is Essential For Future Pandemic Responses, Meghan Ricci Jan 2022

Learning From South Korea’S Covid-19 Response: Why Centralizing The United States Public Health System Is Essential For Future Pandemic Responses, Meghan Ricci

Seattle Journal of Technology, Environmental & Innovation Law

The COVID-19 pandemic revealed stark differences in governmental preparedness across the globe. The United States, once thought of as a global leader in public health, had the theoretical skill and efficiency to handle the pandemic but failed to utilize those skills and resources during an actual health crisis. In the spring of 2020, everyone watched the U.S.’s reaction to the unfolding of the COVID-19 pandemic due to its historic placeholder as a global leader and innovator. However, the performance of the U.S. in response to the global pandemic disappointed both global commentators and U.S. citizens. This ...


Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (Enos) And The Cardiovascular System: In Physiology And In Disease States, N Tran, T Garcia, M Aniqa, S Ali, A Ally, Surya M. Nauli Jan 2022

Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (Enos) And The Cardiovascular System: In Physiology And In Disease States, N Tran, T Garcia, M Aniqa, S Ali, A Ally, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays a critical role in regulating and maintaining a healthy cardiovascular system. The importance of eNOS can be emphasized from the genetic polymorphisms of the eNOS gene, uncoupling of eNOS dimerization, and its numerous signaling regulations. The activity of eNOS on the cardiac myocytes, vasculature, and the central nervous system are discussed. The effects of eNOS on the sympathetic autonomic nervous system (SANS) and the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system (PANS), both of which profoundly influence the cardiovascular system, will be elaborated. The relationship between the eNOS protein with cardiovascular autonomic reflexes such as the baroreflex ...


Succinylated Polyethylenimine Gene Delivery Agents For Enhanced Transfection Efficacy, Md. Nasir Uddin Jan 2022

Succinylated Polyethylenimine Gene Delivery Agents For Enhanced Transfection Efficacy, Md. Nasir Uddin

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Gene therapy aims to treat patients by altering or controlling gene expression. Today, most clinical approaches are viral-based due to their inherent gene delivery activity. However, there is still a significant interest in nonviral alternatives for gene delivery, particularly synthetic lipids and polymers, that do not suffer the immunogenicity, high cost, or mutagenesis concerns of viral vectors. Polymeric vectors are of particular interest due to the ability to further tune the polymer properties through the incorporation of additional functional units such as targeting ligands or shielding domains. Polyethylenimine (PEI), a highly cationic polymer, is often considered a benchmark for polymer-based ...


The Associations Between Poor Antibiotic And Antimicrobial Resistance Knowledge And Inappropriate Antibiotic Use In The General Population Are Modified By Age, Huiling Guo, Zoe Jane-Lara Hildon, David Chien Boon Lye, Paulin Tay Straughan, Angela Chow Jan 2022

The Associations Between Poor Antibiotic And Antimicrobial Resistance Knowledge And Inappropriate Antibiotic Use In The General Population Are Modified By Age, Huiling Guo, Zoe Jane-Lara Hildon, David Chien Boon Lye, Paulin Tay Straughan, Angela Chow

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Objectives: Understanding factors influencing inappropriate antibiotic use can guide the design of interventions to improve antibiotic practices and reduce antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Methods: A nationally representative cross-sectional survey (N = 2004) was conducted between November 2020 and January 2021. Knowledge of antibiotic use and AMR using the World Health Organization’s Multi-Country AMR Survey questionnaire, and antibiotic practices were examined. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with inappropriate antibiotic use and examine effect measure modifications. Results: After adjusting for potential confounding, poor knowledge of antibiotic use was associated with a 3x increased odds of inappropriate antibiotic use in ...


The Benefits Of Astaxanthin To Improve Pain Relief In Patients With Painful Diabetic Neuropathy: An Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial, Rizaldy Taslim Pinzon, Mary Rose Angelina Budi Harsana Dec 2021

The Benefits Of Astaxanthin To Improve Pain Relief In Patients With Painful Diabetic Neuropathy: An Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial, Rizaldy Taslim Pinzon, Mary Rose Angelina Budi Harsana

Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research

Treatment of diabetic neuropathy is still carried out by providing symptomatic therapy, which only improves ± 50% of the total symptoms felt by patients, but does not tackle the underlying causes of the disease. Astaxanthin is a potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic carotenoid that could be an additional treatment option. We aimed to measure the effectiveness of administering astaxanthin as an additional therapy to improve the impact of pain and discomfort experienced daily by diabetes mellitus patients with painful diabetic neuropathy. We conducted a randomized experimental study with an open label design of 36 patients who had been diagnosed with painful ...


Itraconazole Nanocomposites Prepared Via Rotary Evaporator Drying Of Nanomilled Suspensions, Alexander Santos Coelho Dec 2021

Itraconazole Nanocomposites Prepared Via Rotary Evaporator Drying Of Nanomilled Suspensions, Alexander Santos Coelho

Theses

The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility of rotary evaporation for drying wetmilled drug suspensions as a novel approach to produce drug nanocomposites that exhibit fast redispersion and immediate drug release. To this end, the physical stability of the nanomilled itraconazole (drug) suspensions, a.k.a., nanosuspensions, during the milling and storage; the drying of the itraconazole nanosuspensions via the rotary evaporator; and the type/loading of various polymers/surfactants (dispersants) on aqueous redispersion and drug release from the nanocomposites were examined. Our results suggest that smaller drug particle size, owing to nanomilling, and smaller nanocomposite particle ...


Biologic Tnf-Α Inhibitors Reduce Microgliosis, Neuronal Loss, And Tau Phosphorylation In A Transgenic Mouse Model Of Tauopathy, Weijun Ou, Joshua Yang, Juste Simanauskaite, Matthew Choi, Demi M. Castellanos, Rudy Chang, Jiahong Sun, Nataraj Jagadeesan, Karen D. Parfitt, David H. Cribbs, Rachita K. Sumbria Dec 2021

Biologic Tnf-Α Inhibitors Reduce Microgliosis, Neuronal Loss, And Tau Phosphorylation In A Transgenic Mouse Model Of Tauopathy, Weijun Ou, Joshua Yang, Juste Simanauskaite, Matthew Choi, Demi M. Castellanos, Rudy Chang, Jiahong Sun, Nataraj Jagadeesan, Karen D. Parfitt, David H. Cribbs, Rachita K. Sumbria

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays a central role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology, making biologic TNF-α inhibitors (TNFIs), including etanercept, viable therapeutics for AD. The protective effects of biologic TNFIs on AD hallmark pathology (Aβ deposition and tau pathology) have been demonstrated. However, the effects of biologic TNFIs on Aβ-independent tau pathology have not been reported. Existing biologic TNFIs do not cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB), therefore we engineered a BBB-penetrating biologic TNFI by fusing the extracellular domain of the type-II human TNF-α receptor (TNFR) to a transferrin receptor antibody (TfRMAb) that ferries the TNFR into the ...


A Snapshot Investigation Into The Availability And Access To Codeine-Containing Medications Amongst The Irish Population., Katie O'Brien, Pádraig Mckeown, Joseph Phelan Dec 2021

A Snapshot Investigation Into The Availability And Access To Codeine-Containing Medications Amongst The Irish Population., Katie O'Brien, Pádraig Mckeown, Joseph Phelan

International Undergraduate Journal of Health Sciences

Codeine phosphate is a mild to moderate analgesic and has a weak cough suppressant activity that is available to purchase as an over the counter (OTC) painkiller in Ireland as a compound product. In recent years, countries such as Australia have introduced laws that prohibit the sale of the drug without a valid prescription. This move by Australia begs the question as to why this legislation was introduced and should Ireland follow suit.

The primary aims of the study were to determine knowledge among the general public of codeine-containing medications and their usage levels. The survey also investigated whether current ...


Novel Biomarkers Of Ciliary Extracellular Vesicles Interact With Ciliopathy And Alzheimer’S Associated Proteins, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Amal Alachkar, John R. Yates Iii, Surya M. Nauli Dec 2021

Novel Biomarkers Of Ciliary Extracellular Vesicles Interact With Ciliopathy And Alzheimer’S Associated Proteins, Ashraf M. Mohieldin, Amal Alachkar, John R. Yates Iii, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Ciliary extracellular vesicles (ciEVs), released from primary cilia, contain functional proteins that play an important role in cilia structure and functions. We have recently shown that ciEVs and cytosolic extracellular vesicles (cyEVs) have unique and distinct biomarkers. While ciEV biomarkers have shown some interactions with known ciliary proteins, little is known about the interaction of ciEV proteins with proteins involved in ciliopathy and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we reveal for the first time the protein-protein interaction (PPI) between the top five ciEVs biomarkers with ciliopathy and Alzheimer disease (AD) proteins. These results support the growing evidence of the critical physiological roles ...


Evaluating The 0–10 Point Pain Scale On Adolescent Opioid Use In Us Emergency Departments, Michael T. Phan, Daniel M. Tomaszewski, Cody Arbuckle, Sun Yang, Brooke Jenkins, Michelle A. Fortier, Theodore Heyming, Erik Linstead, Candice Donaldson, Zeev N. Kain Dec 2021

Evaluating The 0–10 Point Pain Scale On Adolescent Opioid Use In Us Emergency Departments, Michael T. Phan, Daniel M. Tomaszewski, Cody Arbuckle, Sun Yang, Brooke Jenkins, Michelle A. Fortier, Theodore Heyming, Erik Linstead, Candice Donaldson, Zeev N. Kain

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Objective: To evaluate trends in national emergency department (ED) adolescent opioid use in relation to reported pain scores. Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis on National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) data was conducted on ED visits involving patients aged 11–21 from 2008–2017. Crude observational counts were extrapolated to weighted estimates matching total population counts. Multivariate models were used to evaluate the role of a pain score in the reported use of opioids. Anchors for pain scores were 0 (no pain) and 10 (worst pain imaginable). Results: 31,355 observations were captured, which were extrapolated by the NHAMCS ...


Comparative Route Of Administration Studies Using Therapeutic Sirnas Show Widespread Gene Modulation In Dorset Sheep, Chantal M. Ferguson, Bruno M. D. C. Godinho, Julia F. Alterman, Andrew H. Coles, Matthew R. Hassler, Dimas Echeverria, James W. Gilbert, Emily G. Knox, Jillian Caiazzi, Reka A. Haraszti, Robert M. King, Toloo Taghian, Ajit S. Puri, Richard P. Moser, Matthew J. Gounis, Neil Aronin, Heather L. Gray-Edwards, Anastasia Khvorova Dec 2021

Comparative Route Of Administration Studies Using Therapeutic Sirnas Show Widespread Gene Modulation In Dorset Sheep, Chantal M. Ferguson, Bruno M. D. C. Godinho, Julia F. Alterman, Andrew H. Coles, Matthew R. Hassler, Dimas Echeverria, James W. Gilbert, Emily G. Knox, Jillian Caiazzi, Reka A. Haraszti, Robert M. King, Toloo Taghian, Ajit S. Puri, Richard P. Moser, Matthew J. Gounis, Neil Aronin, Heather L. Gray-Edwards, Anastasia Khvorova

Radiology Publications

siRNAs comprise a class of drugs that can be programmed to silence any target gene. Chemical engineering efforts resulted in development of divalent siRNAs (di-siRNAs), which support robust and long-term efficacy in rodent and nonhuman primate brains upon direct cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) administration. Oligonucleotide distribution in the CNS is nonuniform, limiting clinical applications. The contribution of CSF infusion placement and dosing regimen on relative accumulation, specifically in the context of large animals, is not well characterized. To our knowledge, we report the first systemic, comparative study investigating the effects of 3 routes of administration - intrastriatal (i.s.), i.c.v ...


Sepa Enhances Shigella Invasion Of Epithelial Cells By Degrading Alpha-1 Antitrypsin And Producing A Neutrophil Chemoattractant, Mario Meza-Segura, James R. Birtley, Ana Maldonado-Contreras, Christian Mueller, Karl J. Simin, Lawrence J. Stern, Beth A. Mccormick Dec 2021

Sepa Enhances Shigella Invasion Of Epithelial Cells By Degrading Alpha-1 Antitrypsin And Producing A Neutrophil Chemoattractant, Mario Meza-Segura, James R. Birtley, Ana Maldonado-Contreras, Christian Mueller, Karl J. Simin, Lawrence J. Stern, Beth A. Mccormick

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

Shigella spp. are highly adapted pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery in human and nonhuman primates. An unusual feature of Shigella pathogenesis is that this organism invades the colonic epithelia from the basolateral pole. Therefore, it has evolved the ability to disrupt the intestinal epithelial barrier to reach the basolateral surface. We have shown previously that the secreted serine protease A (SepA), which belongs to the family of serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae, is responsible for the initial destabilization of the intestinal epithelial barrier that facilitates Shigella invasion. However, the mechanisms used by SepA to regulate this process remain unknown. To ...


Recombinant Human Proteoglycan 4 Regulates Phagocytic Activation Of Monocytes And Reduces Il-1Β Secretion By Urate Crystal Stimulated Gout Pbmcs, Sandy Elsayed, Gregory D. Jay, Ralph Cabezas, Marwa Qadri, Tannin A. Schmidt, Khaled A. Elsaid Dec 2021

Recombinant Human Proteoglycan 4 Regulates Phagocytic Activation Of Monocytes And Reduces Il-1Β Secretion By Urate Crystal Stimulated Gout Pbmcs, Sandy Elsayed, Gregory D. Jay, Ralph Cabezas, Marwa Qadri, Tannin A. Schmidt, Khaled A. Elsaid

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Objectives

To compare phagocytic activities of monocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from acute gout patients and normal subjects, examine monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystal-induced IL-1β secretion ± recombinant human proteoglycan 4 (rhPRG4) or interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), and study the anti-inflammatory mechanism of rhPRG4 in MSU stimulated monocytes.

Methods

Acute gout PBMCs were collected from patients in the Emergency Department and normal PBMCs were obtained from a commercial source. Monocytes in PBMCs were identified by flow cytometry. PBMCs were primed with Pam3CSK4 (1μg/mL) for 24h and phagocytic activation of monocytes was determined using fluorescently labeled latex beads. MSU ...


Structural Basis Of The Super- And Hyper-Relaxed States Of Myosin Ii, Roger W. Craig, Raul A. Padron Dec 2021

Structural Basis Of The Super- And Hyper-Relaxed States Of Myosin Ii, Roger W. Craig, Raul A. Padron

Radiology Publications

Super-relaxation is a state of muscle thick filaments in which ATP turnover by myosin is much slower than that of myosin II in solution. This inhibited state, in equilibrium with a faster (relaxed) state, is ubiquitous and thought to be fundamental to muscle function, acting as a mechanism for switching off energy-consuming myosin motors when they are not being used. The structural basis of super-relaxation is usually taken to be a motif formed by myosin in which the two heads interact with each other and with the proximal tail forming an interacting-heads motif, which switches the heads off. However, recent ...


A Review Of Calcineurin Biophysics With Implications For Cardiac Physiology, Ryan B. Williams Dec 2021

A Review Of Calcineurin Biophysics With Implications For Cardiac Physiology, Ryan B. Williams

Theses and Dissertations

Calmodulin is a prevalent calcium sensing protein found in all cells. Three genes exist for calmodulin and all three of these genes encode for the exact same protein sequence. Recently mutations in the amino acid sequence of calmodulin have been identified in living human patients. Thus far, patients harboring these mutations in the calmodulin sequence have only displayed an altered cardiac related phenotype. Calcineurin is involved in many key physiological processes and its activity is regulated by calcium and calmodulin. In order to assess whether or not calcineurin contributes to calmodulinopathy (a pathological state arising from dysfunctional calmodulin), a comprehensive ...


A Better Way, Gerry Boyle Dec 2021

A Better Way, Gerry Boyle

Colby Magazine

Alane O’Connor ’96 studied environmental economics at Colby. Associate Professor of Statistics Liam O’Brien first studied physics and mathematics.Together the pair has combined their broad experience to produce groundbreaking research that is changing the way clinicians around the world treat pregnant and opioid-addicted women and their unborn children.


Steviol Represses Glucose Metabolism And Translation Initiation In Pancreatic Cancer Cells, Sonam Kumari, Mohammed Sikander, Shabnam Malik, Manish Tripathi, Bilal B. Hafeez, Murali M. Yallapu, Subhash C. Chauhan, Sheema Khan, Meena Jaggi Dec 2021

Steviol Represses Glucose Metabolism And Translation Initiation In Pancreatic Cancer Cells, Sonam Kumari, Mohammed Sikander, Shabnam Malik, Manish Tripathi, Bilal B. Hafeez, Murali M. Yallapu, Subhash C. Chauhan, Sheema Khan, Meena Jaggi

School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

Pancreatic cancer has the worst prognosis and lowest survival rate among all cancers. Pancreatic cancer cells are highly metabolically active and typically reprogrammed for aberrant glucose metabolism; thus they respond poorly to therapeutic modalities. It is highly imperative to understand mechanisms that are responsible for high glucose metabolism and identify natural/synthetic agents that can repress glucose metabolic machinery in pancreatic cancer cells, to improve the therapeutic outcomes/management of pancreatic cancer patients. We have identified a glycoside, steviol that effectively represses glucose consumption in pancreatic cancer cells via the inhibition of the translation initiation machinery of the molecular components ...


Saf-A Mutants Disrupt Chromatin Structure Through Dominant Negative Effects On Rnas Associated With Chromatin, Heather J. Kolpa, Kevin M. Creamer, Lisa L. Hall, Jeanne B. Lawrence Dec 2021

Saf-A Mutants Disrupt Chromatin Structure Through Dominant Negative Effects On Rnas Associated With Chromatin, Heather J. Kolpa, Kevin M. Creamer, Lisa L. Hall, Jeanne B. Lawrence

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Here we provide a brief review of relevant background before presenting results of our investigation into the interplay between scaffold attachment factor A (SAF-A), chromatin-associated RNAs, and DNA condensation. SAF-A, also termed heterogenous nuclear protein U (hnRNP U), is a ubiquitous nuclear scaffold protein that was implicated in XIST RNA localization to the inactive X-chromosome (Xi) but also reported to maintain open DNA packaging in euchromatin. Here we use several means to perturb SAF-A and examine potential impacts on the broad association of RNAs on euchromatin, and on chromatin compaction. SAF-A has an N-terminal DNA binding domain and C-terminal RNA ...


Vaccines: The Controversies And Effects Surrounding The Mmr Vaccine, Abigail Schley Dec 2021

Vaccines: The Controversies And Effects Surrounding The Mmr Vaccine, Abigail Schley

Senior Honors Theses

The MMR vaccine serves to prevent the onset of severe illness and transmission of measles, mumps, and rubella. Vaccines benefit an individual by strengthening their immunity to a virus or bacteria through a small or weakened introduction of the disease in the body. However, in recent years, people have blamed the MMR vaccine for the development of several health risks in children, namely autism. Although multiple studies have indicated that there exists no link between the MMR vaccine and autism, some parents choose not to vaccinate their children due to misinformation or lack of education. This thesis seeks to explore ...


Electronic Cigarettes’ Health Effects On Young Adults: An Honors Thesis, Miranda Yates Dec 2021

Electronic Cigarettes’ Health Effects On Young Adults: An Honors Thesis, Miranda Yates

Senior Honors Theses

Hon Lik introduced e-cigarette use in 2003 as a “safe alternative” to smoking cigarettes. Unfortunately, this message has been misinterpreted to mean that e-cigarette use is “harmless”. Recent studies have linked e-cigarette use to adverse health effects involving injury to the heart and lungs. Cigarette smokers using e-cigarettes to quit smoking and reduce second-hand smoke are being exposed to unregulated and potentially harmful chemicals. Teens who may never have considered cigarette smoking have been led to believe that e-cigarette use is safe and non-addictive. However, most e-cigarettes contain nicotine and unsuspecting teens are becoming addicted to this “fun” behavior. This ...


Computational Design Of Β-Fluorinated Morphine Derivatives For Ph-Specific Binding, Makena Augenstein, Nayiri Alexander, Matthew Gartner Dec 2021

Computational Design Of Β-Fluorinated Morphine Derivatives For Ph-Specific Binding, Makena Augenstein, Nayiri Alexander, Matthew Gartner

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Molecular extension and dissection techniques are used to design a morphine derivative that promotes selective binding in inflamed tissue due to its lower pH while avoiding dangerous activation in the brain. Morphine is used to treat pain associated with inflammation. While being effective analgesics, opioids carry the risk of central side effects, including addiction, respiratory depression, and sedation. Opioids are agonists that bind to the μ-opioid peptide receptor (MOR) within central and peripheral nerves and act via a G-protein coupled receptor pathway.

Deprotonation of the tertiary amine induces a negative charge on the nitrogen, discouraging binding at physiological pH (pH ...


Comparative Metabolism Of Aflatoxin B1 In Two Quail Genera Coturnix Japonica And Callipepla Californica, Sean Moody Dec 2021

Comparative Metabolism Of Aflatoxin B1 In Two Quail Genera Coturnix Japonica And Callipepla Californica, Sean Moody

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Avian species are highly susceptible to the hepatotoxic mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Domesticated turkeys are exquisitely sensitive, due to a combination of highly-efficient hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated bioactivation, and to dysfunctional alpha-class glutathione S-transferases (GSTAs) which typically detoxify the bioactivated electrophilic metabolite exo-AFB1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO). Wild turkeys are relatively resistant to AFB1 in large part due to expression of functional GSTAs. Quail, a related Galliforme, are slightly less sensitive in vivo to AFB1, but whether this is related to the hepatic metabolic profiles of these two critical enzymes has not been rigorously evaluated ...


Drug Analysis: Using Hplc To Identify Two Common Cutting Agents Often Found Illegal Within Drugs, Jed Black Dec 2021

Drug Analysis: Using Hplc To Identify Two Common Cutting Agents Often Found Illegal Within Drugs, Jed Black

Senior Honors Theses

Oftentimes, illegal drugs are cut with additional substances, known as cutting agents. These cutting agents fall into two categories: Diluents and adulterants. Diluents have no physiological effect on the user and simply allow the distributor to give the perception of “more product made.” Common examples of diluents are usually everyday household commodities (i.e., sugar or corn starch). On the other hand, adulterants are used to mimic or enhance the drug's physiological effects (i.e., caffeine in cocaine). As such, these do have drug-like properties (i.e., CNS stimulation or depression, etc.). This thesis seeks to use High-Performance Liquid ...


November / December 2021, Cindy Brooks, Randy Curry Dec 2021

November / December 2021, Cindy Brooks, Randy Curry

RURAL ROCKS

Rural Rocks, the Rural Health Network newsletter by the SWOSU College of Pharmacy.


Eradication Of Enterococcus Faecalis In Conventional Endodontic Retreatments (A Randomized Clinical Trial), Fadl H. Khaled, Roula S. Abiad, Khaled Abd El Galil, Essam Osman Nov 2021

Eradication Of Enterococcus Faecalis In Conventional Endodontic Retreatments (A Randomized Clinical Trial), Fadl H. Khaled, Roula S. Abiad, Khaled Abd El Galil, Essam Osman

BAU Journal - Creative Sustainable Development

Enterococcus faecalis is the most common bacteria isolated in conventional endodontic retreatments. Aim: To compare the impact of three irrigation modalities on the elimination of the isolated microbial strains of Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients requiring conventional endodontic retreatment for one of their mandibular premolars and tested positive for E. faecalis were chosen. Patients were randomly divided into three groups (n=10) according to the irrigation modality to be used; group I: syringe irrigation (NaOCl 2.625%), group II: NaOCl 2.625%+EndoActivator and group III: NaOCl 2.625%+diode laser. Before obturation, samples S2 were collected and ...


Pharmacist-Directed Vancomycin Therapeutic Drug Monitoring In Pediatric Patients: A Collaborative-Practice Model, Kashif Hussain, Rahila Ikram, Gul Ambreen, Muhammad Sohail Salat Nov 2021

Pharmacist-Directed Vancomycin Therapeutic Drug Monitoring In Pediatric Patients: A Collaborative-Practice Model, Kashif Hussain, Rahila Ikram, Gul Ambreen, Muhammad Sohail Salat

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Background: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of Vancomycin (VCM) is required to prevent inappropriate dosage-associated bacterial resistance, therapeutic failure, and toxicities in pediatrics. Anecdotal experience and studies show that many healthcare institutions confront barriers while implementing TDM services, this study aimed to assess a pharmacist-directed VCM-TDM service for optimizing patient care in our institution.
Materials and methods: Patients aged 1 month-18 years who received intravenous VCM were included in this quasi-experimental study. The pre-implementation phase (March-June 2018) consisted of retrospective assessment of pediatric patients, the interventional phase (July 2018 to February 2020) included educational programs and the post-implementation phase (March-June 2020 ...


Bay Leaf Extract‐Based Near‐Infrared Fluorescent Probe For Tissue And Cellular Imaging, Benilde Adriano, Nycol Cotto, Neeraj Chauhan, Vinitha Karumuru, Meena Jaggi, Subhash C. Chauhan, Murali M. Yallapu Nov 2021

Bay Leaf Extract‐Based Near‐Infrared Fluorescent Probe For Tissue And Cellular Imaging, Benilde Adriano, Nycol Cotto, Neeraj Chauhan, Vinitha Karumuru, Meena Jaggi, Subhash C. Chauhan, Murali M. Yallapu

School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

The development of fluorescence dyes for near‐infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging has been a significant interest for deep tissue imaging. Among many imaging fluoroprobes, indocyanine green (ICG) and its analogues have been used in oncology and other medical applications. However, these imaging agents still experience poor imaging capabilities due to low tumor targetability, photostability, and sensitivity in the biological milieu. Thus, developing a biocompatible NIR imaging dye from natural resources holds the potential of facilitating cancer cell/tissue imaging. Chlorophyll (Chl) has been demonstrated to be a potential candidate for imaging purposes due to its natural NIR absorption qualities and ...


Drug-Based Therapeutic Strategies For Covid-19-Infected Patients And Their Challenges, Khatereh Zarkesh, Elaheh Entezar-Almahdi, Parisa Ghasemiyeh, Mohsen Akbarian, Marzieh Bahmani, Shahrzad Roudaki, Rahil Fazlinejad, Soliman Mohammadi-Samani, Negar Firouzabadi, Majid Hosseini, Fatemeh Farjadian Nov 2021

Drug-Based Therapeutic Strategies For Covid-19-Infected Patients And Their Challenges, Khatereh Zarkesh, Elaheh Entezar-Almahdi, Parisa Ghasemiyeh, Mohsen Akbarian, Marzieh Bahmani, Shahrzad Roudaki, Rahil Fazlinejad, Soliman Mohammadi-Samani, Negar Firouzabadi, Majid Hosseini, Fatemeh Farjadian

Manufacturing & Industrial Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Emerging epidemic-prone diseases have introduced numerous health and economic challenges in recent years. Given current knowledge of COVID-19, herd immunity through vaccines alone is unlikely. In addition, vaccination of the global population is an ongoing challenge. Besides, the questions regarding the prevalence and the timing of immunization are still under investigation. Therefore, medical treatment remains essential in the management of COVID-19. Herein, recent advances from beginning observations of COVID-19 outbreak to an understanding of the essential factors contributing to the spread and transmission of COVID-19 and its treatment are reviewed. Furthermore, an in-depth discussion on the epidemiological aspects, clinical symptoms ...