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Full-Text Articles in Neuroscience and Neurobiology

Effect Of Mirna-138 Injected Into The Medial Habenula On Nicotine Intake And Preference, Kelsey Fitzgerald Jan 2015

Effect Of Mirna-138 Injected Into The Medial Habenula On Nicotine Intake And Preference, Kelsey Fitzgerald

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Nicotine is one of the most commonly abused drugs in the world today and is associated with many adverse health outcomes, including death. Nicotine binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the brain reward pathway, triggering the release of a number of neurotransmitters, including dopamine. The goal of the current study was to determine whether miR-138, a miRNA that targets and reduces β4 subunit gene expression, injected into the medial habenula would lead to changes in nicotine intake/preference. We hypothesized that miR-138 would down regulate β4 expression, leading to decreased aversion to nicotine and increased nicotine intake/preference. Male ...


Expanding The Xenobiotic Hypothesis Of Drug Reward And Reinforcement: Implications Of Tlr4 Dependent Cocaine And Methamphetamine Induced Neuroinflammation On Reward, Relapse, Priming, And Neurotoxicity, Timothy Fabisiak Jan 2015

Expanding The Xenobiotic Hypothesis Of Drug Reward And Reinforcement: Implications Of Tlr4 Dependent Cocaine And Methamphetamine Induced Neuroinflammation On Reward, Relapse, Priming, And Neurotoxicity, Timothy Fabisiak

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Conventionally, cocaine is thought to exert its rewarding and reinforcing effects on the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, which is commonly referred to as the reward circuitry of the brain. Cocaine increases dopamine levels within the NAc by blocking dopamine reuptake by antagonizing dopamine transporters (DATs) on the VTA dopaminergic axon terminals. Traditionally, it is believed that with repeated cocaine use, this neuronal action causes neuroadaptations that underlie addiction. However, developments within the last two decades indicate that glial cells within the central nervous system’s immune system act as non-neuronal modulators of drug reward. It was recently found that cocaine interacts ...


Morphometric Effects Of Marijuana On The Amygdala, Hippocampus, And Nucleus Accumbens, Courtnie Paschall Jan 2015

Morphometric Effects Of Marijuana On The Amygdala, Hippocampus, And Nucleus Accumbens, Courtnie Paschall

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The legalization of marijuana use is a growing social and political issue; it is thus becoming increasingly important to ascertain the effects of marijuana use on the brain. As metrics of brain morphometry are often used to quantify the effects of drug use, this study analyzed the structural MRI data collected by the Human Connectome Project (HCP) of a large population of adults (n=438) for volume and shape changes in the amygdala, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens associated with duration of marijuana use, age of first marijuana use, or number of lifetime marijuana use episodes. Tobacco use, alcohol abuse, age ...


Stress Sounds The Alarmin: High Mobility Group Box 1 As A Stress-Induced Neuroinflammatory Priming Signal, Michael David Weber Jan 2015

Stress Sounds The Alarmin: High Mobility Group Box 1 As A Stress-Induced Neuroinflammatory Priming Signal, Michael David Weber

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Neuroinflammatory processes are well known to regulate behavior, mood, and cognition and are considered a key factor in the development of psychiatric disorders. Exposure to acute or chronic stressors primes the neuroimmune microenvironment to produce exaggerated or enhanced neuroinflammatory responses to a subsequent immune challenge. This primed state persists for many days after stress exposure. However the mechanism(s) that lead stressors to prime neuroinflammation are largely unknown.

Advancement in our understanding of peripheral innate immune function led to the discovery that endogenous molecules are released in response to `danger' to assist immune/inflammatory processes. Recent evidence suggests similar processes ...


Genetic Targeting Of Neural Circuit Elements Underlying Anxiety-Like Behavioral States, Samuel David Dolzani Jan 2015

Genetic Targeting Of Neural Circuit Elements Underlying Anxiety-Like Behavioral States, Samuel David Dolzani

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Exposure to uncontrollable stress or acute trauma is a critical etiological factor in the onset of anxiety-like behavioral states in humans and rats. Serotonergic (5-HT) neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) are activated during uncontrollable (inescapable) tailshock (IS), but not during controllable (escapable) tailshock (ES). This activation leads to sensitization of the DRN, resulting in acute anxiety-like behavior in rats. Moreover, activation of the DRN is both necessary and sufficient for the behavioral and neurochemical consequences of IS. The lateral habenula (LHb) provides the primary glutamatergic input to the DRN and dysregulation of the LHb and DRN is implicated ...


Effects Of Distinct Populations Of Adenosine Receptors In The Ventral Striatum On Cocaine Seeking, Casey Elizabeth O'Neill Jan 2015

Effects Of Distinct Populations Of Adenosine Receptors In The Ventral Striatum On Cocaine Seeking, Casey Elizabeth O'Neill

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Drug-associated cues or pharmacological stimuli induce cocaine seeking by enhancing dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Adenosine is an inhibitory neuromodulator of dopamine and glutamate signaling and represents a viable target for decreasing relapse vulnerability. Postsynaptic adenosine A1 receptors and adenosine A2A receptors co-localize with dopamine receptors on distinct populations of medium spiny neurons in the NAc. The co-localization of dopamine and adenosine receptors is meaningful in that adenosine receptor stimulation antagonizes dopamine receptor signaling and alters the activity of NAc output pathways. Presynaptic adenosine receptors are expressed on glutamate terminals in the NAc where ...


Distributed Practice And Distributed Representations: Investigating The Spacing Effect Using Eeg, Matthew Via Mollison Jan 2015

Distributed Practice And Distributed Representations: Investigating The Spacing Effect Using Eeg, Matthew Via Mollison

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The spacing effect shows that studying information at distributed intervals leads to better long-term memory than massing study episodes together over the same cumulative amount of time. Prior research has not made explicit predictions about neural activity in the EEG domain that should occur at different study repetition lags under different spacing effect theories. One main purpose of this thesis is to make these predictions in terms of the neural activity expected under different spacing effect hypotheses, whereas another is to test these predictions. Knowledge about neural patterns underlying the spacing effect can shed light on why this effect occurs ...


Endogenous Cannabinoid Regulation Of The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis And Of Neuroendocrine Reactivity To Acute And Repeated Stress, Ryan Jacob Newsom Jan 2015

Endogenous Cannabinoid Regulation Of The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis And Of Neuroendocrine Reactivity To Acute And Repeated Stress, Ryan Jacob Newsom

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Deleterious effects of stress contribute to many mind/body ills and precipitate substantial individual and societal burden. The endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid, eCB) system is widely expressed in the brain and body, and contributes to psychoneuroendocrine regulation. Inhibitory CB1 receptors on neurons afford the "toning down" of conscious experience that makes cannabis a popular relaxant. In normal waking consciousness, the eCB ligands anandamide and 2-AG both bind at this predominantly presynaptic receptor and function as a negative feedback mechanism for neurotransmission. Peripheral eCB activity is less explored in stress research and is of interest in metabolic regulation. Excessive elevations of stress-induced ...


Mind What You Eat: Implications And Mechanisms Of High-Fat Diet-Induced Neuroinflammatory Priming, Julia Lillian Sobesky Jan 2015

Mind What You Eat: Implications And Mechanisms Of High-Fat Diet-Induced Neuroinflammatory Priming, Julia Lillian Sobesky

Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation is to establish a link between high-fat diet (HFD) and neuroinflammation, and to evaluate both the nature and mechanisms by which HFD influences neuroinflammatory processes. HFD-induced obese adipose tissue fosters a peripheral inflammatory environment, which contributes to the development of metabolic disease associated with obesity. In addition, HFD consumption is associated with disruptions in cognition, and hippocampal function appears to be particularly vulnerable to HFD. It is likely that HFD induces alterations in neuroinflammatory processes, which negatively influence hippocampal function and mediate cognitive decline. However, specific mechanisms by which HFD mediates neuroinflammatory processing are poorly ...


Microglia Processes Associate With Diffusely Injured Axons Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury In The Micro Pig, Audrey D. Lafrenaye, Masak Todani, Susan A. Walker, John T. Povlishock Jan 2015

Microglia Processes Associate With Diffusely Injured Axons Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury In The Micro Pig, Audrey D. Lafrenaye, Masak Todani, Susan A. Walker, John T. Povlishock

Anatomy and Neurobiology Publications

Background

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is an all too common occurrence that exacts significant personal and societal costs. The pathophysiology of mTBI is complex, with reports routinely correlating diffuse axonal injury (DAI) with prolonged morbidity. Progressive chronic neuroinflammation has also recently been correlated to morbidity, however, the potential association between neuroinflammatory microglia and DAI is not well understood. The majority of studies exploring neuroinflammatory responses to TBI have focused on more chronic phases of injury involving phagocytosis associated with Wallerian change. Little, however, is known regarding the neuroinflammatory response seen acutely following diffuse mTBI and its potential relationship to ...


Elucidating The Role Of Injury-Induced Electric Fields (Efs) In Regulating The Astrocytic Response To Injury In The Mammalian Central Nervous System, Matthew L. Baer, Scott C. Henderson, Raymond J. Colello Jan 2015

Elucidating The Role Of Injury-Induced Electric Fields (Efs) In Regulating The Astrocytic Response To Injury In The Mammalian Central Nervous System, Matthew L. Baer, Scott C. Henderson, Raymond J. Colello

Anatomy and Neurobiology Publications

Injury to the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) induces astrocytes to change their morphology, to increase their rate of proliferation, and to display directional migration to the injury site, all to facilitate repair. These astrocytic responses to injury occur in a clear temporal sequence and, by their intensity and duration, can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on the repair of damaged CNS tissue. Studies on highly regenerative tissues in non-mammalian vertebrates have demonstrated that the intensity of direct-current extracellular electric fields (EFs) at the injury site, which are 50–100 fold greater than in uninjured tissue, represent a potent ...


Acetylcholine Release In Mouse Hippocampal Ca1 Preferentially Activates Inhibitory-Selective Interneurons Via Α4Β2* Nicotinic Receptor Activation, L. Andrew Bell, Karen A. Bell, A. Rory Mcquiston Jan 2015

Acetylcholine Release In Mouse Hippocampal Ca1 Preferentially Activates Inhibitory-Selective Interneurons Via Α4Β2* Nicotinic Receptor Activation, L. Andrew Bell, Karen A. Bell, A. Rory Mcquiston

Anatomy and Neurobiology Publications

Acetylcholine (ACh) release onto nicotinic receptors directly activates subsets of inhibitory interneurons in hippocampal CA1. However, the specific interneurons activated and their effect on the hippocampal network is not completely understood. Therefore, we investigated subsets of hippocampal CA1 interneurons that respond to ACh release through the activation of nicotinic receptors and the potential downstream effects this may have on hippocampal CA1 network function. ACh was optogenetically released in mouse hippocampal slices by expressing the excitatory optogenetic protein oChIEF-tdTomato in medial septum/diagonal band of Broca cholinergic neurons using Cre recombinase-dependent adeno-associated viral mediated transfection. The actions of optogenetically released ACh ...


Acetylcholine Release In Mouse Hippocampal Ca1 Preferentially Activates Inhibitory-Selective Interneurons Via Α4Β2* Nicotinic Receptor Activation, L. Andrew Bell, Karen A. Bell, A. Rory Mcquiston Jan 2015

Acetylcholine Release In Mouse Hippocampal Ca1 Preferentially Activates Inhibitory-Selective Interneurons Via Α4Β2* Nicotinic Receptor Activation, L. Andrew Bell, Karen A. Bell, A. Rory Mcquiston

Anatomy and Neurobiology Publications

Acetylcholine (ACh) release onto nicotinic receptors directly activates subsets of inhibitory interneurons in hippocampal CA1. However, the specific interneurons activated and their effect on the hippocampal network is not completely understood. Therefore, we investigated subsets of hippocampal CA1 interneurons that respond to ACh release through the activation of nicotinic receptors and the potential downstream effects this may have on hippocampal CA1 network function. ACh was optogenetically released in mouse hippocampal slices by expressing the excitatory optogenetic protein oChIEF-tdTomato in medial septum/diagonal band of Broca cholinergic neurons using Cre recombinase-dependent adeno-associated viral mediated transfection. The actions of optogenetically released ACh ...


The Role Of Viral Strain In A Congenital Brain Infection, Jeffrey Michael Plume Jan 2015

The Role Of Viral Strain In A Congenital Brain Infection, Jeffrey Michael Plume

Theses and Dissertations

Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) is a common arenavirus and natural murine pathogen that causes congenital neurodevelopmental disease in humans. Exposure to the virus in utero often results in severe and permanent damage the fetal brain and eyes. While usually severe, symptoms vary from case to case. Little is known about the pathological mechanism of congenital LCMV disease. Animal models of congenital LCMV infections suggest that timing of infection during gestation may influence disease outcomes; however, time alone cannot explain all of the variation observed in humans. Another possibility is that individuals are infected with different strains of LCMV.

The LCMV ...


Visual Cross-Modal Re-Organization In Children With Cochlear Implants, Julia Dee Campbell Jan 2015

Visual Cross-Modal Re-Organization In Children With Cochlear Implants, Julia Dee Campbell

Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Background: Visual cross-modal re-organization is a neurophysiological phenomenon in which the intact sensory modality of vision will recruit from the deprived sensory modality of audition (as in deafness) to compensate for communicative performance. Visual cross-modal reorganization has been shown to take place in deaf adults and animals, and is related to deficits in auditory performance in cochlear implanted adults due to occupation of auditory resources by visual processes. Though this cortical re-organization has been studied in adults, little is known if it occurs in children with cochlear implants, and if it does take place, whether it may act as another ...


Language And Reading Dysfunction In Boys With Isolated Cleft Lip And/Or Palate : A Relationship To Abnormal Structural And Functional Connectivity In The Brain, Ian John Devolder Jan 2015

Language And Reading Dysfunction In Boys With Isolated Cleft Lip And/Or Palate : A Relationship To Abnormal Structural And Functional Connectivity In The Brain, Ian John Devolder

Theses and Dissertations

Orofacial clefts are among the most common congenital defects in the United States, affecting roughly 1 in 600 births annually. A majority of these cases are considered to be “isolated” clefts of the lip and/or palate (ICLP). However the term “isolated” is somewhat of a misnomer, as functional deficits frequently accompany ICLP. One of the most problematic yet understudied of these deficits involves the high prevalence of reading disabilities in this population. It has been estimated that as high as 46% of children with ICLP will be diagnosed with a reading disability, particularly dyslexia. Despite this high prevalence and ...


Neuroprotective Strategies For Traumatic Brain Injury, Terry Yin Jan 2015

Neuroprotective Strategies For Traumatic Brain Injury, Terry Yin

Theses and Dissertations

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes life-debilitating conditions. While patient survival after a TBI has improved, the outlook for quality of life after TBI currently remains poor. In order to address this problem, there is a significant unmet need for new therapeutic options to prevent progression of deficits associated with TBI. To this end, we investigated two strategies to combat the deleterious affect of TBI. First, we targeted cerebral acidosis associated with TBI by testing whether disruption of acid sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) in CNS, or buffering acidosis with sodium bicarbonate, could prevent neurological deficits after TBI. We next tested ...


The Association Of Cognitive Endophenotypes And Risky Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Of Alzheimer's Disease Within The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (Adni) Database, Kyle Joseph Jennette Jan 2015

The Association Of Cognitive Endophenotypes And Risky Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Of Alzheimer's Disease Within The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (Adni) Database, Kyle Joseph Jennette

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) previously associated with Alzheimer's disease on specific domains of cognition, when controlling for Apolipoprotein E gene (APOE), in a sample of individuals with Alzheimer's disease. Methods: The data were drawn from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database, a comprehensive, longitudinal database of controls, persons with mild cognitive impairment, and persons with mild Alzheimer's disease. Each subject has a full neuropsychological assessment, neuroimaging, genetic sequencing, and physical evaluation. For the purposes of this study, individuals were selected based on the ...


Firing Rate Dynamics In Recurrent Spiking Neural Networks With Intrinsic And Network Heterogeneity, Cheng Ly Jan 2015

Firing Rate Dynamics In Recurrent Spiking Neural Networks With Intrinsic And Network Heterogeneity, Cheng Ly

Statistical Sciences and Operations Research Publications

Heterogeneity of neural attributes has recently gained a lot of attention and is increasing recognized as a crucial feature in neural processing. Despite its importance, this physiological feature has traditionally been neglected in theoretical studies of cortical neural networks. Thus, there is still a lot unknown about the consequences of cellular and circuit heterogeneity in spiking neural networks. In particular, combining network or synaptic heterogeneity and intrinsic heterogeneity has yet to be considered systematically despite the fact that both are known to exist and likely have significant roles in neural network dynamics. In a canonical recurrent spiking neural network model ...


Effects Of Acute Nicotine On Larval Zebrafish Exploratory Behavior In A Complex Environment, Brandon Chen Jan 2015

Effects Of Acute Nicotine On Larval Zebrafish Exploratory Behavior In A Complex Environment, Brandon Chen

Senior Projects Spring 2015

The larval zebrafish is emerging as a useful model to assess neurobehavioral toxicity. A variety of behavioral assays have been developed to characterize normal behavior and the acute and chronic effects of a variety of compounds. To date, such behavioral assays have been limited to relatively simple behavioral measures (e.g., swimming activity in a single well). The present experiment describes methodology to assess exploratory behavior in 5 days-post-fertilization (5 dpf) larval zebrafish using a six-chamber, complex well-plate. In addition, the effect of acute nicotine exposure on exploratory activity in this complex environment was examined. Five dpf TU strain larvae ...


Temporal Localization Of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (Igf1) Positive Cells In Developing Hypothyroid Brain, Shelby Anne Kline Jan 2015

Temporal Localization Of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (Igf1) Positive Cells In Developing Hypothyroid Brain, Shelby Anne Kline

All Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

Hypothyroidism has been known to result in numerous neuroanatomical defects in the developing brain. To investigate further into the mechanism in which these defects are obtained, local brain insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1) was investigated in relation to the hypothyroid brain. There are many similarities between hypothyroidism and the Igf1 deficient brain. Additionally, TH (thyroid hormone) is known to interact with Igf1. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of induced congenital hypothyroidism on the temporal expression of Igf1-positive cells in the brain. To investigate the relationship between TH and Igf1 in the brain, we inhibited ...


A Principle Of Economy Predicts The Functional Architecture Of Grid Cells, Xue-Xin Wei, Jason Prentice, Vijay Balasubramanian Jan 2015

A Principle Of Economy Predicts The Functional Architecture Of Grid Cells, Xue-Xin Wei, Jason Prentice, Vijay Balasubramanian

Publications and Research

Grid cells in the brain respond when an animal occupies a periodic lattice of ‘grid fields’ during navigation. Grids are organized in modules with different periodicity. We propose that the grid system implements a hierarchical code for space that economizes the number of neurons required to encode location with a given resolution across a range equal to the largest period. This theory predicts that (i) grid fields should lie on a triangular lattice, (ii) grid scales should follow a geometric progression, (iii) the ratio between adjacent grid scales should be √e for idealized neurons, and lie between 1.4 and ...


Elucidating The Role Of Endogenous Electric Fields In Regulating The Astrocytic Response To Injury In The Mammalian Central Nervous System, Matthew L. Baer Jan 2015

Elucidating The Role Of Endogenous Electric Fields In Regulating The Astrocytic Response To Injury In The Mammalian Central Nervous System, Matthew L. Baer

Theses and Dissertations

Endogenous bioelectric fields guide morphogenesis during embryonic development and regeneration by directly regulating the cellular functions responsible for these phenomena. Although this role has been extensively explored in many peripheral tissues, the ability of electric fields to regulate wound repair and stimulate regeneration in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) has not been convincingly established. This dissertation explores the role of electric fields in regulating the injury response and controlling the regenerative potential of the mammalian CNS. We place particular emphasis on their influence on astrocytes, as specific differences in their injury-induced behaviors have been associated with differences in the ...


A Structure/Function Analysis Of Nhsl1b In Facial Branchiomotor Neurons, John Ojumu Jan 2015

A Structure/Function Analysis Of Nhsl1b In Facial Branchiomotor Neurons, John Ojumu

Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this study was to identify critical regions of a novel gene, Nance-Horan syndrome-like 1b (nhsl1b). It was previously discovered that C-terminal truncation of the Nhsl1b protein in nhsl1b mutants resulted in a loss of migration in the facial motor neurons of the hindbrain (Walsh et al. 2011). As nhsl1b expresses many isoforms, multiple targets were investigated in order to determine which transcript bears the largest impact on the motor neurons. Using confocal microscopy to observe immunostained embryos, we examined a mutation in an nhsl1b transcript that encodes a WHD, a domain that is known to function within ...


Cortisol Levels And Voltage Conditions Of College Students, Adriana Steffens Jan 2015

Cortisol Levels And Voltage Conditions Of College Students, Adriana Steffens

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

There is a limited research base on low voltage brain conditions, which are characterized by electrical activity being measured at below 20 microvolts. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between saliva cortisol levels and voltage using an EGG in a college student population. Illuminating this relationship is important to inform how low voltage conditions can affect daily memory and cognitive functioning of undergraduate college students that may be a result of stress. The college student population may be vulnerable to the low voltage condition because of stress from the transition between teenage and adult life and ...


The Vulnerability To Suicidal Behavior Is Associated With Reduced Connectivity Strength, Stijn Bijttebier, Karen Caeyenberghs, Hans Van Den Ameele, Eric Achten, Dan Rujescu, Koen Titeca, Kees Van Heeringen Jan 2015

The Vulnerability To Suicidal Behavior Is Associated With Reduced Connectivity Strength, Stijn Bijttebier, Karen Caeyenberghs, Hans Van Den Ameele, Eric Achten, Dan Rujescu, Koen Titeca, Kees Van Heeringen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Suicidal behavior constitutes a major public health problem. Based on the stress–diathesis model, biological correlates of a diathesis might help to predict risk after stressor-exposure. Structural changes in cortical and subcortical areas and their connections have increasingly been linked with the diathesis. The current study identified structural network changes associated with a diathesis using a whole-brain approach by examining the structural connectivity between regions in euthymic suicide attempters (SA). In addition, the association between connectivity measures, clinical and genetic characteristics was investigated. We hypothesized that SA showed lower connectivity strength, associated with an increased severity of general clinical characteristics ...


Teaching This Class Drives Me Nuts! - Examining The Person And Context Specificity Of Teacher Emotions, Anne C. Frenzel, Betty Becker-Kurz, Reinhard Pekrun, Thomas Goetz Jan 2015

Teaching This Class Drives Me Nuts! - Examining The Person And Context Specificity Of Teacher Emotions, Anne C. Frenzel, Betty Becker-Kurz, Reinhard Pekrun, Thomas Goetz

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Teachers’ emotions are critically important for the quality of classroom instruction, and they are key components of teachers’ psychological well-being. Past research has focused on individual differences between teachers, whereas within-teacher variation across contexts has rarely been considered. As such, the present research addresses the long-standing yet unresolved person-situation debate pertaining to the emotional experiences of teachers. In two diary studies (N = 135, 70% female, and N = 85, 28% female), we examined the role of person, academic subject, and group of students for teacher emotions; focusing on three of the most salient emotions found in teachers: enjoyment, anger, and anxiety ...


Oral Care Practice Guidelines For The Care-Dependent Hospitalized Adult Outside Of The Intensive Care Unit Setting, Cynthia Susan Drapal Jan 2015

Oral Care Practice Guidelines For The Care-Dependent Hospitalized Adult Outside Of The Intensive Care Unit Setting, Cynthia Susan Drapal

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Many nurses lack evidence-based knowledge to deliver appropriate oral care, view oral care in the care-dependent patient as a comfort measure, and give it a low clinical priority. An estimated 44%-65% of hospitalized care-dependent patients do not receive adequate oral care, an intervention that can prevent aspiration pneumonia or pneumonitis. The purpose of this project was to develop a policy for use of an oral assessment tool and evidence-based guidelines for oral care in hospitalized care-dependent adults outside of the intensive care unit setting at a regional health system in the Southeast United States. The project used the theoretical ...


Enhanced Cgmp-Dependent Signaling In Astrocytes: Novel Therapeutic Target In Alzheimer's Disease, Nyema M. Woart Jan 2015

Enhanced Cgmp-Dependent Signaling In Astrocytes: Novel Therapeutic Target In Alzheimer's Disease, Nyema M. Woart

PCOM Biomedical Studies Student Scholarship

Over five million Americans suffer from Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), with an expected 34% increase in the incidence in this disease over the next decade. Unfortunately, there is no cure for AD. Recent studies have indicated that drugs which increase the levels of cyclic guanosine-3’5’-monophosphate (cGMP) may help preserve learning and memory in AD and enhance cognition in the aging brain; however, the mechanism(s) of how cGMP exerts this beneficial effect is unknown. The present findings now suggest that elevation of cGMP in astrocytes depresses inhibitory potassium currents in these cells to stimulate their protective influence on ...


Testing A Structural Equation Model Of Language-Based Cognitive Fitness, Elizabeth Ann Moxley-Paquette Jan 2015

Testing A Structural Equation Model Of Language-Based Cognitive Fitness, Elizabeth Ann Moxley-Paquette

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The normative development of language is often taken for granted, yet problems with language development can result in stress for the individual and family. A challenge with these language development problems lies within the contemporary education system, which assumes that children have appropriate skills when they begin school. The purpose of the study was to test a theoretical model of language readiness known as language-based cognitive fitness, which includes measures associated with structural concepts of language involving receptive language, expressive language, spontaneous narrative speech, and writing fluency. The sample included children from a private school who received an extensive battery ...