Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Neuroscience and Neurobiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Discipline
Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1171 - 1200 of 4677

Full-Text Articles in Neuroscience and Neurobiology

Synthetic And Biological Exploration Of (+)-Boldine - Identification Of Potential Cns Receptor Ligands, Sujay Joseph Aug 2016

Synthetic And Biological Exploration Of (+)-Boldine - Identification Of Potential Cns Receptor Ligands, Sujay Joseph

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

(+)-Boldine, an aporphine alkaloid, is reported to be biologically active at various Central Nervous System(CNS) receptors. However, only a few Structure Activity Relationship(SAR) studies have been conducted using boldine’s aporphine scaffold. A library of novel analogs was synthesized from boldine to understand the effect of bisbenzylation at C2 and C9 positions on the affinity and selectivity at the serotonin receptors.


If Insects Have Phenomenal Consciousness, Could They Suffer?, Elizabeth S. Paul, Michael T. Mendl Aug 2016

If Insects Have Phenomenal Consciousness, Could They Suffer?, Elizabeth S. Paul, Michael T. Mendl

Animal Sentience

Klein & Barron’s (K & B’s) suggestion that insects have the capacity for phenomenal consciousness is a refreshing and challenging departure from the cautious and agnostic stance that is taken by many researchers when considering this possibility. It is impossible to falsify the sceptic’s view that neural and behavioural parallels between humans and insects need not imply either similar conscious experience or even any phenomenal consciousness in insects at all. But if K & B are right, it is important to consider the possible contents of insect consciousness. Here we discuss whether affective consciousness, with its implications for potential suffering ...


Memory And Punishment, O. Carter Snead Aug 2016

Memory And Punishment, O. Carter Snead

O. Carter Snead

This article is the first scholarly exploration of the implications of neurobiological memory modification for criminal law. Its point of entry is the fertile context of criminal punishment, in which memory plays a crucial role. Specifically, this article will argue that there is a deep relationship between memory and the foundational principles justifying how punishment should be distributed, including retributive justice, deterrence, incapacitation, rehabilitation, moral education, and restorative justice. For all such theoretical justifications, the questions of who and how much to punish are inextricably intertwined with how a crime is remembered - by the offender, by the sentencing authority, and ...


From Sensory Perception To Lexical-Semantic Processing: An Erp Study In Non-Verbal Children With Autism, Chiara Cantiani, Naseem A. Choudhury, Yan H. Yu, Valerie L. Shafer, Richard G. Schwartz, April A. Benasich Aug 2016

From Sensory Perception To Lexical-Semantic Processing: An Erp Study In Non-Verbal Children With Autism, Chiara Cantiani, Naseem A. Choudhury, Yan H. Yu, Valerie L. Shafer, Richard G. Schwartz, April A. Benasich

Publications and Research

This study examines electrocortical activity associated with visual and auditory sensory perception and lexical-semantic processing in nonverbal (NV) or minimally-verbal (MV) children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Currently, there is no agreement on whether these children comprehend incoming linguistic information and whether their perception is comparable to that of typically developing children. Event-related potentials (ERPs) of 10 NV/MV children with ASD and 10 neurotypical children were recorded during a picture-word matching paradigm. Atypical ERP responses were evident at all levels of processing in children with ASD. Basic perceptual processing was delayed in both visual and auditory domains but overall ...


Subjective Experience In Insects: Definitions And Other Difficulties, Shelley Adamo Aug 2016

Subjective Experience In Insects: Definitions And Other Difficulties, Shelley Adamo

Animal Sentience

Whether insects have the potential for subjective experiences depends on the definition of subjective experience. The definition used by Klein & Barron (2016) is an unusually liberal one and could be used to argue that some modern robots have subjective experiences. From an evolutionary perspective, the additional neurons needed to produce subjective experiences will be proportionately more expensive for insects than for mammals because of the small size of the insect brain. This greater cost could weaken selection for such traits. Minimally, it may be premature to assume that small neuronal number is unimportant in determining the capacity for consciousness.


Bacteria And The Cellular Basis Of Consciousness, Michael L. Woodruff Aug 2016

Bacteria And The Cellular Basis Of Consciousness, Michael L. Woodruff

Animal Sentience

According to Reber’s theory, the Cellular Basis of Consciousness (CBC), sentience originates as bio-sensitivity in unicellular organisms. For this reason, Reber regards sentience as evolutionarily foundational. Many bacteria show chemotaxis and, thus, according to CBC, they are sentient. Analysis of the genetic mechanisms underlying bacterial chemotaxis indicates that sentience has no explanatory power in this case. Genetic analysis also fails to show species continuity underlying bio-sensitivity in bacteria and bio-sensitivity in species with nervous systems, so it does not seem that sentience is evolutionary foundational. CBC is rejected on these grounds.


Unity Of Consciousness In Animals, Bernard E. Rollin Aug 2016

Unity Of Consciousness In Animals, Bernard E. Rollin

Animal Sentience

Both Descartes the rationalist and Hume the empiricist, polar opposites philosophically, denied the unity and continuity of animal mind. Kant pointed out that the presence of retrievable memories entails unity of consciousness. Rowlands now argues that animals too have unity of consciousness.


Social Defeat Stress Induces Depression-Like Behavior And Alters Spine Morphology In The Hippocampus Of Adolescent Male C57bl/6 Mice, Sergio D. Iñiguez, Antonio Aubry, Lace M. Riggs, Jason B. Alipio, Roseanna M. Zanca, Francisco J. Flores-Ramirez, Mirella A. Hernandez, Steven J. Nieto, David Musheyev, Peter Serrano Aug 2016

Social Defeat Stress Induces Depression-Like Behavior And Alters Spine Morphology In The Hippocampus Of Adolescent Male C57bl/6 Mice, Sergio D. Iñiguez, Antonio Aubry, Lace M. Riggs, Jason B. Alipio, Roseanna M. Zanca, Francisco J. Flores-Ramirez, Mirella A. Hernandez, Steven J. Nieto, David Musheyev, Peter Serrano

Publications and Research

Social stress, including bullying during adolescence, is a risk factor for common psychopathologies such as depression. To investigate the neural mechanisms associated with juvenile social stress-induced mood-related endophenotypes, we examined the behavioral, morphological, and biochemical effects of the social defeat stress model of depression on hippocampal dendritic spines within the CA1 stratum radiatum. Adolescent (postnatal day 35) male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to defeat episodes for 10 consecutive days. Twenty-four h later, separate groups of mice were tested on the social interaction and tail suspension tests. Hippocampi were then dissected and Western blots were conducted to quantify protein levels ...


To Bee Or Not To Bee?, Shimon Edelman, Roy Moyal, Tomer Fekete Aug 2016

To Bee Or Not To Bee?, Shimon Edelman, Roy Moyal, Tomer Fekete

Animal Sentience

Klein & Barron’s (2016) (K & B’s) case for insect consciousness is a welcome development in an area that, in all of the science and philosophy of mind, is probably the most anthropocentric. In this commentary, we seek to strengthen K & B’s side of the argument by appealing not just to putative neural mechanisms but also to computational theory that supports it (section 1). We also offer some remarks on three distinctions that are relevant to K & B’s thesis and are central to phenomenal awareness: between the capacity for awareness and its contents (section 2); between awareness and selfhood (section 3); and between “easy” and “hard” problems in consciousness research (section 4).


Molecular Mechanisms Involved In Neurotoxicity Mediated By Hiv Proteins And Drug Abuse, Yu Cai Aug 2016

Molecular Mechanisms Involved In Neurotoxicity Mediated By Hiv Proteins And Drug Abuse, Yu Cai

Theses & Dissertations

While the advancement of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has transformed the course of HIV/AIDS from a death sentence to a manageable chronic condition, the prevalence of a constellation of neurological disorders collectively termed as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continues to persist in these patients. HAND is characterized by cognitive dysfunction, depression, impaired memory and/or deficits in motor skills. The underlying factors leading to HAND have been the subject of extensive research and are thought to be associated with HIV infection in the CNS combined with robust immune activation of resident cells of the CNS. In addition, there ...


Voltage-Gated K+ Channels And Hiv-1-Induced Neural Injury: Implications For Pathogenesis Of Hiv-1-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders, Han Liu Aug 2016

Voltage-Gated K+ Channels And Hiv-1-Induced Neural Injury: Implications For Pathogenesis Of Hiv-1-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders, Han Liu

Theses & Dissertations

Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is a subcortical disease involving neuronal loss and myelin damage. Myelin is deposited by oligodendrocytes through a complex process including oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) proliferation and maturation. Oligodendrocytes/OPCs are susceptible to viral proteins such as Tat and that myelin damage is associated with oligodendrocyte number decrease. It has been shown that activation of voltage-gated K+ (KV) channels mediates apoptosis in various cell types. KV1.3 is the most predominant KV channel expressed in OPCs/oligodendrocytes and potentially involved in OPC developmental regulation. We studied the involvement of ...


What Makes Us Conscious Is Not What Makes Us Human, Ezequiel Morsella, Erica B. Walker Aug 2016

What Makes Us Conscious Is Not What Makes Us Human, Ezequiel Morsella, Erica B. Walker

Animal Sentience

Consistent with the promising proposal of Klein & Barron (K & B), we discuss how what makes us conscious appears to be distinct from and more widespread in the animal kingdom than what distinguishes us from other species. Many of the abilities that do distinguish humans from other species (e.g., syntax and co-articulation in speech production) can be mediated unconsciously. The kind of functional architecture proposed by K & B may engender an “action selection bottleneck” in both humans and nonhuman species. As noted by K & B, this bottleneck is intimately related to conscious processing.


Is Online Motor Control Really Impaired In Parkinson's Disease?, Kate E. Merritt Aug 2016

Is Online Motor Control Really Impaired In Parkinson's Disease?, Kate E. Merritt

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are thought to be selectively impaired in consciously-mediated online automatic motor control, whereas the ability to perform subconscious online adjustments remains intact. This present study evaluates the hypothesis that the previously alleged deficits in online motor control in PD are not due to the consciousness of the correction, but rather are attributable to aspects of the prior experimental designs disproportionately penalizing patients for PD-related bradykinesia. Here, we implemented a modified traditional double-step paradigm to investigate consciously-mediated online motor control in PD, in a manner that would be unconfounded by disease-related bradykinesia. Further, we investigated ...


Insect Consciousness: Fine-Tuning The Hypothesis, Jon Mallatt, Todd E. Feinberg Aug 2016

Insect Consciousness: Fine-Tuning The Hypothesis, Jon Mallatt, Todd E. Feinberg

Animal Sentience

Although we are mostly supportive, we point out the strengths and weaknesses of Klein & Barron’s (2016) hypothesis that insects have the most basic form of consciousness. The strengths are in their application of Bjorn Merker’s vertebrate-derived ideas to arthropods, using their deep knowledge of insect brains. The weaknesses involve the controversial aspects of some of Merker’s ideas. We describe how the latter can be modified to strengthen the authors’ case for insect consciousness.


Feel Or Perspective?, Mark Rowlands Aug 2016

Feel Or Perspective?, Mark Rowlands

Animal Sentience

The title of Klein & Barron’s well-argued and thought-provoking target article is, “Insects have the capacity for subjective experience.” However, they also frame their claim using the term “consciousness,” which they seem to take as equivalent to “subjective experience.” This assumed equivalence, I shall argue, is problematic in a way that might vitiate their central argument.


Cal And Magi Pdz Protein Regulation Of Crfr1 And 5-Ht2ar Trafficking And Signaling, Maha Mahmoud Hammad Aug 2016

Cal And Magi Pdz Protein Regulation Of Crfr1 And 5-Ht2ar Trafficking And Signaling, Maha Mahmoud Hammad

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

PDZ (PSD95/Disc Large/Zona Occludens) domain-containing proteins are scaffolding proteins that play important roles in regulating the activity of G protein-coupled receptors. Corticotropin Releasing Factor Receptor 1 (CRFR1) and Serotonin 2A Receptor (5-HT2AR) are two GPCRs that are commonly associated with mental disorders. Both receptors also contain a class I PDZ-binding motif at the carboxyl terminal tail. In the first chapter, we investigate the effects of CAL (CFTR-associated ligand) on regulating the trafficking and signaling of CRFR1. We demonstrate a role for CAL in inhibiting CRFR1 endocytosis, cell surface expression, and CRF-mediated ERK1/2 signaling via the ...


Insulin-Like Signaling Promotes Glial Phagocytic Clearance Of Degenerating Axons Through Regulation Of Draper, Derek T. Musashe, Maria D. Purice, Sean D. Speese, Johnna E. Doherty, Mary A. Logan Aug 2016

Insulin-Like Signaling Promotes Glial Phagocytic Clearance Of Degenerating Axons Through Regulation Of Draper, Derek T. Musashe, Maria D. Purice, Sean D. Speese, Johnna E. Doherty, Mary A. Logan

Open Access Articles

Neuronal injury triggers robust responses from glial cells, including altered gene expression and enhanced phagocytic activity to ensure prompt removal of damaged neurons. The molecular underpinnings of glial responses to trauma remain unclear. Here, we find that the evolutionarily conserved insulin-like signaling (ILS) pathway promotes glial phagocytic clearance of degenerating axons in adult Drosophila. We find that the insulin-like receptor (InR) and downstream effector Akt1 are acutely activated in local ensheathing glia after axotomy and are required for proper clearance of axonal debris. InR/Akt1 activity, it is also essential for injury-induced activation of STAT92E and its transcriptional target draper ...


Experimental Exposure To Urban And Pink Noise Affects Brain Development And Song Learning In Zebra Finches (Taenopygia Guttata), Dominique A. Potvin, Michael T. Curcio, John P. Swaddle, Scott A. Macdougall-Shackleton Aug 2016

Experimental Exposure To Urban And Pink Noise Affects Brain Development And Song Learning In Zebra Finches (Taenopygia Guttata), Dominique A. Potvin, Michael T. Curcio, John P. Swaddle, Scott A. Macdougall-Shackleton

Arts & Sciences Articles

Recently, numerous studies have observed changes in bird vocalizations—especially song—in urban habitats. These changes are often interpreted as adaptive, since they increase the active space of the signal in its environment. However, the proximate mechanisms driving cross-generational changes in song are still unknown. We performed a captive experiment to identify whether noise experienced during development affects song learning and the development of song-control brain regions. Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were bred while exposed, or not exposed, to recorded traffic urban noise (Study 1) or pink noise (Study 2). We recorded the songs of male offspring and compared these ...


Perceiving Oldness In Parietal Cortex: Fmri Characterization Of A Parietal Memory Network, Adrian Gilmore Aug 2016

Perceiving Oldness In Parietal Cortex: Fmri Characterization Of A Parietal Memory Network, Adrian Gilmore

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The manner in which the human brain recognizes certain stimuli as novel or familiar is a matter of ongoing investigation. The overarching goal of this dissertation is to improve our understanding of how this may be accomplished. More specifically, work contained herein focuses on a recently described "parietal memory network" (PMN; Gilmore et al., 2015) that shows opposite patterns of activity when perceiving novel or familiar stimuli: deactivating in response to novelty, and activating in response to familiarity. Critically, our understanding of this network is based on explicit memory tasks, in which subjects are deliberately instructed to learn or remember ...


Data Citation In Neuroimaging: Proposed Best Practices For Data Identification And Attribution, Leah B. Honor, Christian Haselgrove, Jean A. Frazier, David N. Kennedy Aug 2016

Data Citation In Neuroimaging: Proposed Best Practices For Data Identification And Attribution, Leah B. Honor, Christian Haselgrove, Jean A. Frazier, David N. Kennedy

Psychiatry Publications and Presentations

Data sharing and reuse, while widely accepted as good ideas, have been slow to catch on in any concrete and consistent way. One major hurdle within the scientific community has been the lack of widely accepted standards for citing that data, making it difficult to track usage and measure impact. Within the neuroimaging community, there is a need for a way to not only clearly identify and cite datasets, but also to derive new aggregate sets from multiple sources while clearly maintaining lines of attribution. This work presents a functional prototype of a system to integrate Digital Object Identifiers (DOI ...


Universal Modes Of Awareness? A “Pre-Reflective” Premise, Uta M. Jürgens Aug 2016

Universal Modes Of Awareness? A “Pre-Reflective” Premise, Uta M. Jürgens

Animal Sentience

Mark Rowlands holds that creatures endowed with pre-reflective awareness may qualify as persons: In pre-reflective awareness, the self and the unity of mental life are implicit in the stream of experience. Rowlands generalizes from an introspective analysis of pre-reflective consciousness in humans to pre-reflective awareness in general. I describe three examples of empirical findings that corroborate the assumption that animal minds have some of the same basic modes of pre-reflective awareness as human minds.


Does Cognitive Impairment Affect Rehabilitation Outcome In Parkinson’S Disease?, Davide Ferrazzoli, Paola Ortelli, Roberto Maestri, Rossana Bera, Nir Giladi, Maria Felice Ghilardi, Gianni Pezzoli, Giusseppe Frazzitta Aug 2016

Does Cognitive Impairment Affect Rehabilitation Outcome In Parkinson’S Disease?, Davide Ferrazzoli, Paola Ortelli, Roberto Maestri, Rossana Bera, Nir Giladi, Maria Felice Ghilardi, Gianni Pezzoli, Giusseppe Frazzitta

Publications and Research

Background: The cognitive status is generally considered as a major determinant of rehabilitation outcome in Parkinson’s disease (PD). No studies about the effect of cognitive impairment on motor rehabilitation outcomes in PD have been performed before.

Objective: This study is aimed to evaluate the impact of cognitive decline on rehabilitation outcomes in patients with PD.

Methods: We retrospectively identified 485 patients with PD hospitalized for a 4-week Multidisciplinary Intensive Rehabilitation Treatment (MIRT) between January 2014 and September 2015. According to Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), patients were divided into: group 1—normal cognition (score 27–30), group 2—mild ...


What If Klein & Barron Are Right About Insect Sentience?, Bob Fischer Aug 2016

What If Klein & Barron Are Right About Insect Sentience?, Bob Fischer

Animal Sentience

If Klein & Barron are right, then insects may well be able to feel pain. If they can, then the standard approach to animal ethics generates some implausible results. Philosophers need to develop alternatives to this framework to avoid them.


Subjective Experience And Moral Standing, Andy Lamey Aug 2016

Subjective Experience And Moral Standing, Andy Lamey

Animal Sentience

Klein & Barron’s analysis focuses on the capacity for any subjective experience at all. It does not seek to demonstrate that insects can experience pleasure and pain in particular. This would be something of which insects have not traditionally been thought capable. If further research were to demonstrate that one or more insect species turn out to be conscious, yet incapable of experiencing pleasure and pain, it would give rise to a philosophical question that ethicists have yet to answer: Would a creature that is conscious, but lacks the capacity to feel pain, have moral standing?


Is Cortex Necessary?, Sean Allen-Hermanson Aug 2016

Is Cortex Necessary?, Sean Allen-Hermanson

Animal Sentience

A key contention of Klein & Barron (2016) is that consciousness does not depend on cortical structures. A critical appraisal suggests they have overestimated the strength of their evidence.


Who Is A Person? Whoever You Want It To Be, Gwen J. Broude Aug 2016

Who Is A Person? Whoever You Want It To Be, Gwen J. Broude

Animal Sentience

Rowlands provides an expanded definition of personhood that preserves the requirement of unity of mental life from the orthodox definition but argues that implicit unity of mind is sufficient for conferring personhood. This allows more or all animals to be considered persons. Implicit unity of mind may be a bridge too far for those who endorse the orthodox account of personhood, and for good reasons. More fundamentally, who gets to decide what personhood entails or that personhood per se matters to such other issues as who receives legal or moral status and consideration? Perhaps we should worry less about definitions ...


Docosahexaenoic Acid Conjugation Enhances Distribution And Safety Of Sirna Upon Local Administration In Mouse Brain, Mehran Nikan, Maire F. Osborn, Andrew H. Coles, Bruno M. D. C. Godinho, Lauren M. Hall, Reka A. Haraszti, Dimas Echeverria, Neil Aronin, Matthew R. Hassler, Anastasia Khvorova Aug 2016

Docosahexaenoic Acid Conjugation Enhances Distribution And Safety Of Sirna Upon Local Administration In Mouse Brain, Mehran Nikan, Maire F. Osborn, Andrew H. Coles, Bruno M. D. C. Godinho, Lauren M. Hall, Reka A. Haraszti, Dimas Echeverria, Neil Aronin, Matthew R. Hassler, Anastasia Khvorova

RNA Therapeutics Institute Publications

The use of siRNA-based therapies for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease requires efficient, nontoxic distribution to the affected brain parenchyma, notably the striatum and cortex. Here, we describe the synthesis and activity of a fully chemically modified siRNA that is directly conjugated to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in the mammalian brain. DHA conjugation enables enhanced siRNA retention throughout both the ipsilateral striatum and cortex following a single, intrastriatal injection (ranging from 6-60 mug). Within these tissues, DHA conjugation promotes internalization by both neurons and astrocytes. We demonstrate efficient and specific silencing of Huntingtin mRNA expression ...


Are Insects Sentient?, Michael Tye Aug 2016

Are Insects Sentient?, Michael Tye

Animal Sentience

I comment on the methodology used by Klein & Barron for dealing with the question of insect sentience and I briefly make a proposal of my own. Once it is granted that insects are sentient, a further question arises: which insects are subject to which states of sentience? Do insects feel pain, for example? If so, which ones? On the further question, I note, Klein & Barron have nothing to say.


Animal Grieving And Human Mourning, Matteo Colombo Aug 2016

Animal Grieving And Human Mourning, Matteo Colombo

Animal Sentience

King’s How animals grieve beautifully describes several ways in which animals and humans show a similar capacity for grief. Yet this book does not sufficiently emphasise the language-empowered capacity to objectify thinking and sentiments about death, which makes human mourning unique. Here I put this capacity into focus and relate it to the social-normative aspect of human mourning that seems to be missing in other animals.


Insects Join The Consciousness Fray, Bjorn H. Merker Aug 2016

Insects Join The Consciousness Fray, Bjorn H. Merker

Animal Sentience

Klein & Barron's review of recent insect neurobiology helps correct the impression that insect behavior is orchestrated without the benefit of central integrative mechanisms. Given their existence, the authors go on to ask whether these central mechanisms also feature the kind of integrative operations that support sentience, and propose that they do. Along the way they raise a number of conceptual and evidentiary issues of fundamental importance for the neuroscience of consciousness, allowing me to comment favorably on a number of them. I conclude by pointing to ways in which the conception of insect sentience they outline might be tested ...