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Full-Text Articles in Neuroscience and Neurobiology

An Animal Victim's Best Chance: Veterinary Legal Duty To Report Cruelty In The U.S., Lora Dunn Feb 2016

An Animal Victim's Best Chance: Veterinary Legal Duty To Report Cruelty In The U.S., Lora Dunn

Animal Sentience

Legislation throughout the U.S. recognizes animal sentience and the importance of veterinary reporting to combat the ongoing suffering of these animal victims: All 50 states have felony penalties available for animal cruelty crimes, and veterinary reporting is permitted or required in the majority of states. The remaining minority of U.S. states should take action to require veterinarians to report animal cruelty and render veterinarians immune for good faith reporting.


Veterinary Medical Associations Need To Educate Veterinarians For Mandatory Reporting Of Suspected Animal Abuse, Melinda V. Merck Feb 2016

Veterinary Medical Associations Need To Educate Veterinarians For Mandatory Reporting Of Suspected Animal Abuse, Melinda V. Merck

Animal Sentience

When animals are suffering, we have a duty to take action. With appropriate incentive and educational support mandatory veterinary reporting can be a great legal avenue to help ensure their safety and welfare.


Fish Pain's Burden Of Proof, Carl Safina Feb 2016

Fish Pain's Burden Of Proof, Carl Safina

Animal Sentience

A hypothesis like Key’s, that fish cannot feel pain, should really be stated as a null hypothesis — an assumption that there is no difference in the things being compared. Then evidence — including anecdotal evidence — for and against rejecting the null hypothesis can be examined and weighed. Key (2016a) has proven only that fish lack mammalian brains.


Burden Of Proof Lies With Proposer Of Celestial Teapot Hypothesis, Brian Key Feb 2016

Burden Of Proof Lies With Proposer Of Celestial Teapot Hypothesis, Brian Key

Animal Sentience

Bertrand Russell famously imagined the existence of a celestial teapot to highlight that the burden of proof of a hypothesis lay with its proposer and it was not the responsibility of others to refute it. Those who propose that fish feel pain must bear the burden of proof for their hypothesis. There are several common arguments adopted by those defending the position that fish feel pain. For instance, proponents envisage that pain is so important for human survival that they can’t imagine fish could exist without it. Out of this argument from incredulity emerges the idea that pain must ...


Do Political And Economic Choices Rely On Common Neural Substrates? A Systematic Review Of The Emerging Neuropolitics Literature, Sekoul Krastev, Joseph T. Mcguire, Denver Mcneney, Joseph W. Kable, Dietlind Stolle, Elisabeth Gidengil, Lesley K. Fellows Feb 2016

Do Political And Economic Choices Rely On Common Neural Substrates? A Systematic Review Of The Emerging Neuropolitics Literature, Sekoul Krastev, Joseph T. Mcguire, Denver Mcneney, Joseph W. Kable, Dietlind Stolle, Elisabeth Gidengil, Lesley K. Fellows

Neuroethics Publications

The methods of cognitive neuroscience are beginning to be applied to the study of political behavior. The neural substrates of value-based decision-making have been extensively examined in economic contexts; this might provide a powerful starting point for understanding political decision-making. Here, we asked to what extent the neuropolitics literature to date has used conceptual frameworks and experimental designs that make contact with the reward-related approaches that have dominated decision neuroscience. We then asked whether the studies of political behavior that can be considered in this light implicate the brain regions that have been associated with subjective value related to “economic ...


Do Political And Economic Choices Rely On Common Neural Substrates? A Systematic Review Of The Emerging Neuropolitics Literature, Sekoul Krastev, Joseph T. Mcguire, Denver Mcneney, Joseph W. Kable, Dietlind Stolle, Elisabeth Gidengil, Lesley K. Fellows Feb 2016

Do Political And Economic Choices Rely On Common Neural Substrates? A Systematic Review Of The Emerging Neuropolitics Literature, Sekoul Krastev, Joseph T. Mcguire, Denver Mcneney, Joseph W. Kable, Dietlind Stolle, Elisabeth Gidengil, Lesley K. Fellows

Neuroethics Publications

The methods of cognitive neuroscience are beginning to be applied to the study of political behavior. The neural substrates of value-based decision-making have been extensively examined in economic contexts; this might provide a powerful starting point for understanding political decision-making. Here, we asked to what extent the neuropolitics literature to date has used conceptual frameworks and experimental designs that make contact with the reward-related approaches that have dominated decision neuroscience. We then asked whether the studies of political behavior that can be considered in this light implicate the brain regions that have been associated with subjective value related to “economic ...


Animal Suffering In China, Peter J. Li Feb 2016

Animal Suffering In China, Peter J. Li

Animal Sentience

Chinese policy has been aimed at maximizing GDP; it is time to focus also on minimizing animal suffering.


Science And Sensibility, Bernard E. Rollin Feb 2016

Science And Sensibility, Bernard E. Rollin

Animal Sentience

The sentience and suffering of animals is obvious to common sense, even if science and industry claim to be agnostic. Economic incentives to reduce the suffering of animals are welcome, but it is not clear whether animals can turn to science for help.


Excitatory Transmission Onto Agrp Neurons Is Regulated By Cjun Nh2-Terminal Kinase 3 In Response To Metabolic Stress, Santiago Vernia, Caroline Morel, Joseph C. Madara, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Tamera Barrett, Kathryn O. Chase, Norman J. Kennedy, Dae Young Jung, Jason K. Kim, Neil Aronin, Richard A. Flavell, Bradford B. Lowell, Roger J. Davis Feb 2016

Excitatory Transmission Onto Agrp Neurons Is Regulated By Cjun Nh2-Terminal Kinase 3 In Response To Metabolic Stress, Santiago Vernia, Caroline Morel, Joseph C. Madara, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Tamera Barrett, Kathryn O. Chase, Norman J. Kennedy, Dae Young Jung, Jason K. Kim, Neil Aronin, Richard A. Flavell, Bradford B. Lowell, Roger J. Davis

Davis Lab Publications

The cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is implicated in the response to metabolic stress. Indeed, it is established that the ubiquitously expressed JNK1 and JNK2 isoforms regulate energy expenditure and insulin resistance. However, the role of the neuron-specific isoform JNK3 is unclear. Here we demonstrate that JNK3 deficiency causes hyperphagia selectively in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. JNK3 deficiency in neurons that express the leptin receptor LEPRb was sufficient to cause HFD-dependent hyperphagia. Studies of sub-groups of leptin-responsive neurons demonstrated that JNK3 deficiency in AgRP neurons, but not POMC neurons, was sufficient to cause the hyperphagic response. These ...


Pan-Neuronal Imaging In Roaming Caenorhabditis Elegans, Vivek Venkatachalam, Ni Ji, Xian Wang, Christopher M. Clark, James Kameron Mitchell, Mason Klein, Christopher J. Tabone, Jeremy Florman, Hongfei Ji, Joel Greenwood, Andrew D. Chisholm, Jagan Srinivasan, Mark J. Alkema, Mei Zhen, Aravinthan D.T. Samuel Feb 2016

Pan-Neuronal Imaging In Roaming Caenorhabditis Elegans, Vivek Venkatachalam, Ni Ji, Xian Wang, Christopher M. Clark, James Kameron Mitchell, Mason Klein, Christopher J. Tabone, Jeremy Florman, Hongfei Ji, Joel Greenwood, Andrew D. Chisholm, Jagan Srinivasan, Mark J. Alkema, Mei Zhen, Aravinthan D.T. Samuel

GSBS Student Publications

We present an imaging system for pan-neuronal recording in crawling Caenorhabditis elegans. A spinning disk confocal microscope, modified for automated tracking of the C. elegans head ganglia, simultaneously records the activity and position of approximately 80 neurons that coexpress cytoplasmic calcium indicator GCaMP6s and nuclear localized red fluorescent protein at 10 volumes per second. We developed a behavioral analysis algorithm that maps the movements of the head ganglia to the animal's posture and locomotion. Image registration and analysis software automatically assigns an index to each nucleus and calculates the corresponding calcium signal. Neurons with highly stereotyped positions can be ...


When The Client Is Not The Abuser, But One Of The Abused, Tania Signal Feb 2016

When The Client Is Not The Abuser, But One Of The Abused, Tania Signal

Animal Sentience

The question of client confidentiality and reporting animal abuse is complicated when the client is not the abuser, and when the abuse (of both people and animals) may escalate precisely because it has been (or may be) reported.


Elucidation Of The Anatomy Of A Satiety Network: Focus On Connectivity Of The Parabrachial Nucleus In The Adult Rat, Györgyi Zséli, Barbara Vida, Anais Martinez, Ronald M. Lechan, Arshad M. Khan, Csaba Fekete Feb 2016

Elucidation Of The Anatomy Of A Satiety Network: Focus On Connectivity Of The Parabrachial Nucleus In The Adult Rat, Györgyi Zséli, Barbara Vida, Anais Martinez, Ronald M. Lechan, Arshad M. Khan, Csaba Fekete

Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.

We hypothesized that brain regions showing neuronal activation after refeeding comprise major nodes in a satiety network, and tested this hypothesis with two sets of experiments. Detailed c-Fos mapping comparing fasted and refed rats was performed to identify candidate nodes of the satiety network. In addition to well-known feeding-related brain regions such as the arcuate, dorsomedial, and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, lateral hypothalamic area, parabrachial nucleus (PB), nucleus of the solitary tract and central amygdalar nucleus, other referring activated regions were also identified, such as the parastrial and parasubthalamic nuclei. To begin to understand the connectivity of the satiety network, the ...


AΒ40 Reduces P-Glycoprotein At The Blood-Brain Barrier Through The Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway, Anika M. S. Hartz, Yu Zhong, Andrea Wolf, Harry Levine Iii, David S. Miller, Björn Bauer Feb 2016

AΒ40 Reduces P-Glycoprotein At The Blood-Brain Barrier Through The Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway, Anika M. S. Hartz, Yu Zhong, Andrea Wolf, Harry Levine Iii, David S. Miller, Björn Bauer

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Failure to clear amyloid-β (Aβ) from the brain is in part responsible for Aβ brain accumulation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A critical protein for clearing Aβ across the blood–brain barrier is the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the luminal plasma membrane of the brain capillary endothelium. P-gp is reduced at the blood–brain barrier in AD, which has been shown to be associated with Aβ brain accumulation. However, the mechanism responsible for P-gp reduction in AD is not well understood. Here we focused on identifying critical mechanistic steps involved in reducing P-gp in ...


Mir-124 Regulates The Phase Of Drosophila Circadian Locomotor Behavior, Yong Zhang, Pallavi Lamba, Peiyi Guo, Patrick Emery Feb 2016

Mir-124 Regulates The Phase Of Drosophila Circadian Locomotor Behavior, Yong Zhang, Pallavi Lamba, Peiyi Guo, Patrick Emery

Neurobiology Publications and Presentations

Animals use circadian rhythms to anticipate daily environmental changes. Circadian clocks have a profound effect on behavior. In Drosophila, for example, brain pacemaker neurons dictate that flies are mostly active at dawn and dusk. miRNAs are small, regulatory RNAs ( approximately 22 nt) that play important roles in posttranscriptional regulation. Here, we identify miR-124 as an important regulator of Drosophila circadian locomotor rhythms. Under constant darkness, flies lacking miR-124 (miR-124(KO)) have a dramatically advanced circadian behavior phase. However, whereas a phase defect is usually caused by a change in the period of the circadian pacemaker, this is not the case ...


Multimodal Imaging Measures Predict Rearrest, Vaughn R. Steele, Eric D. Claus, Eyal Aharoni, Gina M. Vincent, Vince D. Calhoun, Kent A. Kiehl Feb 2016

Multimodal Imaging Measures Predict Rearrest, Vaughn R. Steele, Eric D. Claus, Eyal Aharoni, Gina M. Vincent, Vince D. Calhoun, Kent A. Kiehl

Gina M. Vincent

Rearrest has been predicted by hemodynamic activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during error-processing (Aharoni et al., 2013). Here, we evaluate the predictive power after adding an additional imaging modality in a subsample of 45 incarcerated males from Aharoni et al. (2013). Event-related potentials (ERPs) and hemodynamic activity were collected during a Go/NoGo response inhibition task. Neural measures of error-processing were obtained from the ACC and two ERP components, the error-related negativity (ERN/Ne) and the error positivity (Pe). Measures from the Pe and ACC differentiated individuals who were and were not subsequently rearrested. Cox regression, logistic regression ...


Neuroprediction And Criminal Law, Fritz Allhoff Feb 2016

Neuroprediction And Criminal Law, Fritz Allhoff

Spring Convocation

No abstract provided.


Blockade Of Astrocytic Calcineurin/Nfat Signaling Helps To Normalize Hippocampal Synaptic Function And Plasticity In A Rat Model Of Traumatic Brain Injury, Jennifer L. Furman, Pradoldej Sompol, Susan D. Kraner, Melanie M. Pleiss, Esther J. Putman, Jacob Dunkerson, Hafiz Mohmmad Abdul, Kelly N. Roberts, Stephen William Scheff, Christopher M. Norris Feb 2016

Blockade Of Astrocytic Calcineurin/Nfat Signaling Helps To Normalize Hippocampal Synaptic Function And Plasticity In A Rat Model Of Traumatic Brain Injury, Jennifer L. Furman, Pradoldej Sompol, Susan D. Kraner, Melanie M. Pleiss, Esther J. Putman, Jacob Dunkerson, Hafiz Mohmmad Abdul, Kelly N. Roberts, Stephen William Scheff, Christopher M. Norris

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Increasing evidence suggests that the calcineurin (CN)-dependent transcription factor NFAT (Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells) mediates deleterious effects of astrocytes in progressive neurodegenerative conditions. However, the impact of astrocytic CN/NFAT signaling on neural function/recovery after acute injury has not been investigated extensively. Using a controlled cortical impact (CCI) procedure in rats, we show that traumatic brain injury is associated with an increase in the activities of NFATs 1 and 4 in the hippocampus at 7 d after injury. NFAT4, but not NFAT1, exhibited extensive labeling in astrocytes and was found throughout the axon/dendrite layers of ...


Reconstructing Representations Of Dynamic Visual Objects In Early Visual Cortex, Edmund Chong, Ariana M. Familiar, Won Mok Shim Feb 2016

Reconstructing Representations Of Dynamic Visual Objects In Early Visual Cortex, Edmund Chong, Ariana M. Familiar, Won Mok Shim

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

As raw sensory data are partial, our visual system extensively fills in missing details, creating enriched percepts based on incomplete bottom-up information. Despite evidence for internally generated representations at early stages of cortical processing, it is not known whether these representations include missing information of dynamically transforming objects. Long-range apparent motion (AM) provides a unique test case because objects in AM can undergo changes both in position and in features. Using fMRI and encoding methods, we found that the “intermediate” orientation of an apparently rotating grating, never presented in the retinal input but interpolated during AM, is reconstructed in population-level ...


Chronic Consumption Of A Western Diet Induces Robust Glial Activation In Aging Mice And In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Leah C. Graham, Jeffrey M. Harder, Ileana Soto Reyes, Wilhelmine N. De Vries, Simon W. M. John, Gareth R. Howell Feb 2016

Chronic Consumption Of A Western Diet Induces Robust Glial Activation In Aging Mice And In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Leah C. Graham, Jeffrey M. Harder, Ileana Soto Reyes, Wilhelmine N. De Vries, Simon W. M. John, Gareth R. Howell

Faculty Scholarship for the College of Science & Mathematics

Studies have assessed individual components of a western diet, but no study has assessed the long-term, cumulative effects of a western diet on aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Therefore, we have formulated the first western-style diet that mimics the fat, carbohydrate, protein, vitamin and mineral levels of western diets. This diet was fed to aging C57BL/6J (B6) mice to identify phenotypes that may increase susceptibility to AD, and to APP/PS1 mice, a mouse model of AD, to determine the effects of the diet in AD. Astrocytosis and microglia/monocyte activation were dramatically increased in response to diet ...


Hpcnmf: A High-Performance Toolbox For Non-Negative Matrix Factorization, Karthik Devarajan, Guoli Wang Feb 2016

Hpcnmf: A High-Performance Toolbox For Non-Negative Matrix Factorization, Karthik Devarajan, Guoli Wang

COBRA Preprint Series

Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is a widely used machine learning algorithm for dimension reduction of large-scale data. It has found successful applications in a variety of fields such as computational biology, neuroscience, natural language processing, information retrieval, image processing and speech recognition. In bioinformatics, for example, it has been used to extract patterns and profiles from genomic and text-mining data as well as in protein sequence and structure analysis. While the scientific performance of NMF is very promising in dealing with high dimensional data sets and complex data structures, its computational cost is high and sometimes could be critical for ...


Functional Brain Imaging Predicts Public Health Campaign Success, Emily B. Falk, Matthew B. O'Donnell, Steven Tompson, Richard Gonzalez, Sonya Dal Cin, Victor J. Strecher, Kenneth M. Cummings, Lawrence An Feb 2016

Functional Brain Imaging Predicts Public Health Campaign Success, Emily B. Falk, Matthew B. O'Donnell, Steven Tompson, Richard Gonzalez, Sonya Dal Cin, Victor J. Strecher, Kenneth M. Cummings, Lawrence An

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Mass media can powerfully affect health decision-making. Pre-testing through focus groups or surveys is a standard, though inconsistent, predictor of effectiveness. Converging evidence demonstrates that activity within brain systems associated with self-related processing can predict individual behavior in response to health messages. Preliminary evidence also suggests that neural activity in small groups can forecast population-level campaign outcomes. Less is known about the psychological processes that link neural activity and population-level outcomes, or how these predictions are affected by message content. We exposed 50 smokers to antismoking messages and used their aggregated neural activity within a ‘self-localizer’ defined region of medial ...


Neurodevelopmental Defects Associated With Gestational Exposure To Low Levels Of Dbp In Mice, Françoise Sidime Feb 2016

Neurodevelopmental Defects Associated With Gestational Exposure To Low Levels Of Dbp In Mice, Françoise Sidime

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The etiology of autism is thought to involve the complex interplay among genetic and environmental factors. Patterns of inheritance suggest an epigenetic component to the development of autism. A variety of environmental risk factors are known to induce epigenetic changes in DNA, affecting many genes including those autism-associated genes (AAG). The plasticizer dibutyl phthalate (DBP; CAS 84-74-2) is a developmental and reproductive toxin that causes a broad range of birth defects resulting in neurological impairments.

To date, although the effect of DBP as an endocrine and a reproductive disruptor are established, there are only few studies that address the effects ...


The Impact Of Affect On Neural Mechanisms Underlying Orientation Perception, Michelle L. Fowler Feb 2016

The Impact Of Affect On Neural Mechanisms Underlying Orientation Perception, Michelle L. Fowler

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The underlying mechanisms used to process 2D visual information to form a unified 3D percept of the world remain largely unknown. Previous work in our lab has shown that accurate 3D perception of textured surfaces depends on the presence of specific patterns of orientation flows in the retinal image. Recent research has shown that affective state may influence the visual perception of oriented patterns. Relative to neutral face stimuli, fearful face stimuli have been shown to increase sensitivity to orientation of low spatial frequency patterns and decrease sensitivity to orientation of high spatial frequency patterns. How affective state influences the ...


Status Signaling And The Characterization Of A Chirp-Like Signal In The Weakly Electric Fish Steatogenys Elegans, Caitlin E. Field Feb 2016

Status Signaling And The Characterization Of A Chirp-Like Signal In The Weakly Electric Fish Steatogenys Elegans, Caitlin E. Field

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Sensory systems are critical to both exploratory and communicatory processes, the study of which is critical to our understanding of how animals perceive and respond to their environments. In weakly electric fishes the electrosensory system is utilized for both of these purposes. One type of communication, status signaling, is widespread across taxa and frequently hormonally modulated. This hormonal modulation keeps the signal honest, wherein the status of the sender and the production of the status signal itself are both hormone dependent. We investigated exploratory and communicatory strategies of the electromotor system in pulse-type gymnotiforms, with a focus on status communication ...


Messenger Rna Transport And Translation Regulated By The 3' Utrs Of Dendritic Mrnas And Abnormal Alternative Splicing Of Neuroligin1 In The Fmr1 Ko Mouse Hippocampus, Tianhui Zhu Feb 2016

Messenger Rna Transport And Translation Regulated By The 3' Utrs Of Dendritic Mrnas And Abnormal Alternative Splicing Of Neuroligin1 In The Fmr1 Ko Mouse Hippocampus, Tianhui Zhu

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is one of the most commonly inherited mental retardations. It is caused by the loss of functional fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Loss of functional FMRP is the most widespread single-gene cause of autism. The most prominent phenotype of FXS patients is an IQ ranging from 20 to 70. FMRP is an RNA binding protein, widely expressed in almost all tissues and highly expressed in brain. As a RNA binding protein, 85-90 % of FMRP in the brain is associated with polyribosomes. Approximately 4 % of total mRNA is associated with FMRP, which functions in the stability ...


Utilization Of The Clinical Laboratory For The Implementation Of Concussion Biomarkers In Collegiate Football And The Necessity Of Personalized And Predictive Athlete Specific Reference Intervals, Stefanie Podlog (Nee Schulte), Natalie N. Rasmussen, Joseph W. Mcbeth, Patrick Q. Richards, Eric Yochem, David J. Petron, Frederick G. Strathmann Jan 2016

Utilization Of The Clinical Laboratory For The Implementation Of Concussion Biomarkers In Collegiate Football And The Necessity Of Personalized And Predictive Athlete Specific Reference Intervals, Stefanie Podlog (Nee Schulte), Natalie N. Rasmussen, Joseph W. Mcbeth, Patrick Q. Richards, Eric Yochem, David J. Petron, Frederick G. Strathmann

Athletic Training

Background: A continued interest in concussion biomarkers makes the eventual implementation of identified biomarkers into routine concussion assessment an eventual reality. We sought to develop and test an interdisciplinary approach that could be used to integrate blood-based biomarkers into the established concussion management program for a collegiate football team.

Methods: We used a CLIA-certified laboratory for all testing and chose biomarkers where clinically validated testing was available as would be required for results used in clinical decision making. We summarized the existing methods and results for concussion assessment across an entire season to identify and demonstrate the challenges with the ...


The Ubiquitin-Proteasome System: Potential Therapeutic Targets For Alzheimer’S Disease And Spinal Cord Injury, Bing Gong, Miroslav Radulovic, Maria E. Figueiredo-Pereira, Christopher Cardozo Jan 2016

The Ubiquitin-Proteasome System: Potential Therapeutic Targets For Alzheimer’S Disease And Spinal Cord Injury, Bing Gong, Miroslav Radulovic, Maria E. Figueiredo-Pereira, Christopher Cardozo

Publications and Research

The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a crucial protein degradation system in eukaryotes. Herein, we will review advances in the understanding of the role of several proteins of the UPS in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). The UPS consists of many factors that include E3 ubiquitin ligases, ubiquitin hydrolases, ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like molecules, and the proteasome itself. An extensive body of work links UPS dysfunction with AD pathogenesis and progression. More recently, the UPS has been shown to have vital roles in recovery of function after SCI. The ubiquitin hydrolase (Uch-L1) has been proposed ...


M100,907, A Selective 5-Ht(2a) Antagonist, Attenuates Dopamine Release In The Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex., Hewlet Mcfarlane Jan 2016

M100,907, A Selective 5-Ht(2a) Antagonist, Attenuates Dopamine Release In The Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex., Hewlet Mcfarlane

Hewlet McFarlane

Previous research has suggested that serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptors modulate the functioning of the mesocortical dopamine (DA) pathway. However, the specific role of 5-HT(2A) receptors localized within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is not known. The present study employed in vivo microdialysis to examine the role of this receptor in the modulation of basal and K(+)-stimulated (Ca(2+)-dependent) DA release. The selective 5-HT(2A) antagonist M100,907 was infused directly into the mPFC of conscious rats. This resulted in a concentration-dependent blockade of K(+)-stimulated DA release. Intracortical application of M100,907 also blocked increases in DA ...


Movement Path Tortuosity In Free Ambulation: Relationships To Age And Brain Disease, William Kearns, James Fozard, Vilis Nams Jan 2016

Movement Path Tortuosity In Free Ambulation: Relationships To Age And Brain Disease, William Kearns, James Fozard, Vilis Nams

William D. Kearns, PhD

Ambulation is defined by duration, distance traversed, number and size of directional changes and the interval separating successive movement episodes; more complex measures of ambulation can be created by aggregating these features. This review article of published findings defines random changes in direction during movement as “movement path tortuosity”, and relates tortuosity to the understanding of cognitive impairments of persons of all ages. Path tortuosity is quantified by subjecting tracking data to fractal analysis, specifically Fractal Dimension (Fractal D), which ranges from a value of 1 when the movement path is perfectly straight to a value of 2 when the ...


Going Mainstream Or Just A Passing Fad? The Future Of The Ancestral Health Movement, Hamilton M. Stapell Jan 2016

Going Mainstream Or Just A Passing Fad? The Future Of The Ancestral Health Movement, Hamilton M. Stapell

Journal of Evolution and Health

The current ancestral health (“paleo”) movement is often thought to be on the verge of going mainstream. Many within the movement believe this would lead to positive health and financial outcomes for both individuals and society as a whole. However, the transition from a small, highly-devoted group of adherents to a mass following will be far more difficult than commonly assumed. This paper argues there are three main obstacles to it becoming a mass phenomenon in the United States. First, Neolithic foods are tightly woven into the fabric of our culture (for example, bread within the Christian tradition). Second, refined ...