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Full-Text Articles in Neuroscience and Neurobiology

Probing The Functional Relevance Of Reactive Hippocampal Neurogenesis In A Model Of An Alcohol Use Disorder, Chelsea Rhea Geil Nickell Jan 2016

Probing The Functional Relevance Of Reactive Hippocampal Neurogenesis In A Model Of An Alcohol Use Disorder, Chelsea Rhea Geil Nickell

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Alcoholism, or alcohol use disorders (AUDs), represent a major public health concern both locally and globally. Critically, excessive alcohol consumption results in neurodegeneration in brain regions such as the hippocampus which is known for its role in learning and memory. Recovery of hippocampal volume loss has been observed after prolonged abstinence, but the mechanisms underlying this process are not well understood. Adult neurogenesis is thought to contribute to this recovery since after alcohol exposure a reactive increase in adult neurogenesis is observed. This reactive neurogenesis (the process by which brain insult results in a compensatory increase in neurogenesis) may represent ...


Cerebellar Nuclei Neurons Show Only Small Excitatory Responses To Optogenetic Olivary Stimulation In Transgenic Mice: In Vivo And In Vitro Studies, Huo Lu, Bo Yang, Dieter Jaeger Jan 2016

Cerebellar Nuclei Neurons Show Only Small Excitatory Responses To Optogenetic Olivary Stimulation In Transgenic Mice: In Vivo And In Vitro Studies, Huo Lu, Bo Yang, Dieter Jaeger

PCOM Scholarly Papers

BACKGROUND: To study the olivary input to the cerebellar nuclei (CN) we used optogenetic stimulation in transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in olivary neurons. We obtained in vivo extracellular Purkinje cell (PC) and CN recordings in anesthetized mice while stimulating the contralateral inferior olive (IO) with a blue laser (single pulse, 10 - 50 ms duration). Peri-stimulus histograms were constructed to show the spike rate changes after optical stimulation. Among 29 CN neurons recorded, 15 showed a decrease in spike rate of variable strength and duration, and only 1 showed a transient spiking response. These results suggest that direct olivary input ...


Intrinsic And Extrinsic Regulation Of Pineal Melatonin Rhythms, Ye Li Jan 2016

Intrinsic And Extrinsic Regulation Of Pineal Melatonin Rhythms, Ye Li

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Circadian rhythm is a biological rhythm with period of about 24 hours. Circadian rhythm is universal in phyla from bacteria to mammals and exists in different level from gene expression to behavior. Circadian system consists of three components: 1) a self-sustained oscillator; 2) an input pathway which can alter the phase of the oscillator; and 3) an output such as gene expression, enzyme activity, hormone production, heart rate, body temperature or locomotor activities. The way the oscillator regulates its outputs is complicated, in that on one hand usually the oscillator is not the only factor affecting the outputs, and on ...


Effects Of Early Life Stress On Anhedonia And Striatal Dopamine Concentration Depends On Variation In Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (Comt) Genotype, Sally Lauren Cole Jan 2016

Effects Of Early Life Stress On Anhedonia And Striatal Dopamine Concentration Depends On Variation In Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (Comt) Genotype, Sally Lauren Cole

Senior Projects Spring 2016

Depression is a serious, costly, and heterogeneous disorder for which no one genetic determinant has been identified. Research has shown that stress, and subsequent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation, is a significant predictor of depression, and one particular stressor that has been linked to vulnerability to depression and HPA axis dysregulation is early life trauma. Due to the heterogeneity and complexity of depression, it is likely that specific gene-environment interactions play a role in the development of depression. Interaction between catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met variants with specific environmental factors can potentially increase vulnerability to depression. The present proposed experiment examines ...


High Affinity Block Of Icl,Swell By Thiol-Reactive Small Molecules, Sung H. Park Jan 2016

High Affinity Block Of Icl,Swell By Thiol-Reactive Small Molecules, Sung H. Park

Theses and Dissertations

Ebselen (Ebs) is considered as a glutathione peroxidase (GPx) mimetic and primarily thought to function by scavenging intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previous to our work, Deng et al. (2010a) demonstrated complete block of ICl,swell with 15 microM Ebs following endothelin-1 (ET-1) induced activation of the current in cardiomyocytes. This block was presumed to take effect mainly via the quenching of ROS. Nonetheless, our work with DI TNC1 astrocytes strongly emphasizes that Ebs might function by an alternative mechanism based on its kinetic profile in blocking ICl,swell. Our experiments showed that 45 nM Ebs can fully ...


Cross Sensitization Of Depressive-Like Behavior Through Two Depression Related Paradigms: Maternal Separation And Its Effect On The Forced Swim Test In The Guinea Pig, Amanda Danielle Schreibeis Jan 2016

Cross Sensitization Of Depressive-Like Behavior Through Two Depression Related Paradigms: Maternal Separation And Its Effect On The Forced Swim Test In The Guinea Pig, Amanda Danielle Schreibeis

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Separation and Its Effect on the Forced Swim Test In the Guinea Pig Early-life stress such as parental neglect, absence, or abandonment, has been hypothesized to increase the susceptibility for developing depression later in life via sensitization of stress-responsive physiological systems (e.g., pro-inflammatory cytokines, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis). Guinea pigs offer a potential model, but study has been limited to behavioral observations obtained during maternal separation tests. This thesis examined the generalization of this response by asking whether it would cross-sensitize to behavior in another depressive-related paradigm, the forced swim test. In three experiments, pups underwent three forced swim trials, in ...


Social Buffering By Unfamiliar Adult Males In Preweaning Guinea Pigs (Cavia Pocellus): The Effects On Hpa Activity And Fos Induction In The Medial Prefrontal Cortex, Withayapon Watanasriyakul Jan 2016

Social Buffering By Unfamiliar Adult Males In Preweaning Guinea Pigs (Cavia Pocellus): The Effects On Hpa Activity And Fos Induction In The Medial Prefrontal Cortex, Withayapon Watanasriyakul

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Social buffering, a phenomenon in which the presence of a social partner can reduce stress responses, is often most effective between strongly attached partners. Our laboratory previously found a surprising buffering effect of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response in preweaning guinea pigs by unfamiliar adult males. It was hypothesized that this HPA-buffering effect was driven by social interactions between the two partners and may involve an activation of the prelimbic cortex. Therefore, the current study examined these potential associations. To limit social interactions, the adult male was anesthetized in one condition compared to another condition where the adult male remained conscious ...


A Postmortem Computational Atlas Of The Human Hippocampus, Daniel Henrik Adler Jan 2016

A Postmortem Computational Atlas Of The Human Hippocampus, Daniel Henrik Adler

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The primary contribution of this dissertation is a computational atlas of the human hippocampus from high-resolution, postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and densely-acquired histology. The atlas describes how the locations of subregion boundaries, derived from microscopic features extracted from histology, vary relative to structures and boundaries that can be seen in MRI. This work represents a major step towards understanding the hippocampal region's anatomical variability by capturing anatomy of the region from the macroscopic to the microscopic level.

The atlas reference space is generated from 0.2 mm isotropic resolution 9.4 telsa MRI of 26 whole-hippocampal specimens. A ...


The Role Of Oxidative Stress In The Mechanisms Of Ammonia-Induced Brain Swelling And Tolerance In The Goldfish (Carassius Auratus), David F. Jones Lisser Mr. Jan 2016

The Role Of Oxidative Stress In The Mechanisms Of Ammonia-Induced Brain Swelling And Tolerance In The Goldfish (Carassius Auratus), David F. Jones Lisser Mr.

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Toxic build-ups of ammonia can cause potentially fatal brain swelling in mammals, but such swelling is reversible in the anoxia- and ammonia-tolerant goldfish (Carassius auratus). The mechanisms of ammonia-induced brain swelling and tolerance remain elusive, but several studies have suggested a role for reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may damage proteins and lipids in the plasma membrane of astrocytes in the brain. As a result, osmotic gradients across cell membranes may be altered leading to water uptake by astrocytes and swelling. While a role for ROS has been proposed in mammals, no studies have addressed this question in teleosts, in ...


Scalar Short-Term Memory, Tyler D. Bancroft Jan 2016

Scalar Short-Term Memory, Tyler D. Bancroft

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The location of the brain’s working and short-term memory (WM/STM) “system” is unclear. The existence of a dedicated WM/STM system is itself under debate. Recently, it has been proposed that WM/STM storage relies not on a dedicated system in prefrontal cortex, but rather that it is an emergent function of interaction between attentional and representational systems (e.g., sensory cortex) in the brain. However, mnemonic representations of very simple stimuli have repeatedly been shown to exist in frontal cortex. In this manuscript, I use computational and behavioural methods to demonstrate similarities between the representations of different ...


The Effects Of Manipulated Somatosensory Input On Simulated Falls During Walking, Sarah Mitchell-Ewart Jan 2016

The Effects Of Manipulated Somatosensory Input On Simulated Falls During Walking, Sarah Mitchell-Ewart

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Previous research has demonstrated that there is a distinct relationship between aging and instability. The somatosensory system plays a significant role in balance control in conjunction with vision and the vestibular system (Qiu et al., 2012). Evidence has shown that manipulation of the mechanoreceptors on the plantar surface of the foot has a direct effect on balance control. By manipulating these receptors with hypothermic anesthesia and vibration, researchers are capable of simulating the effect of sensory modification on healthy individuals, in order to understand the role that plantar-surface sensation has in adapting to perturbation during gait (Perry et al., 2001 ...


Early Neurodevelopment: Notch Signaling, Axial Differentiation, Brain Patterning, And Neurogenesis, Adrian M. Bebenek '17 Jan 2016

Early Neurodevelopment: Notch Signaling, Axial Differentiation, Brain Patterning, And Neurogenesis, Adrian M. Bebenek '17

Independent Study

The vastly complex, delicate nature of the nervous system calls for a highly effective development system. The development of the nervous system begins early in embryogenesis and is one of the last systems to be completed after birth. Deemed to be one of the most important steps in the evolutionary progression towards sophisticated life, the pathways regulating neurodevelopment are highly specialized and conserved. Embryonic neurodevelopment is an important starting point for the understanding of brain anatomy, function, and its neurobiology. The past few decades have brought about numerous technological advancements allowing for the study of the earliest stages of embryonic ...


Pain In Fish: Weighing The Evidence, James D. Rose Jan 2016

Pain In Fish: Weighing The Evidence, James D. Rose

Animal Sentience

The target article by Key (2016) examines whether fish have brain structures capable of mediating pain perception and consciousness, functions known to depend on the neocortex in humans. He concludes, as others have concluded (Rose 2002, 2007; Rose et al. 2014), that such functions are impossible for fish brains. This conclusion has been met with hypothetical assertions by others to the effect that functions of pain and consciousness may well be possible through unknown alternate neural processes. Key's argument would be bolstered by consideration of other neurological as well as behavioral evidence, which shows that sharks and ray are ...


Why Is Fish “Feeling” Pain Controversial?, E. Don Stevens Jan 2016

Why Is Fish “Feeling” Pain Controversial?, E. Don Stevens

Animal Sentience

In his excellent target article, Key (2016) develops a mechanistic argument in an attempt to show why it is unlikely that fish can “feel” pain or for that matter, “feel” anything. The topic is controversial and likely to achieve the goal of getting many hits for the inaugural issue of the new journal, Animal Sentience. In my view, the question is unlikely to be answered, for two reasons. First, because the proponents of the “fish feel pain” controversy are untrained and unskilled in the details and jargon of neurophysiology and/or neuroanatomy, and the opponents of the controversy, like Key ...


The Progression Of Neurological Impairment In Sport-Related Brain Injuries, Nicole Leo Jan 2016

The Progression Of Neurological Impairment In Sport-Related Brain Injuries, Nicole Leo

Honors Theses

Millions of Americans sustain traumatic head injuries each year when participating in various high and low-risk activities. Athletes, in general, are more prone to sustaining brain injuries than others, particularly those that participate in collision sports. This thesis discusses brain damage and long-term effects incurred by collision sport-related traumatic brain injuries such as the formation of amyloid-beta plaques in brain tissue and the increased possibility of developing neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. In addition, brain development and plasticity over time are reviewed revealing the concept that brain plasticity and brain development are key processes that occur throughout childhood, adolescence ...


The Effects Of Exposure To The Environmental Neurotoxicant Manganese On Α-Synuclein And Its Cell-To-Cell Transmission Via Exosomes, Dilshan Shanaka Gurunnaselage Don Jan 2016

The Effects Of Exposure To The Environmental Neurotoxicant Manganese On Α-Synuclein And Its Cell-To-Cell Transmission Via Exosomes, Dilshan Shanaka Gurunnaselage Don

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic multifaceted neurodegenerative condition caused by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors that affects about 1% of people over the age of 60. Although the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons and accumulation of aggregated α-Synuclein (αSyn) protein in Lewy bodies are considered key pathophysiological features of the disease, the physiological function of αSyn and the molecular mechanisms leading to protein aggregation and propagation remain unknown. Manganese (Mn) is considered a key inhaled pollutant implicated in environmentally-linked PD as evidenced by epidemiological studies done on humans exposed to Mn during mining, welding metals ...


Sensitivity Of Composite Scores To Amyloid Burden In Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease: Introducing The Z-Scores Of Attention, Verbal Fluency, And Episodic Memory For Nondemented Older Adults Composite Score, Yen Ying Lim, Peter J. Snyder, Robert H. Pietrzak, Albulene Ukiqi, Victor L. Villemagne, David Ames, Olivier Salvado, Pierrick Bourgeat, Ralph N. Martins, Colin L. Masters, Christopher C. Rowe, Paul Maruff Jan 2016

Sensitivity Of Composite Scores To Amyloid Burden In Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease: Introducing The Z-Scores Of Attention, Verbal Fluency, And Episodic Memory For Nondemented Older Adults Composite Score, Yen Ying Lim, Peter J. Snyder, Robert H. Pietrzak, Albulene Ukiqi, Victor L. Villemagne, David Ames, Olivier Salvado, Pierrick Bourgeat, Ralph N. Martins, Colin L. Masters, Christopher C. Rowe, Paul Maruff

ECU Publications Post 2013

Introduction: Cognitive composite scores developed for preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) often consist of multiple cognitive domains as they may provide greater sensitivity to detect β-amyloid (Aβ)-related cognitive decline than episodic memory (EM) composite scores alone. However, this has never been empirically tested. We compared the rate of cognitive decline associated with high Aβ (Aβ+) and very high Aβ (Aβ++) in cognitively normal (CN) older adults on three multidomain cognitive composite scores and one single-domain (EM) composite score. Methods: CN older adults (n = 423) underwent Aβ neuroimaging and completed neuropsychological assessments at baseline, and at 18-, 36-, 54-, and ...


Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (Mscs) Stimulate Neurite Outgrowth From Differentiating Adult Hippocampal Progenitor Cells, Eun-Ah Ye, Sagar S. Chawla, Michael Z. Khan, Donald S. Sakaguchi Jan 2016

Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (Mscs) Stimulate Neurite Outgrowth From Differentiating Adult Hippocampal Progenitor Cells, Eun-Ah Ye, Sagar S. Chawla, Michael Z. Khan, Donald S. Sakaguchi

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Background: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as beneficial cellular vehicles for nervous system rescue and repair. A better understanding how MSCs are involved in mediating neural repair will facilitate development of novel therapeutic strategies.

Methods: In the present study bone marrow-derived MSCs were isolated and characterized from Brown Norway rats. The capacity of the MSCs to influence the differentiation of adult hippocampal progenitor cells (AHPCs) was investigated using contact and non-contact co-culture configurations.

Results: These MSCs showed a stable and consistent growth rate, retained short population doubling time (PDT) and showed high capacity of cell proliferation. Co-culturing ...


Political Participation In Kosovo, Alisa Hasani Jan 2016

Political Participation In Kosovo, Alisa Hasani

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

What determines conventional and unconventional modes of political participation? Are they equally and positively related to social status and education? There are several factors that explain these two modes of participation. Using data collected under this study, UNDP data, and interviews, this thesis explains the factors that determine political participation in Kosovo. Eight hypotheses are tested, using both bivariate correlations and logistic regression analyses. Results indicate that party membership and social networks are very important in explaining both conventional and unconventional political participation in Kosovo.


How Personality Effects Victim's Response To Cyberbullying, Nemisha Khosa Jan 2016

How Personality Effects Victim's Response To Cyberbullying, Nemisha Khosa

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

With the advent of mobile phone technology and the rise of different social media platforms (Facebook, 2004, Twitter,2006, YouTube, 2005, et al), technology has boomed in last two decades and been on an upward slope ever since. The advancement in connectivity has made the internet a more central component of people’s lives. As such, the internet has now become the “real life” for many individuals and they encounter real life problems online. The open portal of the internet has allowed individuals new, constant and almost invisible ways to harass or threaten others. This type of bullying on the ...


Reducing Barriers To Psychotherapy Via An Online Self-Affirmation Intervention, Daniel G. Lannin Jan 2016

Reducing Barriers To Psychotherapy Via An Online Self-Affirmation Intervention, Daniel G. Lannin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research developed and tested online self-affirmation interventions to reduce psychological barriers associated with seeking help for mental health issues in two studies. There is evidence that reflecting on personal values (values-affirmation) and reflecting on close social relationships (social-affirmation) may both be effective approaches to eliciting self-affirmation—a psychological process that temporarily bolsters self-worth in order to forestall maladaptive, self-protective threat-responses. Study 1 (N = 384) experimentally examined the strategies of values-affirmation, social-affirmation, and type of help-seeking information presented to potential help-seekers. This study utilized a 2×2×2 factorial design with two self-affirmation manipulations (i.e., values-affirmation vs ...


Serotonin Neurons Maintain Central Mechanisms Regulating Metabolic Homeostasis And Are Vital To Thermogenic Activation, Jacob Mcglashon Jan 2016

Serotonin Neurons Maintain Central Mechanisms Regulating Metabolic Homeostasis And Are Vital To Thermogenic Activation, Jacob Mcglashon

Theses and Dissertations

Thermogenic brown and beige adipocytes convert chemical energy to heat by metabolizing glucose and lipids via uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1), a process known as non-shivering thermogenesis. Serotonin (5-HT) neurons in the ventral medulla are known to regulate sympathetic efferent neurons in the intermediolateral nucleus (IML) necessary to maintain brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity. Previous studies show that mice lacking central 5-HT neurons are incapable of maintaining body temperature in cold, ambient conditions. Due to this direct linkage between 5-HT and thermoregulation, we hypothesized that central 5-HT neurons may be vital to the regulation of brown and beige adipocyte activity. Given ...


Bacteria For The Brain: Subcutaneous Immunization With Heat-Killed M. Vaccae Improves Fear-Potentiated Startle Responses And Extinction Learning In Rats, Emma J. Spratt Jan 2016

Bacteria For The Brain: Subcutaneous Immunization With Heat-Killed M. Vaccae Improves Fear-Potentiated Startle Responses And Extinction Learning In Rats, Emma J. Spratt

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The relationship between the brain and digestive health has been understood for many centuries, but understanding of how the human microbiota communicates with the nervous system and modifies behavior is only recently emerging. Evidence suggests that the intestinal microbiota communicates with the central nervous system through immune, neural and endocrine signals along a pathway called the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Few studies have examined the potential role of nonpathogenic environmental bacteria, such as Mycobacterium vaccae, on the functioning of the central nervous system and animal behavior. In this research, we show that rats immunized subcutaneously with heat-killed M. vaccae following fear conditioning ...


Contrast Response Functions Of On- And Off-Cells In Motion-Induced Blindness, Megan E. Lusignan Jan 2016

Contrast Response Functions Of On- And Off-Cells In Motion-Induced Blindness, Megan E. Lusignan

Honors Theses and Capstones

Motion-Induced Blindness (MIB) is the perceived, spontaneous disappearance of a salient target when it is viewed in the presence of a moving mask, and is believed to be controlled by extrastriate area 5 (Donner et al., 2008). The ON and OFF pathways in the human visual system are responsible for the detection of increments and decrements of light, respectively. The OFF pathway is more sensitive to decrements than the ON pathway is to increments before the middle layers of V1. However, after this point, the sensitivities are comparable in strength. Past experiments in this lab have shown that the ON ...


Falsifying The Null Hypothesis That “Fish Do Not Feel Pain", Brian Key Jan 2016

Falsifying The Null Hypothesis That “Fish Do Not Feel Pain", Brian Key

Animal Sentience

The reader of Animal Sentience may surmise that because the weight of the commentaries on my target article, “Why fish do not feel pain,” is leaning towards not supporting my argument, it follows that the premise "fish do not feel pain" is incorrect. However, science does not prevail by popular opinion. History is plagued with numerous (and often widely accepted) examples of biological phenomena being explained by mysterious forces. In the absence of a mechanistic understanding, the many different guises of vitalism (the principle that life involves a vital energy) are often invoked to explain the unknown. Spurious assumptions tend ...


Role Of The Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan, Neurocan, In Inhibition Of Sensory Neurite Regeneration, Madison Klump, Umang Khandpur, Chris Calulot, Adrian Centers, Diane M. Snow Jan 2016

Role Of The Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan, Neurocan, In Inhibition Of Sensory Neurite Regeneration, Madison Klump, Umang Khandpur, Chris Calulot, Adrian Centers, Diane M. Snow

Lewis Honors College Capstone Collection

In the adult mammalian brain and spinal cord, neuronal injury results in failed neurite regeneration, in part due to the up-regulation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). CSPGs are molecules consisting of a protein core with covalently bound glycosaminoglycans (GAGS), specifically, chondroitin sulfate side-chains. The majority of CSPGs produced after injury originate from reactive astrocytes found in the glial scar surrounding the injury site. Although this milieu is very complex and involves more than just CSPGs, axonal regrowth may be improved if the expression of specific, highly inhibitory CSPGs produced after injury were attenuated selectively. Neurocan is one type of CSPG ...


Leaving The Door Open For Fish Pain: Evolutionary Convergence And The Utility Of ‘Just-So Stories’, David B. Edelman Jan 2016

Leaving The Door Open For Fish Pain: Evolutionary Convergence And The Utility Of ‘Just-So Stories’, David B. Edelman

Animal Sentience

Key argues that fish do not experience pain because they lack the necessary (but not necessarily sufficient) brain structures and associated functional circuitry to engender such conscious percepts. I propose that fish pain may be dependent on neuroanatomical regions and pathways that are structurally and/or functionally analogous — but not strictly homologous — to well-characterized mammalian substrates of pain. An example is the convergent appearance of the complex, single-compartment eye across invertebrate and vertebrate phylogeny. Structural-functional convergence is ubiquitous in evolution. Comparative inferences and correlative lines of evidence play an important role in building evolutionary arguments. The dismissal of the perception ...


How Not To Move The Line Drawn On Pain, Bjorn H. Merker Jan 2016

How Not To Move The Line Drawn On Pain, Bjorn H. Merker

Animal Sentience

In this second commentary I outline the inadequacy of Key's responses to the many peer critiques of his thesis that have so far appeared in Animal Sentience. I illustrate with examples drawn from his response to my first commentary.


Fish Pain: A Painful Topic, Carl Safina Jan 2016

Fish Pain: A Painful Topic, Carl Safina

Animal Sentience

If fish cannot feel pain, why do stingrays have purely defensive tail spines that deliver venom? Stingrays’ ancestral predators are fish. And why do many fishes possess defensive fin spines, some also with venom that produces pain in humans? These things did not evolve just in case sentient humans would evolve millions of years later and then invent scuba. If fish react purely unconsciously to “noxious” stimuli, why aren’t sharp jabbing spines enough? Why also stinging venom?


Fighting Forms Of Expression, Paul J.B. Hart Jan 2016

Fighting Forms Of Expression, Paul J.B. Hart

Animal Sentience

Even though Key (2016) has done a very thorough job of assembling evidence showing that fish are unlikely to have the neurological capacity to be conscious and feel pain, there will still be a significant number of behavioural biologists who want to continue maintaining that fish do have consciousness and suffer from pain. In this commentary the reasons for people resisting the conclusions of the evidence are discussed. The reasons revolve around three aspects of the debate: the overblown respect humans have for the powers of consciousness in our day-to-day behaviour, the often used assumption that the possession of complex ...