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Full-Text Articles in Neuroscience and Neurobiology

Brenda Milner Leaves A Legacy In The Field Of Neuroscience, Kailee Weiler Mar 2015

Brenda Milner Leaves A Legacy In The Field Of Neuroscience, Kailee Weiler

Sound Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Journal

Dr. Brenda Milner is a neuropsychologist who works for the Montreal Neurological Institute and has made incredible discoveries within the field of neuropsychology. Most notably was her work with H.M. Studies on H.M. have lead to vast advances into understanding memory and disorders.


Anne Buckingham Young’S Role In Movement Disorder Research, Skyler Tetreau Mar 2015

Anne Buckingham Young’S Role In Movement Disorder Research, Skyler Tetreau

Sound Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Journal

Dr. Anne Buckingham Young’s research on a variety of movement disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and tremors, has been critical in advancing the understanding of these disorders and in furthering the emphasis on research in these fields. Her extensive and dedicated research background provided her with several unique leadership opportunities in the neuroscience community.


Martha Farah And Neuroethics, Yiqing Dong Mar 2015

Martha Farah And Neuroethics, Yiqing Dong

Sound Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Journal

This paper will provide a short biography of Martha Farah and her contributions to the field of cognitive science and neuroethics. It will also include a short discussion of the field of neuroethics, its emergence in the beginning of the twenty-first century, and some of the topics currently under discussion, such as enhancement of normal function and monitoring of brain functions.


Human Pheromones In Female Social Groups, Natalie Smith Mar 2015

Human Pheromones In Female Social Groups, Natalie Smith

Sound Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Journal

Martha McClintock is a biopsychologist who specializes in social behavior and the regulation of fertility. It is through her pioneering work that menstrual synchrony amongst social groups of females was discovered to be a result of human pheromonal interactions. During McClintock’s undergraduate work at Wellesley College, she observed that menstrual synchrony was a common phenomenon between her dorm mates and herself (1). Through greater experimentation, she associated this trend was due to pheromonal output of women during social interactions. This work became her senior thesis at Wellesley and was published in Nature in 1971 (2). The discovery of ovarian ...


Progress In Gender Equality Within The Realm Of Scientific Academia Illustrated By The Career And Life Of Neuroscientist Patricia Goldman-Rakic, Faith Copenhaver Mar 2015

Progress In Gender Equality Within The Realm Of Scientific Academia Illustrated By The Career And Life Of Neuroscientist Patricia Goldman-Rakic, Faith Copenhaver

Sound Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Journal

Gender inequality has been a constant struggle for women throughout history with victories few and far between. The movement for women’s rights emerged with the anti-slavery movement in the mid-1800s; however, it wasn’t until the late 1800s that women were allowed to grace the distinguished and revered lecture halls of higher education, and not until 1920 that women gained the right to formally matriculate and attain degrees. Upon commencement of women into the ranks of academia, the necessity to secure women’s rights for higher education appeared to be satiated. However, gender discrimination continued to plague particular fields ...


Ursula Bellugi: A Career Of Language Research, Allegra Campbell Mar 2015

Ursula Bellugi: A Career Of Language Research, Allegra Campbell

Sound Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Journal

Ursula Bellugi is one of the prominent researchers in the psychology of language. She currently serves as the director of cognitive neuroscience at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies. This paper will examine three areas of Bellugi’s work from the last five decades. In the 1960s and 70s she compared the sign language acquired by Washoe the chimpanzee to human language. In the 80s and 90s her studies of deaf and non-deaf users of American Sign Language led to the conclusion that the left hemisphere is the center of all language processing. And in the last twenty years, Bellugi ...


Carol Barnes: A Prominent Voice In The Neuroscience Of Aging, And A Proponent Of Women In Neuroscience, Kara Sherva Mar 2015

Carol Barnes: A Prominent Voice In The Neuroscience Of Aging, And A Proponent Of Women In Neuroscience, Kara Sherva

Sound Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Journal

Dr. Barnes, as a professor and a graduate mentor, is constantly in contact with the new generation of women neuroscientists, helping shape their future career paths and providing them with an uncountable number of resources. Barnes’ research is centered on the changes that happen in learning, memory and behavior in normal aging, rather than in neurological diseases.


Martha Farah: Integration Of Psychology, Neurology, And Neuroethics, Kerri M. Smith Mar 2015

Martha Farah: Integration Of Psychology, Neurology, And Neuroethics, Kerri M. Smith

Sound Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Journal

Martha Farah, a pioneer neuroscientist born in 1955 has taken a special interest in the ethical concerns related to neuroscience (1). Her post-graduate work prompted her to excel throughout various topics in neuroscience and thoroughly incorporate high ethical regards into her own research. This essay examines Farah’s research on visual perception and socioeconomic status, as well as her contributions towards neuroethics.


Deborah Cabin And Her Role In The Research Of Parkinson’S Disease, Emily Convery Mar 2015

Deborah Cabin And Her Role In The Research Of Parkinson’S Disease, Emily Convery

Sound Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Journal

Deborah Cabin received her PhD in physiology from Johns Hopkins University in 1996. She has worked in research labs across America investigating genetic diseases and now is a professor in structural and functional neuroscience at the University of Montana. Her interest in Parkinson’s disease is a result of the complexity and mystery presents to researchers. Since 2006 Deborah has made truly remarkable discoveries regarding the causes of the disease, focusing in particular on a protein which is suspected to contribute significantly to the development of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Her research aims to identify the normal role of this ...


Focus On Cecelia Moens; A Woman In Neuroscience, Rosa Dale-Moore Mar 2015

Focus On Cecelia Moens; A Woman In Neuroscience, Rosa Dale-Moore

Sound Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Journal

Women in the field of neuroscience are hugely underrepresented and marginalized simply as a residual inequality of the gender gap in STEM fields. However, there are prominent women in this quickly expanding field. Cecilia Moens is a researcher at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington. Her lab works extensively with zebra fish researching early neural development. Zebrafish are very useful for projects like this because their eggs are completely transparent to hide the embryos from predators in the water, but it also allows for researchers to easily visualize inside the embryo to observe different stages of development ...


Untitled, Kristina M. Lewin Mar 2015

Untitled, Kristina M. Lewin

Sound Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Journal

Patricia Churchland is a remarkable woman, an inspirational figure for other women, as well as scientists and scholars alike. She works and writes as a philosopher, but does not shy away from pointing out some of the problems inherent in the discipline. While readers can anticipate that her assertions will generally side with the explanations of neuroscience, she poses intriguing questions that deal with our notions of the philosophical self.


Athena’S Axon: Female Neuroscientists And The Question Of Gender Equality, Kyle J. Kolisch Mar 2015

Athena’S Axon: Female Neuroscientists And The Question Of Gender Equality, Kyle J. Kolisch

Sound Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Journal

For decades, Shatz has been at the forefront of neuroscientific research by exploring the processes of the brains’ visual centers and its early development. Her advances in both these realms not only show the amazing capacity of science to comprehend the incomprehensible, but also the infinite potential of women neuroscientists. It is the role of scientists like Shatz to support the involvement of women in the neuroscience community, and to endure as a role model for female scientists of the future.


Women In Neuroscience: The Sex-Specific Work Of Jill M. Goldstein, Erin Anthony-Fick Mar 2015

Women In Neuroscience: The Sex-Specific Work Of Jill M. Goldstein, Erin Anthony-Fick

Sound Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Journal

Jill M. Goldstein takes a new approach on differences in men and women. Where some see these differences in sex as inequality, she sees these differences in an anatomical cause-effect manner. More specifically, Goldstein is interested in the psychological disorder Schizophrenia. She analyzes this disorder in a male versus female fashion, exploring how the disorder impacts both of the sexes and what morphological differences can account for variances in overall effects or predisposition for development (3). Goldstein has also worked on issues pertinent to women’s health like anorexia nervosa and hormonal changes that occur with stressful events (4, 5 ...


“Above All, Don't Fear Difficult Moments. The Best Comes From Them” (1): The Life And Work Of Dr. Rita Levi-Montalcini, Elana Hirsch Mar 2015

“Above All, Don't Fear Difficult Moments. The Best Comes From Them” (1): The Life And Work Of Dr. Rita Levi-Montalcini, Elana Hirsch

Sound Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Journal

In the field of neuroscience, as in many other scientific disciplines, early research was dominated by men and their discoveries. However, many women have greatly impacted neuroscience from the beginning, yet, again and again, their stories go unheard—Dr. Rita Levi-Montalcini is one such woman. Levi-Montalcini is most famous for her work as a neuroembryologist and for her discovery of nerve growth factor with Stanley Cohen. This discovery has proven to be incredibly important to the field of neuroscience; in fact, Levi-Montalcini and Cohen won the Noble Prize in Medicine and Physiology in 1986 for their work. Nerve growth factors ...


Organization Of The Human Frontal Pole Revealed By Large-Scale Dti-Based Connectivity: Implications For Control Of Behavior, Joseph Orr, Harry R. Smolker, Marie T. Banich Mar 2015

Organization Of The Human Frontal Pole Revealed By Large-Scale Dti-Based Connectivity: Implications For Control Of Behavior, Joseph Orr, Harry R. Smolker, Marie T. Banich

University Libraries Open Access Fund Supported Publications

The goal of the current study was to examine the pattern of anatomical connectivity of the human frontal pole so as to inform theories of function of the frontal pole, perhaps one of the least understood region of the human brain. Rather than simply parcellating the frontal pole into subregions, we focused on examining the brain regions to which the frontal pole is anatomically and functionally connected. While the current findings provided support for previous work suggesting the frontal pole is connected to higher-order sensory association cortex, we found novel evidence suggesting that the frontal pole in humans is connected ...


Prevalence Of Learned Grapheme-Color Pairings In A Large Online Sample Of Synesthetes, Nathan Withhoft, Jonathan Winawer, David M. Eagleman Mar 2015

Prevalence Of Learned Grapheme-Color Pairings In A Large Online Sample Of Synesthetes, Nathan Withhoft, Jonathan Winawer, David M. Eagleman

Baylor Faculty Publications

In this paper we estimate the minimum prevalence of grapheme-color synesthetes with letter-color matches learned from an external stimulus, by analyzing a large sample of English-speaking grapheme-color synesthetes. We find that at least 6% (400/6588 participants) of the total sample learned many of their matches from a widely available colored letter toy. Among those born in the decade after the toy began to be manufactured, the proportion of synesthetes with learned letter-color pairings approaches 15% for some 5-year periods. Among those born 5 years or more before it was manufactured, none have colors learned from the toy. Analysis of ...


Rats Anticipate Damaged Rungs On The Elevated Ladder: Applications For Rodent Models Of Parkinson's Disease, Daniel Lopatin, Nicole Caputo, Chelsey Damphousse, Siyaram Pandey, Jerome Cohen Mar 2015

Rats Anticipate Damaged Rungs On The Elevated Ladder: Applications For Rodent Models Of Parkinson's Disease, Daniel Lopatin, Nicole Caputo, Chelsey Damphousse, Siyaram Pandey, Jerome Cohen

Psychology Publications

The present study examined rats' ability to anticipate undetectable wider gaps between rungs produced when they stepped on and dislodged damaged rungs while they traversed a slightly inclined elevated ladder. Rats in the first of three experiments reduced running speeds when they encountered four evenly spaced damaged rungs either always placed on the first or second half of the ladder (the break-a-way (BW) phase) but quickly recovered to their baseline (BL) levels when damaged rungs where replaced with intact rungs (the recovery phase). Rats previously exposed to damaged rungs over the first half of the ladder increased their speeds above ...


Brain Blast 2015 Speakers Poster, Annie Leslie Mar 2015

Brain Blast 2015 Speakers Poster, Annie Leslie

Brain Blast

Poster from UNE's Brain Blast 2015 listing the expected presenters at this event.*


Novel Mutations Support A Role For Profilin 1 In The Pathogenesis Of Als, Bradley N. Smith, Caroline Vance, Emma L. Scotter, Claire Troakes, Chun Hao Wong, Simon Topp, Satomi Maekawa, Andrew King, Jacqueline C. Mitchell, Karan Lund, Ammar Al-Chalabi, Nicola Ticozzi, Vincenzo Silani, Peter Sapp, Robert H. Brown Jr., John E. Landers, Safa Al-Sarraj, Christopher E. Shaw Mar 2015

Novel Mutations Support A Role For Profilin 1 In The Pathogenesis Of Als, Bradley N. Smith, Caroline Vance, Emma L. Scotter, Claire Troakes, Chun Hao Wong, Simon Topp, Satomi Maekawa, Andrew King, Jacqueline C. Mitchell, Karan Lund, Ammar Al-Chalabi, Nicola Ticozzi, Vincenzo Silani, Peter Sapp, Robert H. Brown Jr., John E. Landers, Safa Al-Sarraj, Christopher E. Shaw

Wellstone Center for FSHD Publications and Presentations

Mutations in the gene encoding profilin 1 (PFN1) have recently been shown to cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disorder. We sequenced the PFN1 gene in a cohort of ALS patients (n = 485) and detected 2 novel variants (A20T and Q139L), as well as 4 cases with the previously identified E117G rare variant ( approximately 1.2%). A case-control meta-analysis of all published E117G ALS+/- frontotemporal dementia cases including those identified in this report was significant p = 0.001, odds ratio = 3.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.6-6.7), demonstrating this variant to be a susceptibility allele. Postmortem tissue ...


Emotional Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels Reduce The Electrophysiological Brain Response To Smoking Cues, An-Li Wang, Daniel Romer, Igor Elman, Bruce I. Turetsky, Ruben Gur, Daniel D. Langleben Mar 2015

Emotional Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels Reduce The Electrophysiological Brain Response To Smoking Cues, An-Li Wang, Daniel Romer, Igor Elman, Bruce I. Turetsky, Ruben Gur, Daniel D. Langleben

Neuroethics Publications

There is an ongoing public debate about the new graphic warning labels (GWLs) that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposes to place on cigarette packs. Tobacco companies argued that the strongly emotional images FDA proposed to include in the GWLs encroached on their constitutional rights. The court ruled that FDA did not provide sufficient scientific evidence of compelling public interest in such encroachment. This study's objectives were to examine the effects of the GWLs on the electrophysiological and behavioral correlates of smoking addiction and to determine whether labels rated higher on the emotional reaction (ER) scale are associated ...


Genetic Markers Of White Matter Integrity In Schizophrenia Revealed By Parallel Ica, Cota Navin Gupta, Jiayu Chen, Jingyu Liu, Eswar Damaraju, Carrie Wright, Nora I. Perrone-Bizzozero, Godfrey Pearlson, Li Lou, Andrew Michael, Jessica A. Turner, Vince D. Calhoun Mar 2015

Genetic Markers Of White Matter Integrity In Schizophrenia Revealed By Parallel Ica, Cota Navin Gupta, Jiayu Chen, Jingyu Liu, Eswar Damaraju, Carrie Wright, Nora I. Perrone-Bizzozero, Godfrey Pearlson, Li Lou, Andrew Michael, Jessica A. Turner, Vince D. Calhoun

Neuroscience Institute Faculty Publications

It is becoming a consensus that white matter integrity is compromised in schizophrenia (SZ), however the underlying genetics remains elusive. Evidence suggests a polygenic basis of the disorder, which involves various genetic variants with modest individual effect sizes. In this work, we used a multivariate approach, parallel independent component analysis (P-ICA), to explore the genetic underpinnings of white matter abnormalities in SZ. A pre-filtering step was first applied to locate 6527 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) discriminating patients from controls with a nominal uncorrected p-value of 0.01. These potential susceptibility loci were then investigated for associations with fractional anisotropy (FA ...


Diversity In Neurology, Patrick Randolph Feb 2015

Diversity In Neurology, Patrick Randolph

Patrick T. Randolph

BEYOND: Diversity... Presents MINDS Aflame 2015. Inspiring speeches and thought-provoking performances at Ferris State University. Patrick T. Randolph -Western Michigan University Faculty spoke on Diversity in Neurology. Event took place February 26, 2015 at Ferris State University.


Corticospinal And Reciprocal Inhibition Actions On Human Soleus Motoneuron Activity During Standing And Walking, Berthe Hanna-Boutros, Sina Sangari, Louis-Solal Giboin, Mohamed-Mounir El Mendili, Alexandra Lackmy-Vallée, Véronique Marchand-Pauvert, Maria Knikou Feb 2015

Corticospinal And Reciprocal Inhibition Actions On Human Soleus Motoneuron Activity During Standing And Walking, Berthe Hanna-Boutros, Sina Sangari, Louis-Solal Giboin, Mohamed-Mounir El Mendili, Alexandra Lackmy-Vallée, Véronique Marchand-Pauvert, Maria Knikou

Publications and Research

Reciprocal Ia inhibition constitutes a key segmental neuronal pathway for coordination of antagonist muscles. In this study, we investigated the soleus H-reflex and reciprocal inhibition exerted from flexor group Ia afferents on soleus motoneurons during standing and walking in 15 healthy subjects following transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The effects of separate TMS or deep peroneal nerve (DPN) stimulation and the effects of combined (TMS + DPN) stimuli on the soleus H-reflex were assessed during standing and at mid- and late stance phases of walking. Subthreshold TMS induced short-latency facilitation on the soleus H-reflex that was present during standing and at midstance ...


Neural Correlates Of Spontaneous Bold Fluctuations: A Simultaneous Lfp-Fmri Investigation In The Non-Human Primate, Masoomeh Hashemi Feb 2015

Neural Correlates Of Spontaneous Bold Fluctuations: A Simultaneous Lfp-Fmri Investigation In The Non-Human Primate, Masoomeh Hashemi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is widely used to explore functional connectivity (FC) between brain regions across neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, the neural basis of spontaneous low frequency blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fluctuations is poorly understood.

Here, we acquired rs-fMRI data in macaque monkeys together with simultaneous recordings of local field potentials (LFPs) in prefrontal cortex area 9/46d. We first evaluated the correlation between LFPs (1-100 Hz) and BOLD signals and found unique frequency power correlates of positive and negative FC. Anti-correlation of high and low power envelopes indicated that ongoing cross-frequency interactions are a neural correlate ...


Love: Its Evolution And Neurobiology, Gerald Ballough Phd Feb 2015

Love: Its Evolution And Neurobiology, Gerald Ballough Phd

Explorer Café

No abstract provided.


Insertion Of Tetracysteine Motifs Into Dopamine Transporter Extracellular Domains, Deanna M. Navaroli, Haley E. Melikian Feb 2015

Insertion Of Tetracysteine Motifs Into Dopamine Transporter Extracellular Domains, Deanna M. Navaroli, Haley E. Melikian

Haley Melikian

The neuronal dopamine transporter (DAT) is a major determinant of extracellular dopamine (DA) levels and is the primary target for a variety of addictive and therapeutic psychoactive drugs. DAT is acutely regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) activation and amphetamine exposure, both of which modulate DAT surface expression by endocytic trafficking. In order to use live imaging approaches to study DAT endocytosis, methods are needed to exclusively label the DAT surface pool. The use of membrane impermeant, sulfonated biarsenic dyes holds potential as one such approach, and requires introduction of an extracellular tetracysteine motif (tetraCys; CCPGCC) to facilitate dye binding ...


The Acid-Sensitive, Anesthetic-Activated Potassium Leak Channel, Kcnk3, Is Regulated By 14-3-3beta-Dependent, Pkc-Mediated Endocytic Trafficking, Luke Gabriel, Anatoli Lvov, Demetra Orthodoxou, Ann Rittenhouse, William Kobertz, Haley Melikian Feb 2015

The Acid-Sensitive, Anesthetic-Activated Potassium Leak Channel, Kcnk3, Is Regulated By 14-3-3beta-Dependent, Pkc-Mediated Endocytic Trafficking, Luke Gabriel, Anatoli Lvov, Demetra Orthodoxou, Ann Rittenhouse, William Kobertz, Haley Melikian

Haley Melikian

The acid-sensitive neuronal potassium leak channel, KCNK3, is vital for setting the resting membrane potential and is the primary target for volatile anesthetics. Recent reports demonstrate that KCNK3 activity is downregulated by PKC; however, the mechanisms responsible for PKC-induced KCNK3 downregulation are undefined. Here, we report that endocytic trafficking dynamically regulates KCNK3 activity. Phorbol esters and Group I mGluR activation acutely decreased both native and recombinant KCNK3 currents with concomitant KCNK3 surface losses in cerebellar granule neurons and cell lines. PKC-mediated KCNK3 internalization required the presence of both 14-3-3beta and a novel potassium channel endocytic motif, as depleting either 14-3-3beta ...


The Plasma Membrane-Associated Gtpase Rin Interacts With The Dopamine Transporter And Is Required For Protein Kinase C-Regulated Dopamine Transporter Trafficking, Deanna M. Navaroli, Zachary H. Stevens, Zeljko Uzelac, Luke Gabriel, Michael J. King, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Harald H. Sitte, Haley E. Melikian Feb 2015

The Plasma Membrane-Associated Gtpase Rin Interacts With The Dopamine Transporter And Is Required For Protein Kinase C-Regulated Dopamine Transporter Trafficking, Deanna M. Navaroli, Zachary H. Stevens, Zeljko Uzelac, Luke Gabriel, Michael J. King, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Harald H. Sitte, Haley E. Melikian

Haley Melikian

Dopaminergic signaling and plasticity are essential to numerous CNS functions and pathologies, including movement, cognition, and addiction. The amphetamine- and cocaine-sensitive dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) tightly controls extracellular DA concentrations and half-life. DAT function and surface expression are not static but are dynamically modulated by membrane trafficking. We recently demonstrated that the DAT C terminus encodes a PKC-sensitive internalization signal that also suppresses basal DAT endocytosis. However, the cellular machinery governing regulated DAT trafficking is not well defined. In work presented here, we identified the Ras-like GTPase, Rin (for Ras-like in neurons) (Rit2), as a protein that interacts with the ...


Reward Enhances Tic Suppression In Children Within Months Of Tic Disorder Onset, Deanna Greene, Jonathan Koller, Amy Robichaux-Viehoever, Emily Bihun, Bradley Schlaggar, Kevin Black Feb 2015

Reward Enhances Tic Suppression In Children Within Months Of Tic Disorder Onset, Deanna Greene, Jonathan Koller, Amy Robichaux-Viehoever, Emily Bihun, Bradley Schlaggar, Kevin Black

Kevin J. Black, MD

Tic disorders are childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by motor and/or vocal tics. Research has demonstrated that children with chronic tics (including Tourette syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorder: TS/CTD) can suppress tics, particularly when an immediate, contingent reward is given for successful tic suppression. As a diagnosis of TS/CTD requires tics to be present for at least one year, children in these tic suppression studies had been living with tics for quite some time. Thus, it is unclear whether the ability to inhibit tics is learned over time or present at tic onset. Resolving that issue would ...


Contextual Modulation Of Social And Endocrine Correlates Of Fitness: Insights From The Life History Of A Sex Changing Fish, Devaleena S. Pradhan Feb 2015

Contextual Modulation Of Social And Endocrine Correlates Of Fitness: Insights From The Life History Of A Sex Changing Fish, Devaleena S. Pradhan

Neuroscience Institute Faculty Publications

Steroid hormones are critical regulators of reproductive life history, and the steroid sensitive traits (morphology, behavior, physiology) associated with particular life history stages can have substantial fitness consequences for an organism. Hormones, behavior and fitness are reciprocally associated and can be used in an integrative fashion to understand how the environment impacts organismal function. To address the fitness component, we highlight the importance of using reliable proxies of reproductive success when studying proximate regulation of reproductive phenotypes. To understand the mechanisms by which the endocrine system regulates phenotype, we discuss the use of particular endocrine proxies and the need for ...