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Articles 1171 - 1200 of 3665

Full-Text Articles in Neuroscience and Neurobiology

Active And Passive P3 Latency In Dementia: Relationship To Psychometric, Electroencephalographic, And Computed Tomographic Measures, Brian O'Donnell, Susan Friedman, Nancy Squires, Alan Maloon, David Drachman, Joan Swearer Dec 2014

Active And Passive P3 Latency In Dementia: Relationship To Psychometric, Electroencephalographic, And Computed Tomographic Measures, Brian O'Donnell, Susan Friedman, Nancy Squires, Alan Maloon, David Drachman, Joan Swearer

David A. Drachman

The clinical and psychometric correlates of P3 latency were investigated in demented (n = 30) and nondemented subjects (n = 20). The P3 response was evoked in auditory oddball paradigms with and without task demands. In one paradigm, the subject was required to actively count the rare target tones; in the other, a P3 response was passively evoked by rare, disparate tones unassociated with task demands. Only 17 of 30 demented patients could perform the counting task in the active P3 condition. The active and passive P3 responses were both prolonged in dementia. In the demented group, passive P3 response latency correlated ...


Foreign Accent Syndrome Following A Closed Head Injury: Perfusion Deficit On Single Photon Emission Tomography With Normal Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Majaz Moonis, Joan Swearer, S. Blumstein, K. Kurowski, Robert Licho, P. Kramer, Ann Mitchell, Diane Osgood, David Drachman Dec 2014

Foreign Accent Syndrome Following A Closed Head Injury: Perfusion Deficit On Single Photon Emission Tomography With Normal Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Majaz Moonis, Joan Swearer, S. Blumstein, K. Kurowski, Robert Licho, P. Kramer, Ann Mitchell, Diane Osgood, David Drachman

David A. Drachman

Foreign accent syndrome is a rare speech disorder characterized by the emergence of an apparent foreign accent after an anterior left-hemispheric lesion. We report a case where the patient experienced foreign accent syndrome without other significant neurological deficits, consequent to a minor head injury. Results of single photon emission tomography (SPECT) studies suggest abnormal function of the left dorsolateral inferior frontal gyrus (sparing Broca's area) and the caudate nucleus as the underlying functional/anatomic basis of the syndrome, and acoustic analysis showed prosodic and vowel anomalies that contributed to the listener'sperception of a "foreign accent." (C) Lippincott-Raven Publishers.


Book Review: Dementia, David Drachman Dec 2014

Book Review: Dementia, David Drachman

David A. Drachman

Book review of Dementia. Edited by Charles E. Wells, MD. 239 pages. FA Davis Co, Philadelphia, 1971.


Psychological Features In Persons At Risk For Familial Alzheimer's Disease, Joan Swearer, Brian O'Donnell, Michael Parker, Kevin Kane, David Drachman Dec 2014

Psychological Features In Persons At Risk For Familial Alzheimer's Disease, Joan Swearer, Brian O'Donnell, Michael Parker, Kevin Kane, David Drachman

David A. Drachman

Persons at risk for inherited neurodegenerative diseases may experience symptoms of anxiety and depression because of concern over the possibility of developing the disease in the future. The purpose of this study was to assess psychological and emotional symptoms in persons at the age of risk for developing early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). Their responses on a psychiatric rating scale (SCL-90-R) were compared with four groups: patients with mild FAD; head injury patients; patients with clinically diagnosed depression; and healthy control subjects. Mean scores of the at-risk FAD group were not statistically different than those of the controls. In ...


Memory, Aging And Pharmacosystems, David Drachman, B. Sahakian Dec 2014

Memory, Aging And Pharmacosystems, David Drachman, B. Sahakian

David A. Drachman

No abstract provided.


Treatment Of Alzheimer's Disease: New Outlooks For The Future, David Drachman Dec 2014

Treatment Of Alzheimer's Disease: New Outlooks For The Future, David Drachman

David A. Drachman

No abstract provided.


Primary Progressive Aphasia With Focal Neuronal Achromasia, Carol Lippa, R. Cohen, Thomas Smith, David Drachman Dec 2014

Primary Progressive Aphasia With Focal Neuronal Achromasia, Carol Lippa, R. Cohen, Thomas Smith, David Drachman

David A. Drachman

We describe the clinical, radiologic, neuropsychological, and neuropathologic features of a 69-year-old man with a 3-year history of progressive transcortical expressive aphasia. Neuropsychological testing showed progressive dysfunction of expressive language. Neuropathologic examination demonstrated focal cortical degeneration involving the left superior frontal gyrus, with swollen achromasic neurons and no evidence of Alzheimer's disease, Pick's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Lewybody disease, or other dementing disorders. This case adds to the known heterogeneity of the underlying pathology of patients with primary progressive aphasia.


Memory And The Brain: Beyond Intracranial Phrenology, David Drachman Dec 2014

Memory And The Brain: Beyond Intracranial Phrenology, David Drachman

David A. Drachman

No abstract provided.


The Cognitive Assessment Screening Test (Cast) For Dementia, David Drachman, Joan Swearer, Kevin Kane, Diane Osgood, Colleen O'Toole, Majaz Moonis Dec 2014

The Cognitive Assessment Screening Test (Cast) For Dementia, David Drachman, Joan Swearer, Kevin Kane, Diane Osgood, Colleen O'Toole, Majaz Moonis

David A. Drachman

The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness, the sensitivity, and the specificity of the Cognitive Assessment. Screening Test (CAST), a paper-and-pencil self-administered cognitive test designed to screen elderly people for possible dementia, for use in general physicians' offices, requiring little expertise or staff time. CAST consists of three parts: part A (relatively easy), part B (more demanding), and part C (self-report of concerns). CAST was administered in two studies to: (1) 19 patients known to be mildly to moderately demented versus 24 age-matched normal controls (to establish cutoff standards); and (2) a "real world" sample of 26 ...


Alzheimer's Disease: What Is It, How Many People Have It, And Why Do We Need To Know, Marilyn Albert, David Drachman Dec 2014

Alzheimer's Disease: What Is It, How Many People Have It, And Why Do We Need To Know, Marilyn Albert, David Drachman

David A. Drachman

No abstract provided.


The Multidimensional Assessment For Dementia Scales, David Drachman, Peter Fleming, Guila Glosser Dec 2014

The Multidimensional Assessment For Dementia Scales, David Drachman, Peter Fleming, Guila Glosser

David A. Drachman

No abstract provided.


Measuring Dementia: Assessment Of Multiple Deficit Domains, Brian O'Donnell, David Drachman, Robert Lew, Joan Swearer Dec 2014

Measuring Dementia: Assessment Of Multiple Deficit Domains, Brian O'Donnell, David Drachman, Robert Lew, Joan Swearer

David A. Drachman

A fundamental problem in the assessment of dementia is the brief, but adequate measurement of intellectual impairment. We evaluated 82 demented patients of heterogeneous etiology with 21 neuropsychological tests. Factor analysis identified five deficit domains among the tests: verbal ability, visuospatial ability, verbal memory, orientation, and concentration. One test was selected from each domain to form a Brief Battery for Dementia (BBD), which was used to explore the relationship between deficit patterns and disease characteristics. The pattern of deficits among the five tests altered with increasing disease severity: Logical Memory (a test of verbal memory) was severely impaired in the ...


Letter: Extrapyramidal Dementia And Levodopa, David Drachman, Stephen Stahl Dec 2014

Letter: Extrapyramidal Dementia And Levodopa, David Drachman, Stephen Stahl

David A. Drachman

No abstract provided.


Book Review: Medical Neurology, David Drachman Dec 2014

Book Review: Medical Neurology, David Drachman

David A. Drachman

Book review of Medical neurology. J. Gilroy and J. S. Meyer. Macmillan, New York, 1970, 720p.


Posturally-Evoked Vomiting; Association With Posterior Fossa Lesions, David Drachman, Ellis Diamond, Cecil Hart Dec 2014

Posturally-Evoked Vomiting; Association With Posterior Fossa Lesions, David Drachman, Ellis Diamond, Cecil Hart

David A. Drachman

Posturally-evoked vomiting (PEV) dissociated from vertigo was present in two patients with proven posterior fossa mass lesions. In both instances PEV was a major aspect of the patients' symptomatology before other findings clearly indicated the presence of an infratentorial mass lesion. A distinction is drawn between benign postural vertigo, which almost always indicates a benign disorder of the peripheral vestibular apparatus, and PEV which indicates a central lesion within the posterior fossa. A possible anatomic-physiologic basis is offered for PEV, based on the dissociation of the "vestibular syndrome," in which PEV increases while vertigo and nystagmus diminish.


Evaluating The Patient With Altered Consciousness In The Intensive Care Unit, Lawrence Hayward, David Drachman Dec 2014

Evaluating The Patient With Altered Consciousness In The Intensive Care Unit, Lawrence Hayward, David Drachman

David A. Drachman

No abstract provided.


Dizziness And Vertigo, David Drachman Dec 2014

Dizziness And Vertigo, David Drachman

David A. Drachman

No abstract provided.


Computer Aids In Neurological Diagnosis, David Drachman, Robert Lew Dec 2014

Computer Aids In Neurological Diagnosis, David Drachman, Robert Lew

David A. Drachman

No abstract provided.


Statins In The Prevention And Treatment Of Alzheimer’S Disease, David Drachman Dec 2014

Statins In The Prevention And Treatment Of Alzheimer’S Disease, David Drachman

David A. Drachman

No abstract provided.


Do We Have Brain To Spare, David Drachman Dec 2014

Do We Have Brain To Spare, David Drachman

David A. Drachman

No abstract provided.


Pharmacologic Strategies In Aging And Dementia: The Cholinergic Hypothesis, David Drachman, Guila Glosser Dec 2014

Pharmacologic Strategies In Aging And Dementia: The Cholinergic Hypothesis, David Drachman, Guila Glosser

David A. Drachman

No abstract provided.


Incontinence And Troublesome Behaviors Predict Institutionalization In Dementia, Brian O'Donnell, David Drachman, Heather Barnes, Karen Peterson, Joan Swearer, Robert Lew Dec 2014

Incontinence And Troublesome Behaviors Predict Institutionalization In Dementia, Brian O'Donnell, David Drachman, Heather Barnes, Karen Peterson, Joan Swearer, Robert Lew

David A. Drachman

Factors predicting the early institutionalization of demented patients were studied in 143 outpatients using univariate and multivariate life-table methods. Four types of factors were evaluated for prognostic value: severity of functional impairment, behavioral disorders, individual patient characteristics, and type of caregiver. After follow-up of 19 +/- 12 months, 51 patients had been institutionalized. Increased global severity of dementia, the presence of troublesome and disruptive behaviors, and incontinence increased the likelihood of institutionalization. The best predictors of institutionalization were paranoia, aggressive behavior, and incontinence. Neither individual patient characteristics (age, education, and gender) nor caregiver relationship to the patient (male spouse, female spouse ...


Role Of The Dorsomedial Nucleus Of The Thalamus In Alzheimer's Disease, James Paskavitz, Carol Lippa, James Hamos, D. Pulaski-Salo, David Drachman Dec 2014

Role Of The Dorsomedial Nucleus Of The Thalamus In Alzheimer's Disease, James Paskavitz, Carol Lippa, James Hamos, D. Pulaski-Salo, David Drachman

David A. Drachman

It is not known whether changes in the thalamus play a role in the memory loss or dementia of Alzheimer's disease (AD), although trauma, infarction, and hemorrhage to the thalamus, particularly the dorsomedial nucleus (DMN), can cause these cognitive changes. To determine the pathologic changes in the DMN in AD, we examined the DMN in 16 cases of AD and 7 age-matched controls, with quantitative assessments of the total neuronal population and synaptic density, Alz-50-positive neurons, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), and senile plaques (SP). We examined sections after staining with cresyl violet, a silver stain, and immunocytochemical staining for Alz-50 ...


Molecular Genetic Strategies In Familial Alzheimer's Disease: Theoretical And Practical Considerations, Peter St.George-Hyslop, David Drachman Dec 2014

Molecular Genetic Strategies In Familial Alzheimer's Disease: Theoretical And Practical Considerations, Peter St.George-Hyslop, David Drachman

David A. Drachman

No abstract provided.


Book Review: Handbook Of Clinical Neurology, Vol. 5. Headaches And Cranial Neuralgias, David Drachman Dec 2014

Book Review: Handbook Of Clinical Neurology, Vol. 5. Headaches And Cranial Neuralgias, David Drachman

David A. Drachman

Book review of Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Vol. 5. Headaches and Cranial Neuralgias. P. J. Vinken and G. W. Bruyn (Editors). Wiley, New York, 1969, 414 p.


Statins And The Risk Of Dementia, Hershel Jick, Gwen Zornberg, Susan Jick, Sudha Seshadri, David Drachman Dec 2014

Statins And The Risk Of Dementia, Hershel Jick, Gwen Zornberg, Susan Jick, Sudha Seshadri, David Drachman

David A. Drachman

BACKGROUND: Dementia affects an estimated 10% of the population older than 65 years. Because vascular and lipid-related mechanisms are thought to have a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia, we did an epidemiological study of the potential effect of HMGCoA (3 hydroxy-3methylglutaryl-coenzyme A) reductase inhibitors (statins) and other lipid-lowering agents on dementia. METHODS: We used a nested case-control design with information derived from 368 practices which contribute to the UK-based General Practice Research Database. The base study population included three groups of patients age 50 years and older: all individuals who had received lipid-lowering agents ...


Expression Of Heat Shock Proteins In Alzheimer's Disease, James Hamos, B. Oblas, D. Pulaski-Salo, W. Welch, D. Bole, David Drachman Dec 2014

Expression Of Heat Shock Proteins In Alzheimer's Disease, James Hamos, B. Oblas, D. Pulaski-Salo, W. Welch, D. Bole, David Drachman

David A. Drachman

In an investigation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and cognitively intact control subjects, we found that 2 HSPs, termed "HSP72" and "GRP78," underwent major changes in expression in AD. HSP72, which was present at very low levels in control brains, increased dramatically in AD patients, and was localized exclusively in neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. We hypothesize that HSP72 is induced as an early response to the formation of abnormal proteins, perhaps targeting them for proteolysis. In contrast, GRP78 increased in AD only in neurons that remained cytologically normal, especially in ...


Bell's Palsy. A Neurological Point Of View, David Drachman Dec 2014

Bell's Palsy. A Neurological Point Of View, David Drachman

David A. Drachman

No abstract provided.


Robert Katzman And Alzheimer's Disease: An Appreciation, David Drachman Dec 2014

Robert Katzman And Alzheimer's Disease: An Appreciation, David Drachman

David A. Drachman

No abstract provided.


Neurological Complications Of Wegener's Granulomatosis, David Drachman Dec 2014

Neurological Complications Of Wegener's Granulomatosis, David Drachman

David A. Drachman

Describes a case in which the nervous system was prominently affected by Wegener's granulomatosis.