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Pathogenic Microbiology Commons

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Articles 31 - 60 of 452

Full-Text Articles in Pathogenic Microbiology

The Acid Response In Helicobacter Pylori Via The Two Component System Arsrs, Jiajia Chen May 2018

The Acid Response In Helicobacter Pylori Via The Two Component System Arsrs, Jiajia Chen

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the mucosal layer of the human stomach. Today, nearly half of the world population is infected with H. pylori. This infection leads to chronic inflammation, and potentially peptic ulcer disease, or gastric cancer. Developing therapeutics based on the colonization mechanism of this bacterium holds great promise as a therapeutic paradigm to promote human gastric health. To adapt to the hostile acidic environment in human stomach, H. pylori utilizes a Two-Component Signal Transduction system (TCS), ArsRS, to mediate the expression of acid response genes, such as the adhesin gene sabA and the urease ...


The Unusual Paradigm Of The Acid Response Two Component System Of Helicobacter Pylori, Anna Kenan May 2018

The Unusual Paradigm Of The Acid Response Two Component System Of Helicobacter Pylori, Anna Kenan

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Two component signal transduction systems in bacteria are key for environmental adaptation. Signaling via these systems is traditionally considered to be relatively simple, only involving interactions between the sensory protein and its cognate response regulator. The ArsRS two component system is vital for the acid response in Helicobacter pylori. This study investigates the mechanism by which ArsRS responds to acid in H pylori. Recent studies in our lab have challenged the the classic model in which the response regulator ArsR is activated by the phosphorylation of a conserved aspartic acid by the transfer of a phosphoryl group from a histidine ...


Changes In The Prevalence Of Salmonella Serovars Associated Swine Production And Correlations Of Avian, Bovine And Swine‐Associated Serovars With Human‐Associated Serovars In The United States (1997–2015), Chaohui Yuan, Adam C. Krull, Chong Wang, M. Erdman, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, C. M. Logue, Annette M. O'Connor Apr 2018

Changes In The Prevalence Of Salmonella Serovars Associated Swine Production And Correlations Of Avian, Bovine And Swine‐Associated Serovars With Human‐Associated Serovars In The United States (1997–2015), Chaohui Yuan, Adam C. Krull, Chong Wang, M. Erdman, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, C. M. Logue, Annette M. O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

As Salmonella enterica is an important pathogen of food animals, surveillance programmes for S. enterica serovars have existed for many years in the United States. Surveillance programmes serve many purposes, one of which is to evaluate alterations in the prevalence of serovars that may signal changes in the ecology of the target organism. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the proportion of S. enterica serovars isolated from swine over a near 20‐year observation period (1997–2015) using four longitudinal data sets from different food animal species. The secondary aim was to evaluate correlations between ...


Characterization Of The Interaction Between R. Conorii And Human Host Vitronectin In Rickettsial Pathogenesis, Abigail Inez Fish Apr 2018

Characterization Of The Interaction Between R. Conorii And Human Host Vitronectin In Rickettsial Pathogenesis, Abigail Inez Fish

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia are inoculated into the mammalian host during hematophagous arthropod feeding. Once in the bloodstream and during dissemination, the survival of these pathogens is dependent upon their ability to evade innate host defenses until a proper cellular target is reached. The establishment of a successful infection also relies on the ability of the bacteria to attach and invade target cells, as failure to do so results in destruction of the bacterium. Rickettsia conorii expresses an outer membrane protein, Adr1, which binds the multifunctional human glycoprotein, vitronectin, to promote resistance to complement mediated killing. Homologs of Adr1 are ...


The Characterization Of The Transcription Factor Msab And Its Role In Staphylococcal Virulence, Justin Batte Apr 2018

The Characterization Of The Transcription Factor Msab And Its Role In Staphylococcal Virulence, Justin Batte

Dissertations

Staphylococcus aureus is a common human pathogen that is responsible for a wide range of infections, ranging from relative minor skin infections to life-threatening disease such as bacteremia, septicemia, and endocarditis. S. aureus possesses many different virulent factors that aid in its ability to cause this wide array of infections. One major virulence factor includes the production of capsular polysaccharide (CP). The production of CP plays a major role in the virulence response during infection specifically by providing S. aureus an antiphagocytic mechanism that allows the pathogen to evade phagocytosis during an infection. S. aureus has developed complex genetic regulatory ...


Breeding For Resistance In California Strawberry To Verticillium Dahliae, Zachary Christman Mar 2018

Breeding For Resistance In California Strawberry To Verticillium Dahliae, Zachary Christman

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Since 1930 the University of California, Davis, has been developing strawberry cultivars that are adapted to the agricultural industry and regional farms. Developing cultivars that require fewer inputs are of significant economic importance in agronomy. Developing a crop resistant to a disease is beneficial for horticulturists since less labor and chemicals are needed for a high yield.6

In commercial strawberry cultivars, complete resistance to V. dahlia is extremely rare. The majority of Californian strawberry cultivars are highly susceptible to it.2 Over the last 18 years of plant breeding for strawberry cultivars with a high degree of resistance and ...


A Comparison Of Oral And Intravenous Mouse Models Of Listeriosis, Michelle G. Pitts, Sarah E. F. D'Orazio Mar 2018

A Comparison Of Oral And Intravenous Mouse Models Of Listeriosis, Michelle G. Pitts, Sarah E. F. D'Orazio

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

Listeria monocytogenes is one of several enteric microbes that is acquired orally, invades the gastric mucosa, and then disseminates to peripheral tissues to cause systemic disease in humans. Intravenous (i.v.) inoculation of mice with L. monocytogenes has been the most widely-used small animal model of listeriosis over the past few decades. The infection is highly reproducible and has been invaluable in deciphering mechanisms of adaptive immunity in vivo, particularly CD8+ T cell responses to intracellular pathogens. However, the i.v. model completely bypasses the gut phase of the infection. Recent advances in generating both humanized mice and murinized bacteria ...


On The Demographic And Selective Forces Shaping Patterns Of Human Cytomegalovirus Variation Within Hosts, Andrew M. Sackman, Susanne P. Pfeifer, Timothy F. Kowalik, Jeffrey D. Jensen Jan 2018

On The Demographic And Selective Forces Shaping Patterns Of Human Cytomegalovirus Variation Within Hosts, Andrew M. Sackman, Susanne P. Pfeifer, Timothy F. Kowalik, Jeffrey D. Jensen

Open Access Articles

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a member of the beta -herpesvirus subfamily within Herpesviridae that is nearly ubiquitous in human populations, and infection generally results only in mild symptoms. However, symptoms can be severe in immunonaive individuals, and transplacental congenital infection of HCMV can result in serious neurological sequelae. Recent work has revealed much about the demographic and selective forces shaping the evolution of congenitally transmitted HCMV both on the level of hosts and within host compartments, providing insight into the dynamics of congenital infection, reinfection, and evolution of HCMV with important implications for the development of effective treatments and vaccines.


Evolution Of Bordetella Pertussis Genome May Play A Role In The Increased Rate Of Whooping Cough Cases In The United States, Kevin Loftus Jan 2018

Evolution Of Bordetella Pertussis Genome May Play A Role In The Increased Rate Of Whooping Cough Cases In The United States, Kevin Loftus

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Bordetella pertussis is the bacterium responsible for pertussis, a disease commonly referred to as whooping cough. Recently, pertussis has made a resurgence in the U.S. despite high-vaccination coverage. Possible causes of the increased number of pertussis cases include genetic evolution of B. pertussis, increased awareness of the disease, better laboratory diagnostics, and the switch from a whole-cellular (wP) vaccine to an acellular vaccine (aP) in the 1990s. Fortunately, just as B. pertussis is evolving, so is the arsenal of technologies used to understand and combat this pathogenic bacterium. Whole genome sequencing is one technology that helps researchers better understand ...


Antibacterial Properties Of Novel Amphiphiles: Exploring Structure-Activity Relationships, Reafa Hossain Jan 2018

Antibacterial Properties Of Novel Amphiphiles: Exploring Structure-Activity Relationships, Reafa Hossain

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

The increased cases of antibiotic resistance have large implication in hospital settings where infections by antibiotic resistant bacteria are harder to treat resulting in longer stays at the hospital, which drastically increases the costs to patients and hospitals. To address this matter, many research groups are searching for an alternative to antibiotics. One option is the development of amphiphiles, some of which have antibacterial properties. Amphiphiles contain a hydrophilic, polar head group, and a hydrophobic, nonpolar tail, which may intercalate into the cell membrane, resulting in cell lysis. Understanding the impact of amphiphile geometry on antibacterial activity allows for the ...


Antibody Dependent Enhancement Of Visceral Leishmaniasis, Alan K. Mcnolty Jan 2018

Antibody Dependent Enhancement Of Visceral Leishmaniasis, Alan K. Mcnolty

All Master's Theses

Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania. This vector-born disease, transmitted by biting phlebotomine sandflies, typically manifests in one of three ways. The cutaneous form of the disease is characterized by localized lesions of the skin and is by far the most common manifestation. The visceral form of the disease is caused by parasitic infiltration of internal organs, particularly the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. The mucocutaneous form is caused by parasitic infection of the mucosa in the nose or mouth. While cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is often self-healing, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is fatal if left ...


Relationships Between Factors Influencing Biofilm Formation And Pathogen Retention In Complex Rhizosphere Microbial Communities, Aaron Coristine Jan 2018

Relationships Between Factors Influencing Biofilm Formation And Pathogen Retention In Complex Rhizosphere Microbial Communities, Aaron Coristine

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Riparian wetlands are unique habitats facilitating all forms of life. The riverbanks of these environments provide ideal conditions for bacteria, plants, and higher organisms. Of particular interest to this research was the variation in microbial community structure at high, intermediate and poor water quality impacted areas. Assessing the capabilities of plants to retain microbial pathogens was identified. Root systems and corresponding soil are ideal locations for bacterial deposition, resulting in attachment at these areas. Biofilm production in these regions is important for long-term establishment, leading to persistence and potential naturalization. Opportunistic pathogens originating from mammalian fecal matter are introduced into ...


Size-Dependent Inhibitory Effects Of Antibiotic Drug Nanocarriers Against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Feng Ding, Preeyaporn Songkiatisak, Pavan Kumar Cherukuri, Tao Huang, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu Jan 2018

Size-Dependent Inhibitory Effects Of Antibiotic Drug Nanocarriers Against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Feng Ding, Preeyaporn Songkiatisak, Pavan Kumar Cherukuri, Tao Huang, Xiao-Hong Nancy Xu

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Multidrug membrane transporters (efflux pumps) are responsible for multidrug resistance (MDR) and the low efficacy of therapeutic drugs. Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) possess a high surface-area-to-volume ratio and size-dependent plasmonic optical properties, enabling them to serve both as imaging probes to study sized-dependent MDR and as potential drug carriers to circumvent MDR and enhance therapeutic efficacy. To this end, in this study, we synthesized three different sizes of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), 2.4 ± 0.7, 13.0 ± 3.1, and 92.6 ± 4.4 nm, functionalized their surface with a monolayer of 11-amino-1-undecanethiol (AUT), and covalently conjugated them with ...


The Role Of The Metallochaperone Hypa In The Acid Survival And Activities Of Nickel Enzymes In Helicobacter Pylori, Heidi Hu Jan 2018

The Role Of The Metallochaperone Hypa In The Acid Survival And Activities Of Nickel Enzymes In Helicobacter Pylori, Heidi Hu

Doctoral Dissertations

Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium that has colonized the human gastric mucosa of over 50% of the world population. Persistent infection can cause gastritis, peptic ulcers, and cancers. The ability of H. pylori to colonize the acidic environment of the human stomach is dependent on the activity of the nickel containing enzymes, urease and NiFe-hydrogenase. The nickel metallochaperone, HypA, was previously shown to be required for the full activity of both enzymes. In addition to a Ni-binding site, HypA also contains a structural Zn site, which has been characterized to alter its averaged structure depending on pH and the presence ...


Comparison Between Listeria Sensu Stricto And Listeria Sensu Lato Strains Identifies Novel Determinants Involved In Infection, Jakob Schardt, Grant Jones, Stefanie Müller-Herbst, Kristina Schauer, Sarah E. F. D'Orazio, Thilo M. Fuchs Dec 2017

Comparison Between Listeria Sensu Stricto And Listeria Sensu Lato Strains Identifies Novel Determinants Involved In Infection, Jakob Schardt, Grant Jones, Stefanie Müller-Herbst, Kristina Schauer, Sarah E. F. D'Orazio, Thilo M. Fuchs

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

The human pathogen L. monocytogenes and the animal pathogen L. ivanovii, together with four other species isolated from symptom-free animals, form the "Listeria sensu stricto" clade. The members of the second clade, "Listeria sensu lato", are believed to be solely environmental bacteria without the ability to colonize mammalian hosts. To identify novel determinants that contribute to infection by L. monocytogenes, the causative agent of the foodborne disease listeriosis, we performed a genome comparison of the two clades and found 151 candidate genes that are conserved in the Listeria sensu stricto species. Two factors were investigated further in vitro and in ...


Fluorescence-Reported Allelic Exchange Mutagenesis Reveals A Role For Chlamydia Trachomatis Tmea In Invasion That Is Independent Of Host Ahnak, M. J. Mckuen, Konrad E. Mueller, Y. S. Bae, Kenneth A. Fields Dec 2017

Fluorescence-Reported Allelic Exchange Mutagenesis Reveals A Role For Chlamydia Trachomatis Tmea In Invasion That Is Independent Of Host Ahnak, M. J. Mckuen, Konrad E. Mueller, Y. S. Bae, Kenneth A. Fields

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

Development of approaches to genetically manipulate Chlamydia is fostering important advances in understanding pathogenesis. Fluorescence-reported allelic exchange mutagenesis (FRAEM) now enables the complete deletion of specific genes in C. trachomatis L2. We have leveraged this technology to delete the coding sequences for a known type III effector. The evidence provided here indicates that CT694/CTL0063 is a virulence protein involved in chlamydial invasion. Based on our findings, we designate the gene product corresponding to ct694-ctl0063 translocated membrane-associated effector A (TmeA). Deletion of tmeA did not impact development of intracellular chlamydiae. However, the absence of TmeA manifested as a decrease in ...


Mechanism Of Candida Albicans Biofilm And Virulence Inhibition By A Bacterial Secreted Factor, Carrie Graham Dec 2017

Mechanism Of Candida Albicans Biofilm And Virulence Inhibition By A Bacterial Secreted Factor, Carrie Graham

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The human microbiome is a diverse polymicrobial population comprised of both fungi and bacteria. Perturbations of the normal microbiome can have a profound impact on health, including the development of infections. Exploitation of these polymicrobial interactions has the potential to provide novel treatment and prevention strategies for infectious diseases. Enterococcus faecalis, a Gram-positive bacterium, and Candida albicans, a polymorphic fungus, occupy overlapping niches as ubiquitous constituents of the gastrointestinal and oral microbiome. Both species are also amongst the most important and problematic, opportunistic nosocomial pathogens and are often co-isolated during infection. Surprisingly, these two species antagonize each other’s virulence ...


Experimental Approaches To Understand And Control Salmonella Infection In Poultry, Yichao Yang Dec 2017

Experimental Approaches To Understand And Control Salmonella Infection In Poultry, Yichao Yang

Theses and Dissertations

Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen around the world and chickens are the major reservoir to transmit Salmonella into the human food chain. For decreasing the infection of Salmonella, we developed six attenuated live vaccines based on Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) and Typhimurium (ST) for testing the cross-serovar and cross-serogroup protection from the challenge of Salmonella Heidelberg and Campylobacter jejuni. One of the constructed vaccine strain showed ability to protect against challenge from Salmonella Heidelberg. Even though some preventive approaches are able to decrease Salmonella colonization in the gastrointestinal tract of chickens or other farm animals, Salmonella transmission mechanisms remain unclear ...


Role Of Incompatibility Group 1 (Inci1) Plasmid-Encoded Factors On Salmonella Enterica Antimicrobial Resistance And Virulence, Pravin Raghunath Kaldhone Dec 2017

Role Of Incompatibility Group 1 (Inci1) Plasmid-Encoded Factors On Salmonella Enterica Antimicrobial Resistance And Virulence, Pravin Raghunath Kaldhone

Theses and Dissertations

Foodborne illnesses are a leading cause of infectious diseases in the world. Among enteric organisms Salmonella is a key pathogen. It’s high prevalence in poultry and other food-animal sources make it imperative to study. Salmonella has the ability to modify its genetic content with help of mobile genetic elements such as plasmids. Incompatibiltiy group 1 (IncI1) plasmids are commonly reported in Salmonella. This study evaluates role on IncI1 plasmids in antimicrobial resistance and virulence in Salmonella. Genetic determinants of resistance and virulence are noted among our IncI1-containing Salmonella isolates. These genetic elements are also transferable and reported to carry ...


Changing Antimalarial Drug Sensitivities In Uganda, Stephanie Alexis Rasmussen Dec 2017

Changing Antimalarial Drug Sensitivities In Uganda, Stephanie Alexis Rasmussen

Graduate Master's Theses, Capstones, and Culminating Projects

Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) has demonstrated excellent efficacy for the treatment and prevention of malaria in Uganda. However, resistance to both components of this regimen has emerged in Southeast Asia. The efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine, the first-line regimen to treat malaria in Uganda, has also been excellent, but continued pressure may select for parasites with decreased sensitivity to lumefantrine. To gain insight into current drug sensitivity patterns, ex vivo sensitivities were assessed and genotypes previously associated with altered drug sensitivity were characterized for 58 isolates collected in Tororo, Uganda from subjects presenting in 2016 with malaria from the community or as part of ...


The Molecular Mechanism Of N-Acetylglucosamine Side-Chain Attachment To The Lancefield Group A Carbohydrate In Streptococcus Pyogenes, Jeffrey Rush, Rebecca J. Edgar, Pan Deng, Jing Chen, Haining Zhu, Nina M. Van Sorge, Andrew J. Morris, Konstantin V. Korotkov, Natalia Korotkova Oct 2017

The Molecular Mechanism Of N-Acetylglucosamine Side-Chain Attachment To The Lancefield Group A Carbohydrate In Streptococcus Pyogenes, Jeffrey Rush, Rebecca J. Edgar, Pan Deng, Jing Chen, Haining Zhu, Nina M. Van Sorge, Andrew J. Morris, Konstantin V. Korotkov, Natalia Korotkova

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

In many Lactobacillales species (i.e. lactic acid bacteria), peptidoglycan is decorated by polyrhamnose polysaccharides that are critical for cell envelope integrity and cell shape and also represent key antigenic determinants. Despite the biological importance of these polysaccharides, their biosynthetic pathways have received limited attention. The important human pathogen, Streptococcus pyogenes, synthesizes a key antigenic surface polymer, the Lancefield group A carbohydrate (GAC). GAC is covalently attached to peptidoglycan and consists of a polyrhamnose polymer, with N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) side chains, which is an essential virulence determinant. The molecular details of the mechanism of polyrhamnose modification with GlcNAc are currently ...


Human Rickettsial Pathogen Modulates Arthropod Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide And Tryptophan Pathway For Its Survival In Ticks, Vikas Taank, Shovan Dutta, Amrita Dasgupta, Durland Fish, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta Oct 2017

Human Rickettsial Pathogen Modulates Arthropod Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide And Tryptophan Pathway For Its Survival In Ticks, Vikas Taank, Shovan Dutta, Amrita Dasgupta, Durland Fish, John F. Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The black-legged tick Ixodes scapularis transmits the human anaplasmosis agent, Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In this study, we show that A. phagocytophilum specifically up-regulates I. scapularis organic anion transporting polypeptide, isoatp4056 and kynurenine amino transferase (kat), a gene involved in the production of tryptophan metabolite xanthurenic acid (XA), for its survival in ticks. RNAi analysis revealed that knockdown of isoatp4056 expression had no effect on A. phagocytophilum acquisition from the murine host but affected the bacterial survival in tick cells. Knockdown of the expression of kat mRNA alone or in combination with isoatp4056 mRNA significantly affected A. phagocytophilum survival and isoatp4056 expression ...


The Effect Of Diet On Midgut And Resulting Changes In Infectiousness Of Acmnpv Baculovirus In Trichoplusia Ni, Elizabeth Chen Sep 2017

The Effect Of Diet On Midgut And Resulting Changes In Infectiousness Of Acmnpv Baculovirus In Trichoplusia Ni, Elizabeth Chen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, a global generalist lepidopteran pest, has developed resistance to many synthetic and biological insecticides, requiring effective and environmentally acceptable alternatives. One possibility is the Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). This baculovirus is highly infectious for T. ni, with potential as a biocontrol agent, however, its effectiveness is strongly influenced by dietary context. In this study, microscopy and transcriptomics were used to examine how the efficacy of this virus was affected when T. ni larvae were raised on different diets. Larvae raised on potato host plants had lower chitinase and chitin deacetylase transcript levels and thickened ...


T-Cell Responses Targeting Hiv Nef Uniquely Correlate With Infected Cell Frequencies After Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy., Allison S Thomas, Kimberley L Jones, Rajesh T Gandhi, Deborah K Mcmahon, Joshua C Cyktor, Dora Chan, Szu-Han Huang, Ronald Truong, Alberto Bosque, Amanda B Macedo, Colin Kovacs, Erika Benko, Joseph J Eron, Ronald J Bosch, Christina M Lalama, Samuel Simmens, Bruce D Walker, John W Mellors, R Brad Jones Sep 2017

T-Cell Responses Targeting Hiv Nef Uniquely Correlate With Infected Cell Frequencies After Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy., Allison S Thomas, Kimberley L Jones, Rajesh T Gandhi, Deborah K Mcmahon, Joshua C Cyktor, Dora Chan, Szu-Han Huang, Ronald Truong, Alberto Bosque, Amanda B Macedo, Colin Kovacs, Erika Benko, Joseph J Eron, Ronald J Bosch, Christina M Lalama, Samuel Simmens, Bruce D Walker, John W Mellors, R Brad Jones

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses limit viral replication in untreated infection. After the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), these responses decay and the infected cell population that remains is commonly considered to be invisible to T-cells. We hypothesized that HIV antigen recognition may persist in ART-treated individuals due to low-level or episodic protein expression. We posited that if persistent recognition were occurring it would be preferentially directed against the early HIV gene products Nef, Tat, and Rev as compared to late gene products, such as Gag, Pol, and Env, which have higher barriers to expression. Using a primary cell model of ...


Heightened Circulating Levels Of Antimicrobial Peptides In Tuberculosis-Diabetes Co-Morbidity And Reversal Upon Treatment, Nathella Pavan Kumar, Kadar Moideen, Vijay Viswanathan, Shanmugam Sivakumar, Pradeep A. Menon, Hardy Kornfeld, Subash Babu Sep 2017

Heightened Circulating Levels Of Antimicrobial Peptides In Tuberculosis-Diabetes Co-Morbidity And Reversal Upon Treatment, Nathella Pavan Kumar, Kadar Moideen, Vijay Viswanathan, Shanmugam Sivakumar, Pradeep A. Menon, Hardy Kornfeld, Subash Babu

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: The association of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with tuberculosis-diabetes comorbidity (PTB-DM) is not well understood.

METHODS: To study the association of AMPs with PTB-DM, we examined the systemic levels of cathelicidin (LL37), human beta defensin- 2 (HBD2), human neutrophil peptides 1-3, (HNP1-3) and granulysin in individuals with either PTB-DM, PTB, latent TB (LTB) or no TB infection (NTB).

RESULTS: Circulating levels of cathelicidin and HBD2 were significantly higher and granulysin levels were significantly lower in PTB-DM compared to PTB, LTB or NTB, while the levels of HNP1-3 were significantly higher in PTB-DM compared to LTB or NTB individuals. Moreover, the ...


Trypanosome Lytic Factor Mediated Immunity Against Leishmania Sp., Jyoti Pant Sep 2017

Trypanosome Lytic Factor Mediated Immunity Against Leishmania Sp., Jyoti Pant

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Trypanosome Lytic Factor (TLF) is an innate immunity complex that was originally discovered to protect against African Trypanosomes. The major components of TLF are Apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1), Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) and HPR (Haptoglobin Related Protein), where APOL1 is necessary and sufficient for trypanolysis. Recently we have shown that TLF ameliorates infections by cutaneous Leishmania species. Here we investigated the effect of different primate and human TLF against different Leishmania sp. Our result shows that TLF kills metacyclic promastigotes of cutaneous Leishmania sp. within immune cells such as neutrophils and macrophages by two different mechanism. Using transiently transfected and germline transgenic ...


The Feoabc Locus Of Yersinia Pestis Likely Has Two Promoters Causing Unique Iron Regulation, Lauren O'Connor, Jacqueline D. Fetherston, Robert D. Perry Jul 2017

The Feoabc Locus Of Yersinia Pestis Likely Has Two Promoters Causing Unique Iron Regulation, Lauren O'Connor, Jacqueline D. Fetherston, Robert D. Perry

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

The FeoABC ferrous transporter is a wide-spread bacterial system. While the feoABC locus is regulated by a number of factors in the bacteria studied, we have previously found that regulation of feoABC in Yersinia pestis appears to be unique. None of the non-iron responsive transcriptional regulators that control expression of feoABC in other bacteria do so in Y. pestis. Another unique factor is the iron and Fur regulation of the Y. pestis feoABC locus occurs during microaerobic but not aerobic growth. Here we show that this unique iron-regulation is not due to a unique aspect of the Y. pestis Fur ...


Pseudogymnoascus Destructans Transcriptome Changes During White-Nose Syndrome Infections, Sophia M. Reeder, Jonathan M. Palmer, Jenni M. Prokkola, Thomas M. Lilley, Deeann M. Reeder, Ken Field Jul 2017

Pseudogymnoascus Destructans Transcriptome Changes During White-Nose Syndrome Infections, Sophia M. Reeder, Jonathan M. Palmer, Jenni M. Prokkola, Thomas M. Lilley, Deeann M. Reeder, Ken Field

Faculty Journal Articles

White nose syndrome (WNS) is caused by the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans that can grow in the environment saprotrophically or parasitically by infecting hibernating bats. Infections are pathological in many species of North American bats, disrupting hibernation and causing mortality. To determine what fungal pathways are involved in infection of living tissue, we examined fungal gene expression using RNA-Seq. We compared P. destructans gene expression when grown in culture to that during infection of a North American bat species, Myotis lucifugus, that shows high WNS mortality. Cultured P. destructans was grown at 10 to 14 C and P. destructans growing ...


Candida And Pseudomonas Interact To Enhance Mucosal Infection In Transparent Zebrafish, Audrey C. Bergeron Jul 2017

Candida And Pseudomonas Interact To Enhance Mucosal Infection In Transparent Zebrafish, Audrey C. Bergeron

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Polymicrobial communities exist throughout the human body and include both fungi and bacteria. During disease, cross-kingdom interactions among bacteria, fungi, and/or the immune system can alter virulence and lead to complex polymicrobial infections. The fungus C. albicans is among the most commonly isolated fungi in the context of fungal-bacterial co-infections and is often accompanied by the bacterium P. aeruginosa at a variety of sites throughout the body including mucosal tissues such as the lung. In vitro, C. albicans and P. aeruginosa have a cyclic, bi-directional, and largely antagonistic relationship, but these interactions do not account for the role of ...


Quorum Sensing Signals Produced By Heterotrophic Bacteria In Black Band Disease (Bbd) Of Corals And Their Potential Role In Bbd Pathogenesis, Chinmayee D. Bhedi Jun 2017

Quorum Sensing Signals Produced By Heterotrophic Bacteria In Black Band Disease (Bbd) Of Corals And Their Potential Role In Bbd Pathogenesis, Chinmayee D. Bhedi

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Black band disease (BBD) of corals is a temperature dependent, highly virulent, polymicrobial disease affecting reef-building corals globally. The microbial consortium of BBD is primarily comprised of functional physiological groups that include photosynthetic cyanobacteria, sulfate reducers, sulfide oxidizers and a vast repertoire of heterotrophic bacteria. Quorum sensing (QS), the cell-density dependent communication phenomenon in bacteria, is known to induce expression of genes for a variety of virulence factors in diseases worldwide. Microbes capable of QS release signals such as acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) and autoinducer-2 (AI-2), which coordinate microbial interaction. The focus of the present study was to investigate the ...