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Pathogenic Microbiology Commons

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Pathogens

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Articles 1 - 10 of 10

Full-Text Articles in Pathogenic Microbiology

Comparison Between Listeria Sensu Stricto And Listeria Sensu Lato Strains Identifies Novel Determinants Involved In Infection, Jakob Schardt, Grant Jones, Stefanie Müller-Herbst, Kristina Schauer, Sarah E. F. D'Orazio, Thilo M. Fuchs Dec 2017

Comparison Between Listeria Sensu Stricto And Listeria Sensu Lato Strains Identifies Novel Determinants Involved In Infection, Jakob Schardt, Grant Jones, Stefanie Müller-Herbst, Kristina Schauer, Sarah E. F. D'Orazio, Thilo M. Fuchs

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

The human pathogen L. monocytogenes and the animal pathogen L. ivanovii, together with four other species isolated from symptom-free animals, form the "Listeria sensu stricto" clade. The members of the second clade, "Listeria sensu lato", are believed to be solely environmental bacteria without the ability to colonize mammalian hosts. To identify novel determinants that contribute to infection by L. monocytogenes, the causative agent of the foodborne disease listeriosis, we performed a genome comparison of the two clades and found 151 candidate genes that are conserved in the Listeria sensu stricto species. Two factors were investigated further in vitro and in ...


The Antimicrobial And Biofilm Disruption Activity Of Novel Amphiphiles, Elizabeth A. Rogers Jan 2017

The Antimicrobial And Biofilm Disruption Activity Of Novel Amphiphiles, Elizabeth A. Rogers

Masters Theses

Antibiotic resistant infections are responsible for approximately 23,000 deaths every year in the United States alone. The formation of bacterial biofilms makes resistant bacteria difficult to eliminate completely using chemical treatment. Therefore, novel antimicrobial compounds such as amphiphiles are essential to slow or stop the spread of resistant bacteria. Several novel series of amphiphiles were synthesized, and discrete aspects of their chemical structure were altered to investigate the relationship between structure and antibacterial activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays were used to measure antibacterial activity against two Gram-negative and five Gram-positive bacteria, and the most effective compounds were tested ...


Il-21 Signaling Is Essential For Optimal Host Resistance Against Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection, Matthew G. Booty, Palmira Barreira-Silva, Stephen Carpenter, Claudio Nunes-Alves, Miye K. Jacques, Britni L. Stowell, Pushpalatha Jayaraman, Gillian Beamer, Samuel M. Behar Nov 2016

Il-21 Signaling Is Essential For Optimal Host Resistance Against Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection, Matthew G. Booty, Palmira Barreira-Silva, Stephen Carpenter, Claudio Nunes-Alves, Miye K. Jacques, Britni L. Stowell, Pushpalatha Jayaraman, Gillian Beamer, Samuel M. Behar

Open Access Articles

IL-21 is produced predominantly by activated CD4+ T cells and has pleiotropic effects on immunity via the IL-21 receptor (IL-21R), a member of the common gamma chain (gammac) cytokine receptor family. We show that IL-21 signaling plays a crucial role in T cell responses during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by augmenting CD8+ T cell priming, promoting T cell accumulation in the lungs, and enhancing T cell cytokine production. In the absence of IL-21 signaling, more CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in chronically infected mice express the T cell inhibitory molecules PD-1 and TIM-3. We correlate these immune alterations with increased susceptibility ...


The Activity Of Antimicrobial Surfaces Varies By Testing Protocol Utilized, Matias D. Campos, Paola C. Zucchi, Ann Phung, Steven N. Leonard, Elizabeth B. Hirsch Aug 2016

The Activity Of Antimicrobial Surfaces Varies By Testing Protocol Utilized, Matias D. Campos, Paola C. Zucchi, Ann Phung, Steven N. Leonard, Elizabeth B. Hirsch

Pharmacy Faculty Scholarship

Background: Contaminated hospital surfaces are an important source of nosocomial infections. A major obstacle in marketing antimicrobial surfaces is a lack of efficacy data based on standardized testing protocols. Aim: We compared the efficacy of multiple testing protocols against several “antimicrobial” film surfaces.

Methods: Four clinical isolates were used: one Escherichia coli, one Klebsiella pneumoniae, and two Staphylococcus aureus strains. Two industry methods (modified ISO 22196 and ASTM E2149), a “dried droplet”, and a “transfer” method were tested against two commercially available antimicrobial films, one film in development, an untreated control, and a positive (silver) control film. At 2 (only ...


Identification Of Host Factors Required For Yersinia Pestis Macrophage Intracellular Survival And Their Impact On Vacuole Maturation, Acidification And Trafficking., Michael Graylin Connor May 2016

Identification Of Host Factors Required For Yersinia Pestis Macrophage Intracellular Survival And Their Impact On Vacuole Maturation, Acidification And Trafficking., Michael Graylin Connor

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Y. pestis is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of plague. This bacterium, while most noted or the Black Death during the European 14th century, is not a historic pathogen but a re-emerging pandemic with both domestic and global impact. Y. pestis is capable of colonizing the macrophage, and actively subverts phagolysosome maturation to establish a replicative niche known as the Yersinia containing vacuole (YCV). The exploited host factors required to support the YCV are unknown. Here we identified a comprehensive list of host factors required for Y. pestis survival through a genome-wide RNAi high-throughput screen. We ...


Novel Advancements For Improving Sprout Safety, Kyle S. Landry Jan 2016

Novel Advancements For Improving Sprout Safety, Kyle S. Landry

Doctoral Dissertations

All varieties of bean sprouts (mung bean, alfalfa, broccoli, and radish) are classified as a “super-food” and are common staples for health conscious consumers. Along with the proposed health benefits, there is also an inherent risk of foodborne illness. When sprouts are cooked, there is little risk of illness. The purpose of this dissertation was to explore novel techniques to minimize or prevent the incidence of foodborne illness associated with the consumption of sprouts. Three areas were investigated: 1) the use of a biocontrol organism, 2) the use of a novel spontaneous carvacrol nanoemulsion, and 3) the influence of the ...


The Effect Of O Antigen Loss On The Protein Composition And Inflammatory Response Elicited By Klebsiella Pneumoniae, Bethaney Cahill Jan 2015

The Effect Of O Antigen Loss On The Protein Composition And Inflammatory Response Elicited By Klebsiella Pneumoniae, Bethaney Cahill

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative pathogen associated with numerous infections. Like all Gram-negative bacteria, K. pneumoniae naturally release outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) during all stages of cellular growth. OMVs are composed of the outer membrane components such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and outer membrane proteins and contain cytosolic and periplasmic proteins in the lumen. K. pneumoniae is often found to lack an O antigen. The absence of the O antigen has been reported to alter the protein content of the membrane which may further alter the immune response elicited by K. pneumoniae. Therefore the purpose of this study was to analyze ...


Changes In Bacterial Growth Rate Govern Expression Of The Borrelia Burgdorferi Ospc And Erp Infection-Associated Surface Proteins, Brandon L. Jutras, Alicia M. Chenail, Brian Stevenson Feb 2013

Changes In Bacterial Growth Rate Govern Expression Of The Borrelia Burgdorferi Ospc And Erp Infection-Associated Surface Proteins, Brandon L. Jutras, Alicia M. Chenail, Brian Stevenson

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

The Lyme disease spirochete controls production of its OspC and Erp outer surface proteins, repressing protein synthesis during colonization of vector ticks but increasing expression when those ticks feed on vertebrate hosts. Early studies found that the synthesis of OspC and Erps can be stimulated in culture by shifting the temperature from 23°C to 34°C, leading to a hypothesis that Borrelia burgdorferi senses environmental temperature to determine its location in the tick-mammal infectious cycle. However, borreliae cultured at 34°C divide several times faster than do those cultured at 23°C. We developed methods that disassociate bacterial growth ...


On The Evolution Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases In Birds, Michael Lombardo Jul 2010

On The Evolution Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases In Birds, Michael Lombardo

Michael P Lombardo

"The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com".

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in animals are caused by pathogens that are transmitted during copulation. Birds have played an important role in the development of STD-centered theories of mating behavior. However, it is not known whether STDs exist in wild bird populations. While the avian cloaca with its dual functions of gamete transfer and excretion seemingly predisposes birds for the evolution of STDs, the life history patterns of most birds (i.e., seasonal breeders with relatively brief annual periods of sexual activity) suggest otherwise. The importance of STDs as selective forces ...


The Regulation Of The Icsp Promoter Of Shigella Flexneri By The Virulence Factor Virb, Maria Castellanos, Dustin Harrison, Helen Wing Aug 2008

The Regulation Of The Icsp Promoter Of Shigella Flexneri By The Virulence Factor Virb, Maria Castellanos, Dustin Harrison, Helen Wing

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP)

Shigella flexneri is a pathogenic bacterium that causes severe dysentery in humans commonly known as shigellosis. Shigella encodes an outer membrane protease called IcsP. The regulation of icsP expression is under direct control of a transcriptional factor called VirB, which controls the expression of many virulence genes in Shigella. Previous work has shown through deletion analysis of the icsP promoter region that sequences as far as 1368 base pairs upstream of the transcription starting site are important for the regulation of the icsP gene by VirB. However, it is still unclear whether VirB activation requires sequences within the icsP promoter ...