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Pathogenic Microbiology Commons

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2015

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Articles 1 - 24 of 24

Full-Text Articles in Pathogenic Microbiology

Design And Testing Of Novel Anthrax Vaccines Utilizing A Tobacco Mosaic Virus Expression System, Ryan C. Mccomb Dec 2015

Design And Testing Of Novel Anthrax Vaccines Utilizing A Tobacco Mosaic Virus Expression System, Ryan C. Mccomb

KGI Theses and Dissertations

Anthrax is a potentially fatal disease caused by the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. Infection and disease occur after spores gain entry into the body, germinate into vegetative bacteria, and produce toxin. Bacillus anthracis spores have been engineered as bioweapons and have been used repeatedly in warfare and terrorism to inflict casualties in military and civilian populations. Currently, only one vaccine has been approved for prevention of anthrax in the United States. This vaccine is an undefined product that is difficult to produce, requires a long vaccination schedule, and is reactogenic. Efforts to make an improved anthrax vaccine are being pursued. With ...


The Epithelial Transmembrane Protein Perp Is Required For Inflammatory Responses To S. Typhimurium Infection: A Dissertation, Kelly N. Hallstrom Oct 2015

The Epithelial Transmembrane Protein Perp Is Required For Inflammatory Responses To S. Typhimurium Infection: A Dissertation, Kelly N. Hallstrom

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Salmonella enterica subtype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is one of many non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica strains responsible for over one million cases of salmonellosis in the United States each year. These Salmonella strains are also a leading cause of diarrheal disease in developing countries. Nontyphoidal salmonellosis induces gastrointestinal distress that is characterized histopathologically by an influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), the non-specific effects of which lead to tissue damage and contribute to diarrhea.

Prior studies from our lab have demonstrated that the type III secreted bacterial effector SipA is a key regulator of PMN influx during S. Typhimurium infection and that its ...


Regulation Of Vancomycin Resistance And Stress Response By The Msaabcr Operon In Staphylococcus Aureus, Dhritiman Samanta Aug 2015

Regulation Of Vancomycin Resistance And Stress Response By The Msaabcr Operon In Staphylococcus Aureus, Dhritiman Samanta

Dissertations

Staphylococcus aureus is the predominant cause of public health problems around the world. Vancomycin has been an important antibiotic against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. However, Vancomycin Intermediate S. aureus (VISA) strains have been reported. These strains are characterized by thick cell walls, reduced autolytic rate, reduced PBP4 activity, and increased amount of D-Ala-D-Ala termini in the cell wall. In this study, we show that the msaABCR operon regulates vancomycin resistance in two clinical VISA strains. Deletion of the msaABCR operon in strains Mu50 and HIP6297 resulted in a significant decrease in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for vancomycin ...


The Role Of Phosphatidylserine And Phosphatidylethanolamine In Candida Albicans Virulence, Sarah Elizabeth Davis Aug 2015

The Role Of Phosphatidylserine And Phosphatidylethanolamine In Candida Albicans Virulence, Sarah Elizabeth Davis

Doctoral Dissertations

In hospitalized patients with neutropenia, Candida albicans is the fourth leading cause of systemic bloodstream infections, which have a mortality rate of approximately 30 %. The phosphatidylserine synthase enzyme of C. albicans, Cho1p, appears to be a good drug target as a mutant lacking this enzyme (the cho1Δ/Δ [null mutant]) is avirulent in animal models of Candida infections and this enzyme is not conserved in humans. We discovered that the loss of phosphatidylserine (PS) synthesis affects C. albicans' expression of the Als3p adhesin, a virulence protein, and loss of PS synthesis also compromises the cell wall, causing increased exposure ...


Algr Directly Controls Rsma In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Tyler Speaks Aug 2015

Algr Directly Controls Rsma In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Tyler Speaks

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterial pathogen that can infect any human tissue. The lungs of cystic fibrosis patients become chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Virulence factor gene expression is under elaborate regulatory control that remains poorly characterized. Understanding the regulatory hierarchy involved during infection is essential for identifying novel drug targets. RsmA is a post-transcriptional regulatory protein that controls expression of several virulence factors. Previous studies demonstrated alginate regulatory components AlgU and AlgR as regulators of rsmA expression. The aim of this study was to determine how AlgR controls rsmA expression. Western blot analysis of HA-tagged RsmA confirmed lower RsmA ...


Prevalence Of A Chytrid Pathogen (Batrachochytrium Dendrobatidis) In Eastern Hellbender Salamanders In New York And Pennsylvania, Linxuan Wu Aug 2015

Prevalence Of A Chytrid Pathogen (Batrachochytrium Dendrobatidis) In Eastern Hellbender Salamanders In New York And Pennsylvania, Linxuan Wu

Biology Theses

Amphibian populations are currently declining globally. There are many possible causes for these declines, among which an emerging infectious disease, chytridiomycosis, has been implicated. Chytridiomycosis in the U.S.A. is mainly caused by the Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. In this study, I used qPCR assays to detect the existence of this pathogen in the Eastern Hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) populations in the Allegheny and Susquehanna River drainages of New York and Pennsylvania. Chytrid is most often tested by using skin swabs, but in this study, tail clips, dorsal skin, blood and eggs were tested as well. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis was detected in ...


Investigations Of Filarial Nematode Motility, Response To Drug Treatment, And Pathology, Charles Nutting Aug 2015

Investigations Of Filarial Nematode Motility, Response To Drug Treatment, And Pathology, Charles Nutting

Dissertations

More than a billion people live at risk of chronic diseases caused by parasitic filarial nematodes. These diseases: lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, and loaisis cause significant morbidity, degrading the health, quality of life, and economic productivity of those who suffer from them. Though treatable, there is no cure to rid those infected of adult parasites. The parasites can modulate the immune system and live for 10-15 years. Testing of compounds against filarial nematodes is complicated due to a lack of an objective platform on which to analyze in vitro treatments. There is no published, immunocompetent laboratory model for lymphatic filariasis. This ...


Streptococcus Pyogenes Superantigens: Studies Into Host Specificity And Functional Redundancy, Adrienne T. Wakabayashi Jun 2015

Streptococcus Pyogenes Superantigens: Studies Into Host Specificity And Functional Redundancy, Adrienne T. Wakabayashi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Streptococcus pyogenes is a human-specific globally prominent bacterial pathogen that secretes extremely potent exotoxins known as superantigens. Superantigens function to overstimulate T lymphocytes, capable of inducing excessive cytokine responses, potentially leading to toxic shock syndrome. Each strain of S. pyogenes encodes multiple distinct superantigens, yet the reasons why S. pyogenes retains multiple superantigens has remained elusive. Using a murine model of acute nasopharyngeal infection, the role of each superantigen encoded by S. pyogenes MGAS5005 was evaluated using isogenic superantigen-deletion or -complemented strains, and passive immunization with superantigen-neutralizing antibodies. The superantigen SpeG, and likely SpeJ, were not required for infection. However ...


Virulence Gene Expression Of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus In The Viable But Nonculturable State, Tiffany Pui-Yun Tse Jun 2015

Virulence Gene Expression Of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus In The Viable But Nonculturable State, Tiffany Pui-Yun Tse

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a food-borne pathogen commonly associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked seafood resulting in primary infections of the human gastrointestinal tract. It is estimated to cause about 4500 illnesses each year in the United States. However, infection from this food-borne pathogen can be avoided if this organism is detected in the implicated food, prior to consumption. Current standard methods of detecting this organism are dependent on the culturability of the bacteria. Detection based on an organism’s culturability may be problematic as V. parahaemolyticus has been known to exist in a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state ...


Transduction As The Method Of Horizontal Gene Transfer Of The Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette Mec (Sccmec), Amber B. Sauder May 2015

Transduction As The Method Of Horizontal Gene Transfer Of The Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette Mec (Sccmec), Amber B. Sauder

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) gains resistance to β-lactam antibiotics through a mutated penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) encoded on the SCCmec element. In combination with the recombinase encoded by ccr, these two genes are used as markers of the mobile genetic element (SCCmec). Due to recent increases in community acquired MRSA infections, the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance gene transfer have gained attention. Transduction, a method of horizontal gene transfer mediated by bacteriophage, is believed to be responsible for the movement of the SCCmec element. Recent studies have shown the transduction of the SCCmec element in clinical isolates; however, this study is ...


Tonb Not Directly Related To Efflux Of Antibiotics In E. Coli, Amber Gombash May 2015

Tonb Not Directly Related To Efflux Of Antibiotics In E. Coli, Amber Gombash

Honors Projects

Studies in Pseudomonas aeruginosa have suggested that the TonB energy transduction system directly contributes to efflux-mediated antibiotic resistance, ostensibly by energizing one or more efflux systems. We have found ∆tonB strains of Escherichia coli to similarly be more sensitive to certain antibiotics relative to wild-type strains. To test the hypothesis that this enhanced sensitivity involved the energization of efflux systems, sensitivity patterns for a variety of antibiotics were evaluated using a set of strains differentially lacking genes encoding the Acr efflux system, the universal outer membrane efflux portal TolC, and TonB. No correlation was evident between the resistance phenotypes of ...


Thermal Inactivation Of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli In Foods, Malcond David Valladares May 2015

Thermal Inactivation Of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli In Foods, Malcond David Valladares

Doctoral Dissertations

Emerging non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) were recently added to the zero tolerance policy by the USDA-FSIS. Therefore, the precise characterization of their thermal inactivation kinetics in different foods and the effect of stress on thermal inactivation are needed. This research aimed at determining the heat inactivation kinetics of non-O157 and O157 STECs in buffer and model food matrices and the effects of DnaK levels on thermal resistance after acid and heat-shock. Thermal inactivation was carried out in either in 2-ml glass vials or nylon vacuum-sealed bags for buffer and food (spinach, ground-beef, turkey deli-meat, pasta) samples, respectively. Vials ...


Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, And Evolution Of Virulence In Toxoplasma Gondii, Elliot Keats Cullen Shwab May 2015

Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, And Evolution Of Virulence In Toxoplasma Gondii, Elliot Keats Cullen Shwab

Doctoral Dissertations

Toxoplasma gondii is among the most widespread eukaryotic pathogens known. It chronically infects approximately one third of the world’s human population and has been isolated from an extremely diverse array of globally distributed mammals and birds. Understanding the structure of the worldwide T. gondii population enhances our understanding of the factors that have shaped that structure and led to the proliferation of one of the most evolutionarily successful pathogens on Earth. Herein we collate genotypic data from global isolates, demonstrating that T. gondii possesses a unique population structure in which only a small number of genotypes dominate throughout the ...


Study Of The Hydrophobin Genes In Verticillium Dahliae And Characterization Of The Hydrophobin Gene Vdh5, Nadia P. Morales Mar 2015

Study Of The Hydrophobin Genes In Verticillium Dahliae And Characterization Of The Hydrophobin Gene Vdh5, Nadia P. Morales

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The broad host range, soil borne fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb. is the causal agent of an economically significant vascular wilt disease. This species produces persistent resting structures, known as microsclerotia, which are the primary source of disease inoculum in the field. Five hydrophobin-like proteins (VDH1 to 5) have been identified in the genome of V. dahliae. The results of bioinformatics analyses suggested secretion of these proteins, and that they are all class II hydrophobins. Gene expression analyses of VDH1 to 5 indicate that the transcript levels of the individual genes vary under different growth conditions. Additionally, the transcript levels of ...


Strain Typing Mycobacterium Marinum From Outbreaks At Zebrafish Research Facilities, Brooke M. Clemons Jan 2015

Strain Typing Mycobacterium Marinum From Outbreaks At Zebrafish Research Facilities, Brooke M. Clemons

Honors Theses

Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are used as model organisms for biological research due to their rapid and transparent development and high fecundity amongst other reasons. Research has expanded beyond embryonic studies, with adult fish used for longer-term studies such as human disease and senescence. Zebrafish are often housed at high density in large colonies. As with any similar husbandry situation, diseases can occur, with impacts that range from morbidity to premature mortality costing researchers time and money. Understanding the impact of underlying diseases in zebrafish is crucial, particularly for long-term studies where chronic infections may confound results. One such disease problem ...


Dark Spots Disease Increase In Scleractinian Corals In Bonaire, D.C., Jennifer Mathe Jan 2015

Dark Spots Disease Increase In Scleractinian Corals In Bonaire, D.C., Jennifer Mathe

Honors Theses

Pathogen-host relation dynamics have adjusted in the Caribbean due to increased epizootic events and decreased coral cover resulting from anthropogenic influences. Reef-building corals are being infected by numerous diseases including dark spots disease, a ubiquitous Caribbean disease of an unknown agent. The objectives of this study were to quantify the change in dark spots disease prevalence in Siderastrea siderea and Stephanocoenia spp. from 1998 to 2014 and determine influencing conditions on prevalence and infection severity of disease. The abundance of benthic organisms and substrate types were also quantified. A 1350 m2 area between six sites on Bonaire was surveyed using ...


Identification And Characterization Of Functional Regulatory Variants In S. Cerevisiae, Timothy Read Jan 2015

Identification And Characterization Of Functional Regulatory Variants In S. Cerevisiae, Timothy Read

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Most genetic variants associated with disease occur within regulatory regions of the genome, underscoring the need to define the mechanisms that control differences in gene expression regulation between individuals. I discovered a pair of co-regulated, divergently oriented transcripts, AQY2 and ncFRE6, that are expressed in one strain of S.cerevisiae, ∑1278b, but not in another, S288c. By combining classical genetics techniques with high-throughput sequencing, I identified a trans-acting single nucleotide polymorphism within the transcr¬iption factor RIM101 that causes the background-dependent expression of both transcripts. Subsequent RNA-seq experiments revealed that deletion of RIM101 in both backgrounds abrogated the majority of ...


Eneterotoxigenic Bacillus Cereus And Bacillus Thuringiensis Spores In U.S. Retail Spices, Upasana Hariram Jan 2015

Eneterotoxigenic Bacillus Cereus And Bacillus Thuringiensis Spores In U.S. Retail Spices, Upasana Hariram

Masters Theses

Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous organism and a potential foodborne pathogen that can cause two types of gastrointestinal diseases: emesis and diarrhea. The emetic syndrome is caused by a heat and acid stable peptide toxin that is pre-formed in food, while the diarrheal syndrome is associated to two 3-protein, heat labile enterotoxin complexes that are formed in the intestine after ingestion of the organism. There are many reports on the isolation and characterization of Bacillus cereus from various foods, however there are no studies on the levels, toxigenicity and physical characteristics of B. cereus isolated from U.S. retail spices ...


Characterization Of The Interactions Between Staphylococcal Phage 80 Alpha Scaffold And Capsid Proteins, Laura Klenow Jan 2015

Characterization Of The Interactions Between Staphylococcal Phage 80 Alpha Scaffold And Capsid Proteins, Laura Klenow

Theses and Dissertations

Staphylococcal phage 80α can serve as a helper bacteriophage for a family of mobile genetic elements called Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPIs). The prototype island, SaPI1, is able to hijack the 80α capsid assembly process and redirect capsid formation to yield smaller, phage-like transducing particles carrying SaPI DNA. Capsid size redirection is accomplished through two SaPI1-encoded gene products, CpmA and an alternate scaffold protein, CpmB. The normal 80α scaffold and the SaPI1 CpmB scaffold share a small block of conserved residues at their C-termini, several of which had been shown to be essential for CpmB function. This led to the ...


Purification And Characterization Of Bcsc; An Integral Component Of Bacterial Cellulose Export, Emily D. Wilson Ms Jan 2015

Purification And Characterization Of Bcsc; An Integral Component Of Bacterial Cellulose Export, Emily D. Wilson Ms

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Biofilms are a growing concern in the medical field due to their increased resistance to antibiotics. When found in a biofilm, bacteria can have antibiotic resistance 10-1000 times that of their planktonic counterparts. Therefore, it is important to study the formation of biofilms. Cellulose biofilms are formed by Enterobacteriaceae, such as many Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. strains. Biofilms provide these species with benefits including antimicrobial protection, development of bacterial communities, promotion of DNA exchange, uptake of nutrients, and, in the case of cellulose biofilms, immune system evasion. Cellulose biofilms are controlled by the Bacterial cellulose synthesis (Bcs) complex located ...


Antimicrobial Efficacy Of Natural Bioactive Compounds And High Pressure Processing Against Potential Pathogens In Infant Foods, Hayriye Cetin-Karaca Jan 2015

Antimicrobial Efficacy Of Natural Bioactive Compounds And High Pressure Processing Against Potential Pathogens In Infant Foods, Hayriye Cetin-Karaca

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

This study investigated the antimicrobial efficacy of bioactive plant compounds along with high pressure processing (HPP) against pathogens Bacillus cereus and Cronobacter sakazakii in infant formula and infant rice cereal. The influence of these applications on antimicrobial activity, shelf-life and sensory attributes of infant foods were examined.

Trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and [10]-Gingerol (GI) were incorporated (0.05%) in infant rice cereal reconstituted with infant formula. The cereal was inoculated with either B. cereus (ATCC 14579) or B. cereus spores (107-108 log CFU g-1). All the samples were stored at 7, 23 or 37 ...


The Effect Of Antibiotics On Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilm Production, Courtney Paige Turpin Jan 2015

The Effect Of Antibiotics On Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilm Production, Courtney Paige Turpin

Online Theses and Dissertations

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have become an increasing burden worldwide. A highly resistant species is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a nosocomial pathogen that produces a biofilm that enhances its resistance. This project examined the possibility of using bacteriocin, an internal protective toxin produced by some species of bacteria, as a potential treatment for resistant bacteria. In this study, standard broad spectrum antibiotics were used to treat P. aeruginosa to prevent biofilm formation. The biofilm was then analyzed to determine if the biofilm is inhibited or facilitated by each treatment. Optimal concentrations of antibiotics were determined to be effective at a concentration of 0.07mg ...


Effects Of Carbon Quantity And Plant Diversity On Pathogen Suppression By Soil-Borne Streptomyces, Nuttapon Pombubpa Jan 2015

Effects Of Carbon Quantity And Plant Diversity On Pathogen Suppression By Soil-Borne Streptomyces, Nuttapon Pombubpa

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Members of the genus Streptomyces are some of the best candidates for biological control of soil-borne pathogenic bacteria. Antibiotic production by Streptomyces is thought to be crucial for this strain’s ability to compete with other closely related soil microorganisms. Furthermore, Streptomyces is able to not only inhibit the growth of its competitors, but also that of many soil-borne plant pathogens. My thesis assessed Streptomyces performance under varying levels of soil resources (carbon componds that serve as energy sources) and in plots with varying degrees of plant diversity that, in turn, affects soil resources. This project aims to deconvolute the ...


The Effect Of O Antigen Loss On The Protein Composition And Inflammatory Response Elicited By Klebsiella Pneumoniae, Bethaney Cahill Jan 2015

The Effect Of O Antigen Loss On The Protein Composition And Inflammatory Response Elicited By Klebsiella Pneumoniae, Bethaney Cahill

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative pathogen associated with numerous infections. Like all Gram-negative bacteria, K. pneumoniae naturally release outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) during all stages of cellular growth. OMVs are composed of the outer membrane components such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and outer membrane proteins and contain cytosolic and periplasmic proteins in the lumen. K. pneumoniae is often found to lack an O antigen. The absence of the O antigen has been reported to alter the protein content of the membrane which may further alter the immune response elicited by K. pneumoniae. Therefore the purpose of this study was to analyze ...