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Pathogenic Microbiology Commons

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2015

Immunology and Infectious Disease

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Articles 1 - 15 of 15

Full-Text Articles in Pathogenic Microbiology

Protection Against Experimental Cryptococcosis Following Vaccination With Glucan Particles Containing Cryptococcus Alkaline Extracts, Charles A. Specht, Chrono K. Lee, Haibin Huang, Donald J. Tipper, Zu T. Shen, Jennifer K. Lodge, John D. Leszyk, Gary R. Ostroff, Stuart M. Levitz Dec 2015

Protection Against Experimental Cryptococcosis Following Vaccination With Glucan Particles Containing Cryptococcus Alkaline Extracts, Charles A. Specht, Chrono K. Lee, Haibin Huang, Donald J. Tipper, Zu T. Shen, Jennifer K. Lodge, John D. Leszyk, Gary R. Ostroff, Stuart M. Levitz

Infectious Diseases and Immunology Publications and Presentations

A vaccine capable of protecting at-risk persons against infections due to Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii could reduce the substantial global burden of human cryptococcosis. Vaccine development has been hampered though, by lack of knowledge as to which antigens are immunoprotective and the need for an effective vaccine delivery system. We made alkaline extracts from mutant cryptococcal strains that lacked capsule or chitosan. The extracts were then packaged into glucan particles (GPs), which are purified Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls composed primarily of β-1,3-glucans. Subcutaneous vaccination with the GP-based vaccines provided significant protection against subsequent pulmonary infection with highly virulent ...


Data From: A Higher Activation Threshold Of Memory Cd8+ T Cells Has A Fitness Cost That Is Modified By Tcr Affinity During Tuberculosis, Stephen M. Carpenter, Claudio Nunes-Alves, Matthew G. Booty, Sing Sing Way, Samuel M. Behar Dec 2015

Data From: A Higher Activation Threshold Of Memory Cd8+ T Cells Has A Fitness Cost That Is Modified By Tcr Affinity During Tuberculosis, Stephen M. Carpenter, Claudio Nunes-Alves, Matthew G. Booty, Sing Sing Way, Samuel M. Behar

MaPS Research Data

Manuscript abstract: T cell vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and other pathogens are based on the principle that memory T cells rapidly generate effector responses upon challenge, leading to pathogen clearance. Despite eliciting a robust memory CD8+ T cell response to the immunodominant Mtb antigen TB10.4 (EsxH), we find the increased frequency of TB10.4-specific CD8+ T cells conferred by vaccination to be short-lived after Mtb challenge. To compare memory and naïve CD8+ T cell function during their response to Mtb, we track their expansions using TB10.4-specific retrogenic CD8+ T cells. We find that the primary (naïve) response ...


Design And Testing Of Novel Anthrax Vaccines Utilizing A Tobacco Mosaic Virus Expression System, Ryan C. Mccomb Dec 2015

Design And Testing Of Novel Anthrax Vaccines Utilizing A Tobacco Mosaic Virus Expression System, Ryan C. Mccomb

KGI Theses and Dissertations

Anthrax is a potentially fatal disease caused by the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. Infection and disease occur after spores gain entry into the body, germinate into vegetative bacteria, and produce toxin. Bacillus anthracis spores have been engineered as bioweapons and have been used repeatedly in warfare and terrorism to inflict casualties in military and civilian populations. Currently, only one vaccine has been approved for prevention of anthrax in the United States. This vaccine is an undefined product that is difficult to produce, requires a long vaccination schedule, and is reactogenic. Efforts to make an improved anthrax vaccine are being pursued. With ...


Utilizing Cmp-Sialic Acid Analogs To Unravel Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide-Mediated Complement Resistance And Design Novel Therapeutics, Sunita Gulati, Ian C. Schoenhofen, Dennis M. Whitfield, Andrew D. Cox, Jianjun Li, Frank St Michael, Evgeny V. Vinogradov, Jacek Stupak, Bo Zheng, Makoto Ohnishi, Magnus Unemo, Lisa A. Lewis, Rachel E. Taylor, Corinna S. Landig, Sandra Diaz, George W. Reed, Ajit Varki, Peter A. Rice, Sanjay Ram Dec 2015

Utilizing Cmp-Sialic Acid Analogs To Unravel Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide-Mediated Complement Resistance And Design Novel Therapeutics, Sunita Gulati, Ian C. Schoenhofen, Dennis M. Whitfield, Andrew D. Cox, Jianjun Li, Frank St Michael, Evgeny V. Vinogradov, Jacek Stupak, Bo Zheng, Makoto Ohnishi, Magnus Unemo, Lisa A. Lewis, Rachel E. Taylor, Corinna S. Landig, Sandra Diaz, George W. Reed, Ajit Varki, Peter A. Rice, Sanjay Ram

Open Access Articles

Neisseria gonorrhoeae deploys a novel immune evasion strategy wherein the lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) structure of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is capped by the bacterial sialyltransferase, using host cytidine-5'-monophosphate (CMP)-activated forms of the nine-carbon nonulosonate (NulO) sugar N-acetyl-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), a sialic acid (Sia) abundant in humans. This allows evasion of complement-mediated killing by recruiting factor H (FH), an inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway, and by limiting classical pathway activation ("serum-resistance"). We utilized CMP salts of six additional natural or synthetic NulOs, Neu5Gc, Neu5Gc8Me, Neu5Ac9Ac, Neu5Ac9Az, legionaminic acid (Leg5Ac7Ac) and pseudaminic acid (Pse5Ac7Ac), to define structural requirements of Sia-mediated serum-resistance. While ...


Donor Platelet Plasma Components Inactivate Sensitive And Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii Isolates, Chelsea M. Edelblute, Olga N. Pakhomova, Fanying Li, Barbara Y. Hargrave, Loree C. Heller Dec 2015

Donor Platelet Plasma Components Inactivate Sensitive And Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii Isolates, Chelsea M. Edelblute, Olga N. Pakhomova, Fanying Li, Barbara Y. Hargrave, Loree C. Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

Acinetobacter baumannii is an environmentally resilient healthcare-associated opportunistic pathogen responsible for infections at many body sites. In the last 10 years, clinical strains resistant to many or all commonly used antibiotics have emerged globally. With few antimicrobial agents in the pharmaceutical pipeline, new and alternative agents are essential. Platelets secrete a large number of proteins, including proteins with antimicrobial activity. In a previous study, we demonstrated that donor platelet supernatants and plasma significantly inhibited the growth of a reference strain of A. baumannii in broth and on skin. This inhibition appeared to be unrelated to the platelet activation state. In ...


A Lipidomics Approach To The Viral-Host Dynamics Of The Unicellular, Eukaryotic Alga Chlorella Variabilis And Its Viral Pathogen, Pbcv-1, Suzanne Rose Dec 2015

A Lipidomics Approach To The Viral-Host Dynamics Of The Unicellular, Eukaryotic Alga Chlorella Variabilis And Its Viral Pathogen, Pbcv-1, Suzanne Rose

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

This thesis focuses on the sterol and sphingolipid composition in the unicellular, green alga Chlorella variabilis and the lipidomic changes that occur during viral infection. Using lipid analysis by mass spectrometry, we have identified the major sterol, ergosterol and sphingolipid, glucosyl inositol phosphoceramide (GIPC) as constituents of C. variabilis cell membranes. Sterols and sphingolipids have essential biological functions such as hormone-based signaling, plant defense, and apoptosis as well as critical roles in structural components of the cell and organelle membranes. In chapters two and three, we focus on the characterization of sterol composition among both freshwater and marine alga and ...


Dna-Containing Immunocomplexes Promote Inflammasome Assembly And Release Of Pyrogenic Cytokines By Cd14+ Cd16+ Cd64high Cd32low Inflammatory Monocytes From Malaria Patients, Isabella C. Hirako, Carolina Gallego-Marin, Marco A. Ataide Oswalso Cruz Founda, Warrison A. Andrade, Humberto Gravina, Bruno C. Rocha, Rosane B. De Oliveira, Dhelio B. Pereira, Joseph Vinetz, Betty Diamond, Sanjay Ram, Douglas T. Golenbock, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli Nov 2015

Dna-Containing Immunocomplexes Promote Inflammasome Assembly And Release Of Pyrogenic Cytokines By Cd14+ Cd16+ Cd64high Cd32low Inflammatory Monocytes From Malaria Patients, Isabella C. Hirako, Carolina Gallego-Marin, Marco A. Ataide Oswalso Cruz Founda, Warrison A. Andrade, Humberto Gravina, Bruno C. Rocha, Rosane B. De Oliveira, Dhelio B. Pereira, Joseph Vinetz, Betty Diamond, Sanjay Ram, Douglas T. Golenbock, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli

Open Access Articles

High levels of circulating immunocomplexes (ICs) are found in patients with either infectious or sterile inflammation. We report that patients with either Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria have increased levels of circulating anti-DNA antibodies and ICs containing parasite DNA. Upon stimulation with malaria-induced ICs, monocytes express an NF-kappaB transcriptional signature. The main source of IC-induced proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha] and interleukin-1beta [IL-1beta])in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from acute malaria patients was found to be a CD14(+) CD16 (FcgammaRIIIA)(+) CD64 (FcgammaRI)(high) CD32 (FcgammaRIIB)(low) monocyte subset. Monocytes from convalescent patients were predominantly of ...


The Epithelial Transmembrane Protein Perp Is Required For Inflammatory Responses To S. Typhimurium Infection: A Dissertation, Kelly N. Hallstrom Oct 2015

The Epithelial Transmembrane Protein Perp Is Required For Inflammatory Responses To S. Typhimurium Infection: A Dissertation, Kelly N. Hallstrom

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Salmonella enterica subtype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is one of many non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica strains responsible for over one million cases of salmonellosis in the United States each year. These Salmonella strains are also a leading cause of diarrheal disease in developing countries. Nontyphoidal salmonellosis induces gastrointestinal distress that is characterized histopathologically by an influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), the non-specific effects of which lead to tissue damage and contribute to diarrhea.

Prior studies from our lab have demonstrated that the type III secreted bacterial effector SipA is a key regulator of PMN influx during S. Typhimurium infection and that its ...


Eif2alpha Confers Cellular Tolerance To S. Aureus Alpha-Toxin, Gisela Von Hoven, Claudia Neukirch, Martina Meyenburg, Sabine Fuser, Maria Bidna Petrivna, Amable J. Rivas, Alexey Ryazanov, Randal J. Kaufman, Raffi V. Aroian, Matthias Husmann Jul 2015

Eif2alpha Confers Cellular Tolerance To S. Aureus Alpha-Toxin, Gisela Von Hoven, Claudia Neukirch, Martina Meyenburg, Sabine Fuser, Maria Bidna Petrivna, Amable J. Rivas, Alexey Ryazanov, Randal J. Kaufman, Raffi V. Aroian, Matthias Husmann

Open Access Articles

We report on the role of conserved stress-response pathways for cellular tolerance to a pore forming toxin. First, we observed that small molecular weight inhibitors including of eIF2alpha-phosphatase, jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), and PI3-kinase sensitized normal mouse embryonal fibroblasts (MEFs) to the small pore forming S. aureus alpha-toxin. Sensitization depended on expression of mADAM10, the murine ortholog of a proposed high-affinity receptor for alpha-toxin in human cells. Similarly, eIF2alpha (S51A/S51A) MEFs, which harbor an Ala knock-in mutation at the regulated Ser51 phosphorylation site of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2alpha, were hyper-sensitive to alpha-toxin. Inhibition of translation with cycloheximide did not ...


Virulence Of Group A Streptococci Is Enhanced By Human Complement Inhibitors, David Ermert, Jutamas Shaughnessy, Thorsten Joeris, Jakub Kaplan, Catherine J. Pang, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Peter A. Rice, Sanjay Ram, Anna M. Blom Jul 2015

Virulence Of Group A Streptococci Is Enhanced By Human Complement Inhibitors, David Ermert, Jutamas Shaughnessy, Thorsten Joeris, Jakub Kaplan, Catherine J. Pang, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Peter A. Rice, Sanjay Ram, Anna M. Blom

Open Access Articles

Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A Streptococcus (GAS), is an important human bacterial pathogen that can cause invasive infections. Once it colonizes its exclusively human host, GAS needs to surmount numerous innate immune defense mechanisms, including opsonization by complement and consequent phagocytosis. Several strains of GAS bind to human-specific complement inhibitors, C4b-binding protein (C4BP) and/or Factor H (FH), to curtail complement C3 (a critical opsonin) deposition. This results in diminished activation of phagocytes and clearance of GAS that may lead to the host being unable to limit the infection. Herein we describe the course of GAS infection in ...


Human Sewage Identified As Likely Source Of White Pox Disease Of The Threatened Caribbean Elkhorn Coral, Kathryn Sutherland, James Porter, Jeffrey Turner, Brian Thomas, Erin Looney, Trevor Luna, Meredith Meyers, J. Futch, Erin Lipp Jun 2015

Human Sewage Identified As Likely Source Of White Pox Disease Of The Threatened Caribbean Elkhorn Coral, Kathryn Sutherland, James Porter, Jeffrey Turner, Brian Thomas, Erin Looney, Trevor Luna, Meredith Meyers, J. Futch, Erin Lipp

Kathryn Patterson Sutherland PhD

Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, has been decimated in recent years, resulting in the listing of this species as threatened under the United States Endangered Species Act. A major contributing factor in the decline of this iconic species is white pox disease. In 2002, we identified the faecal enterobacterium, Serratia marcescens, as an etiological agent for white pox. During outbreaks in 2003 a unique strain of S. marcescens was identified in both human sewage and white pox lesions. This strain (PDR60) was also identified from corallivorious snails (Coralliophila abbreviata), reef water, and two non-acroporid coral species, Siderastrea siderea and Solenastrea ...


Human And Murine Clonal Cd8+ T Cell Expansions Arise During Tuberculosis Because Of Tcr Selection, Claudio Nunes-Alves, Matthew G. Booty, Stephen M. Carpenter, Alissa C. Rothchild, Constance J. Martin, Danielle Desjardins, Katherine Steblenko, Henrik N. Kløverpris, Rajhmun Madansein, Duran Ramsuran, Alasdair Leslie, Margarida Correia-Neves, Samuel M. Behar May 2015

Human And Murine Clonal Cd8+ T Cell Expansions Arise During Tuberculosis Because Of Tcr Selection, Claudio Nunes-Alves, Matthew G. Booty, Stephen M. Carpenter, Alissa C. Rothchild, Constance J. Martin, Danielle Desjardins, Katherine Steblenko, Henrik N. Kløverpris, Rajhmun Madansein, Duran Ramsuran, Alasdair Leslie, Margarida Correia-Neves, Samuel M. Behar

Microbiology and Physiological Systems Publications and Presentations

The immune system can recognize virtually any antigen, yet T cell responses against several pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, are restricted to a limited number of immunodominant epitopes. The host factors that affect immunodominance are incompletely understood. Whether immunodominant epitopes elicit protective CD8+ T cell responses or instead act as decoys to subvert immunity and allow pathogens to establish chronic infection is unknown. Here we show that anatomically distinct human granulomas contain clonally expanded CD8+ T cells with overlapping T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires. Similarly, the murine CD8+ T cell response against M. tuberculosis is dominated by TB10.44-11-specific T cells ...


Data From: Human And Murine Clonal Cd8+ T Cell Expansions Arise During Tuberculosis Because Of Tcr Selection, Claudio Nunes-Alves, Matthew G. Booty, Stephen Carpenter, Alissa C. Rothchild, Constance J. Martin, Danielle Desjardins, Katherine Steblenko, Henrik Kloverpris, Rajhmun Madansein, Duran Ramsuran, Alasdair Leslie, Margarida Correia-Neves, Samuel M. Behar Apr 2015

Data From: Human And Murine Clonal Cd8+ T Cell Expansions Arise During Tuberculosis Because Of Tcr Selection, Claudio Nunes-Alves, Matthew G. Booty, Stephen Carpenter, Alissa C. Rothchild, Constance J. Martin, Danielle Desjardins, Katherine Steblenko, Henrik Kloverpris, Rajhmun Madansein, Duran Ramsuran, Alasdair Leslie, Margarida Correia-Neves, Samuel M. Behar

MaPS Research Data

Manuscript abstract: The immune system can recognize virtually any antigen, yet T cell responses against several pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, are restricted to a limited number of immunodominant epitopes. The host factors that affect immunodominance are incompletely understood. Whether immunodominant epitopes elicit protective CD8+ T cell responses or instead act as decoys to subvert immunity and allow pathogens to establish chronic infection is unknown. Here we show that anatomically distinct human granulomas contain clonally expanded CD8+ T cells with overlapping T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires. Similarly, the murine CD8+ T cell response against M. tuberculosis is dominated by TB10.44-11-specific ...


Chitin Recognition Via Chitotriosidase Promotes Pathologic Type-2 Helper T Cell Responses To Cryptococcal Infection, Darin L. Wiesner, Charles A. Specht, Chrono K. Lee, Kyle D. Smith, Liliane Mukaremera, S. Thera Lee, Chun G. Lee, Jack A. Elias, Judith N. Nielsen, David R. Boulware, Paul R. Bohjanen, Marc K. Jenkins, Stuart M. Levitz, Kirsten Nielsen Mar 2015

Chitin Recognition Via Chitotriosidase Promotes Pathologic Type-2 Helper T Cell Responses To Cryptococcal Infection, Darin L. Wiesner, Charles A. Specht, Chrono K. Lee, Kyle D. Smith, Liliane Mukaremera, S. Thera Lee, Chun G. Lee, Jack A. Elias, Judith N. Nielsen, David R. Boulware, Paul R. Bohjanen, Marc K. Jenkins, Stuart M. Levitz, Kirsten Nielsen

Open Access Articles

Pulmonary mycoses are often associated with type-2 helper T (Th2) cell responses. However, mechanisms of Th2 cell accumulation are multifactorial and incompletely known. To investigate Th2 cell responses to pulmonary fungal infection, we developed a peptide-MHCII tetramer to track antigen-specific CD4+ T cells produced in response to infection with the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. We noted massive accruement of pathologic cryptococcal antigen-specific Th2 cells in the lungs following infection that was coordinated by lung-resident CD11b+ IRF4-dependent conventional dendritic cells. Other researchers have demonstrated that this dendritic cell subset is also capable of priming protective Th17 cell responses to another pulmonary ...


The Effect Of O Antigen Loss On The Protein Composition And Inflammatory Response Elicited By Klebsiella Pneumoniae, Bethaney Cahill Jan 2015

The Effect Of O Antigen Loss On The Protein Composition And Inflammatory Response Elicited By Klebsiella Pneumoniae, Bethaney Cahill

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative pathogen associated with numerous infections. Like all Gram-negative bacteria, K. pneumoniae naturally release outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) during all stages of cellular growth. OMVs are composed of the outer membrane components such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and outer membrane proteins and contain cytosolic and periplasmic proteins in the lumen. K. pneumoniae is often found to lack an O antigen. The absence of the O antigen has been reported to alter the protein content of the membrane which may further alter the immune response elicited by K. pneumoniae. Therefore the purpose of this study was to analyze ...