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Pathogenic Microbiology Commons

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Articles 1 - 8 of 8

Full-Text Articles in Pathogenic Microbiology

Protection Against Experimental Cryptococcosis Following Vaccination With Glucan Particles Containing Cryptococcus Alkaline Extracts, Charles A. Specht, Chrono K. Lee, Haibin Huang, Donald J. Tipper, Zu T. Shen, Jennifer K. Lodge, John D. Leszyk, Gary R. Ostroff, Stuart M. Levitz Dec 2015

Protection Against Experimental Cryptococcosis Following Vaccination With Glucan Particles Containing Cryptococcus Alkaline Extracts, Charles A. Specht, Chrono K. Lee, Haibin Huang, Donald J. Tipper, Zu T. Shen, Jennifer K. Lodge, John D. Leszyk, Gary R. Ostroff, Stuart M. Levitz

Infectious Diseases and Immunology Publications and Presentations

A vaccine capable of protecting at-risk persons against infections due to Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii could reduce the substantial global burden of human cryptococcosis. Vaccine development has been hampered though, by lack of knowledge as to which antigens are immunoprotective and the need for an effective vaccine delivery system. We made alkaline extracts from mutant cryptococcal strains that lacked capsule or chitosan. The extracts were then packaged into glucan particles (GPs), which are purified Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls composed primarily of β-1,3-glucans. Subcutaneous vaccination with the GP-based vaccines provided significant protection against subsequent pulmonary infection with highly virulent ...


Design And Testing Of Novel Anthrax Vaccines Utilizing A Tobacco Mosaic Virus Expression System, Ryan C. Mccomb Dec 2015

Design And Testing Of Novel Anthrax Vaccines Utilizing A Tobacco Mosaic Virus Expression System, Ryan C. Mccomb

KGI Theses and Dissertations

Anthrax is a potentially fatal disease caused by the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. Infection and disease occur after spores gain entry into the body, germinate into vegetative bacteria, and produce toxin. Bacillus anthracis spores have been engineered as bioweapons and have been used repeatedly in warfare and terrorism to inflict casualties in military and civilian populations. Currently, only one vaccine has been approved for prevention of anthrax in the United States. This vaccine is an undefined product that is difficult to produce, requires a long vaccination schedule, and is reactogenic. Efforts to make an improved anthrax vaccine are being pursued. With ...


Utilizing Cmp-Sialic Acid Analogs To Unravel Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide-Mediated Complement Resistance And Design Novel Therapeutics, Sunita Gulati, Ian C. Schoenhofen, Dennis M. Whitfield, Andrew D. Cox, Jianjun Li, Frank St Michael, Evgeny V. Vinogradov, Jacek Stupak, Bo Zheng, Makoto Ohnishi, Magnus Unemo, Lisa A. Lewis, Rachel E. Taylor, Corinna S. Landig, Sandra Diaz, George W. Reed, Ajit Varki, Peter A. Rice, Sanjay Ram Dec 2015

Utilizing Cmp-Sialic Acid Analogs To Unravel Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide-Mediated Complement Resistance And Design Novel Therapeutics, Sunita Gulati, Ian C. Schoenhofen, Dennis M. Whitfield, Andrew D. Cox, Jianjun Li, Frank St Michael, Evgeny V. Vinogradov, Jacek Stupak, Bo Zheng, Makoto Ohnishi, Magnus Unemo, Lisa A. Lewis, Rachel E. Taylor, Corinna S. Landig, Sandra Diaz, George W. Reed, Ajit Varki, Peter A. Rice, Sanjay Ram

Open Access Articles

Neisseria gonorrhoeae deploys a novel immune evasion strategy wherein the lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) structure of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is capped by the bacterial sialyltransferase, using host cytidine-5'-monophosphate (CMP)-activated forms of the nine-carbon nonulosonate (NulO) sugar N-acetyl-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), a sialic acid (Sia) abundant in humans. This allows evasion of complement-mediated killing by recruiting factor H (FH), an inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway, and by limiting classical pathway activation ("serum-resistance"). We utilized CMP salts of six additional natural or synthetic NulOs, Neu5Gc, Neu5Gc8Me, Neu5Ac9Ac, Neu5Ac9Az, legionaminic acid (Leg5Ac7Ac) and pseudaminic acid (Pse5Ac7Ac), to define structural requirements of Sia-mediated serum-resistance. While ...


The Epithelial Transmembrane Protein Perp Is Required For Inflammatory Responses To S. Typhimurium Infection: A Dissertation, Kelly N. Hallstrom Oct 2015

The Epithelial Transmembrane Protein Perp Is Required For Inflammatory Responses To S. Typhimurium Infection: A Dissertation, Kelly N. Hallstrom

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Salmonella enterica subtype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is one of many non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica strains responsible for over one million cases of salmonellosis in the United States each year. These Salmonella strains are also a leading cause of diarrheal disease in developing countries. Nontyphoidal salmonellosis induces gastrointestinal distress that is characterized histopathologically by an influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), the non-specific effects of which lead to tissue damage and contribute to diarrhea.

Prior studies from our lab have demonstrated that the type III secreted bacterial effector SipA is a key regulator of PMN influx during S. Typhimurium infection and that its ...


Virulence Of Group A Streptococci Is Enhanced By Human Complement Inhibitors, David Ermert, Jutamas Shaughnessy, Thorsten Joeris, Jakub Kaplan, Catherine J. Pang, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Peter A. Rice, Sanjay Ram, Anna M. Blom Jul 2015

Virulence Of Group A Streptococci Is Enhanced By Human Complement Inhibitors, David Ermert, Jutamas Shaughnessy, Thorsten Joeris, Jakub Kaplan, Catherine J. Pang, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Peter A. Rice, Sanjay Ram, Anna M. Blom

Open Access Articles

Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A Streptococcus (GAS), is an important human bacterial pathogen that can cause invasive infections. Once it colonizes its exclusively human host, GAS needs to surmount numerous innate immune defense mechanisms, including opsonization by complement and consequent phagocytosis. Several strains of GAS bind to human-specific complement inhibitors, C4b-binding protein (C4BP) and/or Factor H (FH), to curtail complement C3 (a critical opsonin) deposition. This results in diminished activation of phagocytes and clearance of GAS that may lead to the host being unable to limit the infection. Herein we describe the course of GAS infection in ...


Chitin Recognition Via Chitotriosidase Promotes Pathologic Type-2 Helper T Cell Responses To Cryptococcal Infection, Darin L. Wiesner, Charles A. Specht, Chrono K. Lee, Kyle D. Smith, Liliane Mukaremera, S. Thera Lee, Chun G. Lee, Jack A. Elias, Judith N. Nielsen, David R. Boulware, Paul R. Bohjanen, Marc K. Jenkins, Stuart M. Levitz, Kirsten Nielsen Mar 2015

Chitin Recognition Via Chitotriosidase Promotes Pathologic Type-2 Helper T Cell Responses To Cryptococcal Infection, Darin L. Wiesner, Charles A. Specht, Chrono K. Lee, Kyle D. Smith, Liliane Mukaremera, S. Thera Lee, Chun G. Lee, Jack A. Elias, Judith N. Nielsen, David R. Boulware, Paul R. Bohjanen, Marc K. Jenkins, Stuart M. Levitz, Kirsten Nielsen

Open Access Articles

Pulmonary mycoses are often associated with type-2 helper T (Th2) cell responses. However, mechanisms of Th2 cell accumulation are multifactorial and incompletely known. To investigate Th2 cell responses to pulmonary fungal infection, we developed a peptide-MHCII tetramer to track antigen-specific CD4+ T cells produced in response to infection with the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. We noted massive accruement of pathologic cryptococcal antigen-specific Th2 cells in the lungs following infection that was coordinated by lung-resident CD11b+ IRF4-dependent conventional dendritic cells. Other researchers have demonstrated that this dendritic cell subset is also capable of priming protective Th17 cell responses to another pulmonary ...


Strain Typing Mycobacterium Marinum From Outbreaks At Zebrafish Research Facilities, Brooke M. Clemons Jan 2015

Strain Typing Mycobacterium Marinum From Outbreaks At Zebrafish Research Facilities, Brooke M. Clemons

Honors Theses

Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are used as model organisms for biological research due to their rapid and transparent development and high fecundity amongst other reasons. Research has expanded beyond embryonic studies, with adult fish used for longer-term studies such as human disease and senescence. Zebrafish are often housed at high density in large colonies. As with any similar husbandry situation, diseases can occur, with impacts that range from morbidity to premature mortality costing researchers time and money. Understanding the impact of underlying diseases in zebrafish is crucial, particularly for long-term studies where chronic infections may confound results. One such disease problem ...


The Effect Of Antibiotics On Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilm Production, Courtney Paige Turpin Jan 2015

The Effect Of Antibiotics On Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilm Production, Courtney Paige Turpin

Online Theses and Dissertations

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have become an increasing burden worldwide. A highly resistant species is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a nosocomial pathogen that produces a biofilm that enhances its resistance. This project examined the possibility of using bacteriocin, an internal protective toxin produced by some species of bacteria, as a potential treatment for resistant bacteria. In this study, standard broad spectrum antibiotics were used to treat P. aeruginosa to prevent biofilm formation. The biofilm was then analyzed to determine if the biofilm is inhibited or facilitated by each treatment. Optimal concentrations of antibiotics were determined to be effective at a concentration of 0.07mg ...