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Pathogenic Microbiology Commons

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2014

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Articles 1 - 30 of 40

Full-Text Articles in Pathogenic Microbiology

Distinct Gene Signatures In Aortic Tissue From Apoe-/- Mice Exposed To Pathogens Or Western Diet, Carolyn D. Kramer, Ellen O. Weinberg, Adam C. Gower, Xianbao He, Samrawit Mekasha, Connie Slocum, Lea M. Beaulieu, Lee Wetzler, Yuriy Alekseyev, Frank C. Gibson Iii, Jane E. Freedman, Robin R. Ingalls, Caroline A. Genco Dec 2014

Distinct Gene Signatures In Aortic Tissue From Apoe-/- Mice Exposed To Pathogens Or Western Diet, Carolyn D. Kramer, Ellen O. Weinberg, Adam C. Gower, Xianbao He, Samrawit Mekasha, Connie Slocum, Lea M. Beaulieu, Lee Wetzler, Yuriy Alekseyev, Frank C. Gibson Iii, Jane E. Freedman, Robin R. Ingalls, Caroline A. Genco

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease characterized by inflammation and accumulation of lipids in vascular tissue. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp) are associated with inflammatory atherosclerosis in humans. Similar to endogenous mediators arising from excessive dietary lipids, these Gram-negative pathogens are pro-atherogenic in animal models, although the specific inflammatory/atherogenic pathways induced by these stimuli are not well defined. In this study, we identified gene expression profiles that characterize P. gingivalis, C. pneumoniae, and Western diet (WD) at acute and chronic time points in aortas of Apolipoprotein E (ApoE-/-) mice.

RESULTS: At the chronic time point, we observed ...


Modulation Of Host Polyubiquitination By The Ankb F-Box Protein Of Legionella Pneumophila., William M. Bruckert Dec 2014

Modulation Of Host Polyubiquitination By The Ankb F-Box Protein Of Legionella Pneumophila., William M. Bruckert

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Legionella pneumophila is a facultative intracellular pathogen that infects a wide array of protozoan hosts and human alveolar macrophages. L. pneumophila is dependent on a functional Dot/Icm type IVB secretion system that translocates bacterial effector proteins into the host cell cytosol. L. pneumophila genomes encode more than 250 effector proteins, many of which inhibit host cellular processes to form a favorable niche termed the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). The eukaryotic-like Dot/Icm translocated effector AnkB contains two eukaryotic-like ankyrin protein-protein interacting domains, one eukaryotic-like F- box domain and an eukaryotic C-terminal CaaX motif. Immediately following attachment of extracellular bacteria, AnkB ...


Comparative Genomics Of Microbial Chemoreceptor Sequence, Structure, And Function, Aaron Daniel Fleetwood Dec 2014

Comparative Genomics Of Microbial Chemoreceptor Sequence, Structure, And Function, Aaron Daniel Fleetwood

Doctoral Dissertations

Microbial chemotaxis receptors (chemoreceptors) are complex proteins that sense the external environment and signal for flagella-mediated motility, serving as the GPS of the cell. In order to sense a myriad of physicochemical signals and adapt to diverse environmental niches, sensory regions of chemoreceptors are frenetically duplicated, mutated, or lost. Conversely, the chemoreceptor signaling region is a highly conserved protein domain. Extreme conservation of this domain is necessary because it determines very specific helical secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of the protein while simultaneously choreographing a network of interactions with the adaptor protein CheW and the histidine kinase CheA. This dichotomous ...


Methane Production By A Packed-Bed Anaerobic Digester Fed Dairy Barn Flush Water, Sean Richard Thomson Dec 2014

Methane Production By A Packed-Bed Anaerobic Digester Fed Dairy Barn Flush Water, Sean Richard Thomson

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Packed-bed digesters are an alternative to covered lagoon digesters for methane production and anaerobic treatment of dilute wastewaters such as dairy barn flush water. The physical media of packed-beds retain biofilms, often allowing increased treatment rates. Previous studies have evaluated several types of media for digestion of dilute wastewaters, but cost and media fouling have setback commercial development. A major operational cost has been effluent recirculation pumping.

In the present effort, a novel approach to anaerobic digestion of flush dairy water was developed at pilot-scale: broken walnut shells were used as a low-cost packed-bed medium and effluent recirculation was replaced ...


The Role Of Superantigens During Staphylococcus Aureus Nasal Colonization And Infection, Stacey Xu Oct 2014

The Role Of Superantigens During Staphylococcus Aureus Nasal Colonization And Infection, Stacey Xu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Superantigens (SAgs) are potent toxins produced by bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus that function to overactivate T cells resulting in massive cytokine production and immune activation. Despite decades of research on the structure and function of these proteins, as well as their role in severe diseases such as toxic shock syndrome, the question as to why strains of S. aureus produce SAgs and the role that they play in the life cycle of these bacteria remains unanswered. The contribution of SAgs towards pathogenicity and bacterial survival in vivo were assessed using isogenic SAg deletion knockouts in conjunction with SAg-sensitive humanized ...


Allele-Specific Induction Of Il-1beta Expression By C/Ebpbeta And Pu.1 Contributes To Increased Tuberculosis Susceptibility, Guoliang Zhang, Boping Zhou, Shaoyuan Li, Jun Yue, Hui Yang, Yuxin Wen, Senlin Zhan, Wenfei Wang, Mingfeng Liao, Mingxia Zhang, Gucheng Zeng, Carl G. Feng, Christopher M. Sassetti, Xinchun Chen Oct 2014

Allele-Specific Induction Of Il-1beta Expression By C/Ebpbeta And Pu.1 Contributes To Increased Tuberculosis Susceptibility, Guoliang Zhang, Boping Zhou, Shaoyuan Li, Jun Yue, Hui Yang, Yuxin Wen, Senlin Zhan, Wenfei Wang, Mingfeng Liao, Mingxia Zhang, Gucheng Zeng, Carl G. Feng, Christopher M. Sassetti, Xinchun Chen

Open Access Articles

Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is associated with a spectrum of clinical outcomes, from long-term latent infection to different manifestations of progressive disease. Pro-inflammatory pathways, such as those controlled by IL-1beta, have the contrasting potential both to prevent disease by restricting bacterial replication, and to promote disease by inflicting tissue damage. Thus, the ultimate contribution of individual inflammatory pathways to the outcome of M. tuberculosis infection remains ambiguous. In this study, we identified a naturally-occurring polymorphism in the human IL1B promoter region, which alters the association of the C/EBPbeta and PU.1 transcription factors and controls Mtb-induced IL-1beta production. The high-IL-1beta ...


Density-Dependent Prophylaxis In Crowded Beet Webworm, Loxostege Sticticalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Larvae To A Parasitoid And A Fungal Pathogen, Hailong Kong, Yunxia Cheng, Lizhi Luo, Thomas W. Sappington, Xingfu Jiang, Lei Zhang Oct 2014

Density-Dependent Prophylaxis In Crowded Beet Webworm, Loxostege Sticticalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Larvae To A Parasitoid And A Fungal Pathogen, Hailong Kong, Yunxia Cheng, Lizhi Luo, Thomas W. Sappington, Xingfu Jiang, Lei Zhang

Thomas W. Sappington

Transmission of parasites and pathogens is generally positively density-dependent: as an insect population's density increases, the risk of an individual becoming attacked or infected also increases. In some insect species, individuals experiencing crowded conditions are more resistant to natural enemies than those experiencing low density conditions, and they are predicted to divert resources to increase resistance. This phenomenon is called density-dependent prophylaxis. Here, possible expression of prophylaxis in fifth-instar larvae of Beet Webworm, Loxostege sticticalis, to biocontrol agents was investigated under rearing densities of 1, 10, and 30 larvae per jar (650 mL). Larvae reared at the moderate density ...


The Potential Of Quinoline Derivatives For The Treatment Of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection., Sirinart Ananvoranich Oct 2014

The Potential Of Quinoline Derivatives For The Treatment Of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection., Sirinart Ananvoranich

Chemistry and Biochemistry Publications

Here we reported our investigation, as part of our drug repositioning effort, on anti-Toxoplasma properties of newly synthesized quinoline compounds. A collection of 4-aminoquinoline and 4-piperazinylquinoline analogs have recently been synthesized for use in cancer chemotherapy. Some analogs were able to outperform chloroquine, a quinoline derivative drug which is commonly used in the treatment of malaria and other parasitic infections. Herein 58 compounds containing one or two quinoline rings were examined for their effectiveness as potential anti-Toxoplasma compounds. Of these 58 compounds, 32 were efficient at inhibiting Toxoplasma growth (IC50μM). Five compounds with single and simple quinoline rings exhibited similar ...


Out-Of-Sequence Signal 3 As A Mechanism For Virus-Induced Immune Suppression Of Cd8 T Cell Responses, Stina L. Urban, Raymond M. Welsh Sep 2014

Out-Of-Sequence Signal 3 As A Mechanism For Virus-Induced Immune Suppression Of Cd8 T Cell Responses, Stina L. Urban, Raymond M. Welsh

Open Access Articles

Virus infections are known to induce a transient state of immune suppression often associated with an inhibition of T cell proliferation in response to mitogen or cognate-antigen stimulation. Recently, virus-induced immune suppression has been linked to responses to type 1 interferon (IFN), a signal 3 cytokine that normally can augment the proliferation and differentiation of T cells exposed to antigen (signal 1) and co-stimulation (signal 2). However, pre-exposure of CD8 T cells to IFN-inducers such as viruses or poly(IratioC) prior to antigen signaling is inhibitory, indicating that the timing of IFN exposure is of essence. We show here that ...


Genome-Wide Mutant Fitness Profiling Identifies Nutritional Requirements For Optimal Growth Of Yersinia Pestis In Deep Tissue, Samantha G. Palace, Megan K. Proulx, Shan Lu, Richard E. Baker, Jon D. Goguen Aug 2014

Genome-Wide Mutant Fitness Profiling Identifies Nutritional Requirements For Optimal Growth Of Yersinia Pestis In Deep Tissue, Samantha G. Palace, Megan K. Proulx, Shan Lu, Richard E. Baker, Jon D. Goguen

GSBS Student Publications

Rapid growth in deep tissue is essential to the high virulence of Yersinia pestis, causative agent of plague. To better understand the mechanisms underlying this unusual ability, we used transposon mutagenesis and high-throughput sequencing (Tn-seq) to systematically probe the Y. pestis genome for elements contributing to fitness during infection. More than a million independent insertion mutants representing nearly 200,000 unique genotypes were generated in fully virulent Y. pestis. Each mutant in the library was assayed for its ability to proliferate in vitro on rich medium and in mice following intravenous injection. Virtually all genes previously established to contribute to ...


Diversity Of Bacteria Carried By Pinewood Nematode In Usa And Phylogenetic Comparison With Isolates From Other Countries, Diogo Neves Proença, Luís Fonseca, Thomas Powers, Isabel M.O. Abrantes, Paula V. Morais Aug 2014

Diversity Of Bacteria Carried By Pinewood Nematode In Usa And Phylogenetic Comparison With Isolates From Other Countries, Diogo Neves Proença, Luís Fonseca, Thomas Powers, Isabel M.O. Abrantes, Paula V. Morais

Papers in Plant Pathology

Pine wilt disease (PWD) is native to North America and has spread to Asia and Europe. Lately, mutualistic relationship has been suggested between the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus the causal nematode agent of PWD, and bacteria. In countries where PWN occurs, nematodes from diseased trees were reported to carry bacteria from several genera. However no data exists for the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of the bacterial community carried by B. xylophilus, isolated from different Pinus spp. with PWD in Nebraska, United States. The bacteria carried by PWN belonged to Gammaproteobacteria (79 ...


Construction And Characterization Of Non-Toxic Bacterial Enterotoxins As Vaccine Adjuvants, Lavanya Vempati Aug 2014

Construction And Characterization Of Non-Toxic Bacterial Enterotoxins As Vaccine Adjuvants, Lavanya Vempati

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

The development of adjuvants that can promote the delivery of purified subunit vaccines by mucosal routes, such as the nose or the mouth, is recognized as a top priority for vaccine research. The bacterial enterotoxins; cholera toxin (CT) and E.coli heat-labile toxin (LTI), have long been recognized as powerful adjuvants with the ability to stimulate specific immune responses to co-administered antigens when delivered to mucosal surfaces. Shiga toxin 1 (ST1) and pertussis toxin (PT) are structurally homologous bacterial toxins secreted by Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Bordetella pertussis respectively. ST1 and PT also have reported adjuvant activity but it ...


Potential Roles Of Peroxidases In Caenorhabditis Elegans Innate Immunity, George R. Tiller, George R. Tiller Aug 2014

Potential Roles Of Peroxidases In Caenorhabditis Elegans Innate Immunity, George R. Tiller, George R. Tiller

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The production of ROS (reactive oxygen species) in response to pathogen detection is a rapid, nonspecific response that is evolutionarily conserved from nematodes to humans. ROS serve as direct and indirect effectors of innate and adaptive immunity. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a ROS burst is observed during infection and is mediated by the dual oxidase BLI-3, which produces H2O2. RNAi (RNA interference) to reduce the amount of BLI-3 results in a significant increase in susceptibility to pathogens, suggesting BLI-3 has a role in the immune response. However, H2O2 by itself is not a potent antimicrobial ...


Development Of Chimeric Type Iv Secretion Systems For Transfer Of Heterologous Substrates Across The Gram-Negative Cell Envelope, Trista M. Berry Aug 2014

Development Of Chimeric Type Iv Secretion Systems For Transfer Of Heterologous Substrates Across The Gram-Negative Cell Envelope, Trista M. Berry

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Many bacteria use Type IV Secretion Systems (T4SSs) to aid in pathogenesis by translocating virulence factors across the cell envelope and into eukaryotic cells. These systems are structurally and functionally diverse, but are often compared to the archetypal VirB/VirD4 T4SS of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. This system is composed of the VirD4 type IV coupling protein (T4CP) and 11 VirB subunits (VirB1-11) that assemble as the secretion channel and an extracellular pilus. The T4CP is an inner membrane ATPase that interacts with T4SS substrates and the secretion channel, and is thought to link substrates with the secretion channel and possibly energize ...


Impedance Biosensors For The Rapid Detection Of Viral And Bacterial Pathogens Using Avian Influenza Virus Subtypes H5n1 And H7n2 And Escherichia Coli O157:H7 As Model Targets, Jacob David Lum Aug 2014

Impedance Biosensors For The Rapid Detection Of Viral And Bacterial Pathogens Using Avian Influenza Virus Subtypes H5n1 And H7n2 And Escherichia Coli O157:H7 As Model Targets, Jacob David Lum

Theses and Dissertations

This research investigated impedance biosensors for the rapid detection of viral and bacterial pathogens using avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5N1 and H7N2 and Escherichia coli O157:H7 as the model targets, which were chosen due to their impact on the agricultural and food industries. For the detection of AIV H7N2, a single stranded DNA aptamer was selected using systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). The selected aptamer and a previously selected aptamer against AIV H5N1 were used in a microfluidics chip with an embedded interdigitated array microelectrode to fabricate an impedance biosensor for specific detection of AIV ...


The Machinery At Endoplasmic Reticulum-Plasma Membrane Contact Sites Contributes To Spatial Regulation Of Multiple Legionella Effector Proteins, Andree Hubber, Kohei Arasaki, Fubito Nakatsu, Camille Hardiman, David G. Lambright, Pietro De Camilli, Hiroki Nagai, Craig R. Roy Jul 2014

The Machinery At Endoplasmic Reticulum-Plasma Membrane Contact Sites Contributes To Spatial Regulation Of Multiple Legionella Effector Proteins, Andree Hubber, Kohei Arasaki, Fubito Nakatsu, Camille Hardiman, David G. Lambright, Pietro De Camilli, Hiroki Nagai, Craig R. Roy

Open Access Articles

The Dot/Icm system of the intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila has the capacity to deliver over 270 effector proteins into host cells during infection. Important questions remain as to spatial and temporal mechanisms used to regulate such a large array of virulence determinants after they have been delivered into host cells. Here we investigated several L. pneumophila effector proteins that contain a conserved phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P)-binding domain first described in the effector DrrA (SidM). This PI4P binding domain was essential for the localization of effectors to the early L. pneumophila-containing vacuole (LCV), and DrrA-mediated recruitment of Rab1 to the LCV ...


Identification Of Novel Small Rnas And Characterization Of The 6s Rna Of Coxiella Burnetii, Indu Warrier, Linda D. Hicks, James M. Battisti, Rahul Raghavan, Michael F. Minnick Jun 2014

Identification Of Novel Small Rnas And Characterization Of The 6s Rna Of Coxiella Burnetii, Indu Warrier, Linda D. Hicks, James M. Battisti, Rahul Raghavan, Michael F. Minnick

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Coxiella burnetii, an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes Q fever, undergoes a biphasic developmental cycle that alternates between a metabolically-active large cell variant (LCV) and a dormant small cell variant (SCV). As such, the bacterium undoubtedly employs complex modes of regulating its lifecycle, metabolism and pathogenesis. Small RNAs (sRNAs) have been shown to play important regulatory roles in controlling metabolism and virulence in several pathogenic bacteria. We hypothesize that sRNAs are involved in regulating growth and development of C. burnetii and its infection of host cells. To address the hypothesis and identify potential sRNAs, we subjected total RNA ...


Investigating The Viability Of Two Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia Isolates After Air-Drying, Samantha Lane, Joanna Brooke Jun 2014

Investigating The Viability Of Two Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia Isolates After Air-Drying, Samantha Lane, Joanna Brooke

DePaul Discoveries

Abstract

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a water-borne infectious bacterium that is found in both clinical (hospitals) and non-clinical environments. This human pathogen is commonly recovered from respiratory tract infections. A recent study at a hospital in Taiwan suggested that dry patient charts can serve as a vehicle of transmission of this bacterium7. As S. maltophilia is not commonly isolated from dry surfaces, this current study tested the hypothesis that this pathogen can remain viable for some time on a dry surface. This study was designed to determine how long S. maltophilia could remain viable after air-drying by observing culture growth ...


Sub-Inhibitory Antibiotics Enhance Virulence, Persistence, And Pathogenesis Of Uropathogens, Lee W. Goneau Jun 2014

Sub-Inhibitory Antibiotics Enhance Virulence, Persistence, And Pathogenesis Of Uropathogens, Lee W. Goneau

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In addition to their bactericidal effects, antibiotics are potent signal mediators at sub-inhibitory levels in the environment. The ability to modulate community structure in this niche raises concerns over their capacity to influence pathogenesis in patients during antibiotic therapy. This concept forms the basis of this thesis, and is explored using models of prophylactic therapy for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) management.

Sub-inhibitory ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, and gentamicin were found to augment virulence in vitro, increasing adherence and urothelial cell invasion in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. In addition, biofilm formation was increased, and swarming motility decreased. In UPEC ...


Characterization Of Corynebacterium Pseudotuberculosis Biovar Equi Isolates Obtained From Cal Poly Horses And Review Of Application Of Transposons To Better Prevent Pigeon Fever In Horses, Irene Hasen Jun 2014

Characterization Of Corynebacterium Pseudotuberculosis Biovar Equi Isolates Obtained From Cal Poly Horses And Review Of Application Of Transposons To Better Prevent Pigeon Fever In Horses, Irene Hasen

Animal Science

No abstract provided.


Chlorovirus Skp1 And Core Ankyrin-Repeat Protein Interplay And Mimicry Of Cellular Ubiquitin Ligase Machinery, Eric Andrew Noel Jun 2014

Chlorovirus Skp1 And Core Ankyrin-Repeat Protein Interplay And Mimicry Of Cellular Ubiquitin Ligase Machinery, Eric Andrew Noel

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

The ubiquitin-proteasome system is a common target of several unrelated viruses that have evolved convergent strategies to redirect host ubiquitin machinery to serve their own needs. Members of the genus Chlorovirus, a group of large dsDNA viruses that infect certain freshwater chlorella-like green algae, encode a conserved Skp1 homolog and ankyrin-repeat (ANK) proteins, some of which contain C-terminal domains characteristic of cellular F-boxes or related viral PRANC domains. These observations suggested that this unique combination of chlorovirus proteins either interact with or imitate the key components of the SCF (Skp1-Cul1-F-box) ubiquitin ligases. Using mass spectrometry, we identified two functional classes ...


Use Of Cholera Toxin B As A Vaccine Adjuvant Activates Antigen Presenting Cells And Stimulates Production Of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines, Heather C. Romlein May 2014

Use Of Cholera Toxin B As A Vaccine Adjuvant Activates Antigen Presenting Cells And Stimulates Production Of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines, Heather C. Romlein

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Francisella tularensis is an intracellular pathogen that has been classified as a category “A” bioterrorism agent by the Centers For Disease Control. To date, there is no approved vaccine to provide protection against this pathogen. Previous in vivo studies with mice have shown that a mucosally targeted vaccine preparation of inactivated F. tularensis (iFt) adjuvanted with Cholera toxin “B” (CTB), successfully granted full protection against a less virulent strain (FT LVS) of the bacterium and provided partial protection against a more virulent strain (SchuS4). However, the mechanisms of this protection are not fully understood. In this present study, an in ...


Investigating Antibiotic Resistance Levels Of Salmonella Internalized In Lettuce Leaves, Jason B. Thomas May 2014

Investigating Antibiotic Resistance Levels Of Salmonella Internalized In Lettuce Leaves, Jason B. Thomas

The McNair Scholars Research Journal

Contamination of food crops by the human pathogen Salmonella is a food safety threat worldwide. Though using treated wastewater for irrigation is a sustainable practice, it may introduce trace levels of Salmonella that may contaminate food crops. Salmonella could develop resistance to antibiotics present in wastewater. The overall goal of the project is to increase the understanding of the public health risk associated with the use of treated wastewater to irrigate food crops. The objective of this particular study is to determine the antibiotic resistance level of Salmonella internalized in lettuce leaves. In this experiment, thirty-six plants of the lettuce ...


Regulation Of The Candida Albicans Arginine Biosynthetic Pathway, Claudia Jimenez Lopez May 2014

Regulation Of The Candida Albicans Arginine Biosynthetic Pathway, Claudia Jimenez Lopez

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Candida albicans is the most importan thuman-associatedfungus.It is a commensal microorganism but also an opportunistic pathogen able to cause superficial infections aswellaslife-threateninginfectionswhich are associated with a highmortalityrateof 50%. The interactions between C. albicans and the cells of the mammalian innate immune system, which confer the most important protecting mechanisms against disseminated infections, are very dynamic and determine the success of C. albicans as a pathogen. Transcriptional profiling has shown that phagocytosis of C. albicans by macrophages results primarily in the activation of alternative carbon metabolism pathways suggesting that the pathogen is exposed to a glucose poor environment. Changes ...


Polymorphic Membrane Protein Expression In Chlamydia/Hsv Co-Infected Cells, Julia S. Colgrove May 2014

Polymorphic Membrane Protein Expression In Chlamydia/Hsv Co-Infected Cells, Julia S. Colgrove

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Chlamydiaceae are a bacterial family that contains a single genus: Chlamydia. The genus Chlamydia consists of 9 species that are obligate, intracellular pathogens. Untreated C. trachomatis infections can lead to serious health ramifications, such as ectopic pregnancy, tubal factor infertility, pelvic inflammatory disease, and long-term pelvic pain. In this study, it was found that a primary antibody dilution of 1:400 using methanol fixed HeLA cells, as derived from Carrasco, et al. protocol, was only optimal for PMP-C staining. Pmp-A, Pmp-B, and Pmp-F were found to stain brighter with formaldehyde fixed, infected HeLa cells and using different primary antibody ...


Poultry Performance And Food Safety Impacts Of Selected Organic Acids And Probiotics, Anita Menconi May 2014

Poultry Performance And Food Safety Impacts Of Selected Organic Acids And Probiotics, Anita Menconi

Theses and Dissertations

Improving production parameters and controlling foodborne pathogens have been challenges to the poultry industry. Salmonella has been the most common bacterial pathogen in laboratory confirmed foodborne illness cases, and contaminated poultry and poultry products have been identified as the most important source of transmission of Salmonella to humans. Therefore, research on effective interventions to reduce Salmonella transmission at the poultry production level has gained attention. Initially, a series of studies was conducted to evaluate the use of selected organic acids in controlling foodborne pathogens and improving poultry performance. Then, the characterization and application of lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp ...


Study Of The Function Of The Mold Specific Gene Ms95 In Dna Repair In The Pathogenic, Dimorphic Fungus Histoplasma Capsulatum, Erin M. Smith May 2014

Study Of The Function Of The Mold Specific Gene Ms95 In Dna Repair In The Pathogenic, Dimorphic Fungus Histoplasma Capsulatum, Erin M. Smith

Honors Theses

Histoplasma capsulatum (Hc) is a dimorphic fungus that is the etiologic agent of the respiratory infection Histoplasmosis that is mediated by a shift from the mold phase to the pathogenic yeast phase. Genes have been identified that are specific to the mold or yeast phase in order to study the molecular biology of this shift. MS95 was identified in a subtractive cDNA library that was enriched for mold-specific genes, and has been found to be homologous to the DNA damage-responsive gene DDR48, which functions in DNA repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to elucidate the function of MS95, a loss ...


Colonization Of Intestinal Pathogen Changes The Gut Microbiota, Kaitlyn Shondelmyer Apr 2014

Colonization Of Intestinal Pathogen Changes The Gut Microbiota, Kaitlyn Shondelmyer

Senior Honors Theses

Enterohemorrhagic Escherechia coli is a serious human pathogen causing bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome. It is difficult to study in animal models, but pathogenesis may be modeled in mice with the similar murine pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium. C. rodentium does not cause disease in streptomycin-treated mice, suggesting that it is competition with other facultative anaerobes that triggers pathogenesis. Streptomycin-treated mice were co-colonized with C. rodentium and a commensal E. coli strain. The intestinal microbiota of each group was observed over a 15-day period using quantitative PCR. Colon weights were also measured over the same period. Results indicate that the disease ...


Ifitm3 Restricts Influenza A Virus Entry By Blocking The Formation Of Fusion Pores Following Virus-Endosome Hemifusion, Tanay M. Desai, Mariana Marin, Christopher R. Chin, George Savidis, Abraham L. Brass, Gregory B. Melikyan Apr 2014

Ifitm3 Restricts Influenza A Virus Entry By Blocking The Formation Of Fusion Pores Following Virus-Endosome Hemifusion, Tanay M. Desai, Mariana Marin, Christopher R. Chin, George Savidis, Abraham L. Brass, Gregory B. Melikyan

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) inhibit infection of diverse enveloped viruses, including the influenza A virus (IAV) which is thought to enter from late endosomes. Recent evidence suggests that IFITMs block virus hemifusion (lipid mixing in the absence of viral content release) by altering the properties of cell membranes. Consistent with this mechanism, excess cholesterol in late endosomes of IFITM-expressing cells has been reported to inhibit IAV entry. Here, we examined IAV restriction by IFITM3 protein using direct virus-cell fusion assay and single virus imaging in live cells. IFITM3 over-expression did not inhibit lipid mixing, but abrogated the release of viral ...


Cd8+ T Cell And Nk Responses To A Novel Dengue Epitope: A Possible Role For Kir3dl1 In Dengue Pathogenesis: A Dissertation, Elizabeth Townsley Apr 2014

Cd8+ T Cell And Nk Responses To A Novel Dengue Epitope: A Possible Role For Kir3dl1 In Dengue Pathogenesis: A Dissertation, Elizabeth Townsley

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Variation in the sequence of T cell epitopes between dengue virus (DENV) serotypes is believed to alter memory T cell responses during second heterologous infections contributing to pathology following DENV infection. We identified a highly conserved, novel, HLA-B57-restricted epitope on the DENV NS1 protein, NS126-34. We predicted higher frequencies of NS126-34-specific CD8+ T cells in PBMC from individuals undergoing secondary, rather than primary, DENV infection due to the expansion of memory CD8+T cells. We generated a tetramer against this epitope (B57-NS126-34TET) and used it to assess the frequencies and phenotype of antigen-specific T cells ...