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Pathogenic Microbiology Commons

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2010

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Articles 1 - 21 of 21

Full-Text Articles in Pathogenic Microbiology

Characterization Of The Agrobacterium Tumefaciens Virb2 Pilin Of The Virb/D4 Type Iv Secretion System, Jennifer Kerr Dec 2010

Characterization Of The Agrobacterium Tumefaciens Virb2 Pilin Of The Virb/D4 Type Iv Secretion System, Jennifer Kerr

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB/D4 type IV secretion system (T4SS) delivers oncogenic T-DNA and effector proteins to susceptible plant cells. This leads to the formation of tumors termed Crown Galls. The VirB/D4 T4SS is comprised of 12 subunits (VirB1 to VirB11 and VirD4), which assemble to form two structures, a secretion channel spanning the cell envelope and a T-pilus extending from the cell surface. In A. tumefaciens, the VirB2 pilin subunit is required for assembly of the secretion channel and is the main subunit of the T-pilus. The focus of this thesis is to define key reactions associated with ...


Study Of Population Diversity Of Toxoplasma Gondii, Debashree Majumdar Dec 2010

Study Of Population Diversity Of Toxoplasma Gondii, Debashree Majumdar

Masters Theses

Toxoplasma gondii, the causal agent of toxoplasmosis, is an important water and food borne protozoan parasite. T. gondii was previously shown to have a distinct clonal population structure composed of Type I, II and III lineages in North America and Europe. But more recent studies demonstrated high diversity in South America. In the present project we have conducted an intensive study of the population diversity of T. gondii and surveyed the extent of genetic variation among natural T. gondii isolates on a global scale in order to better understand the population dynamics and pathogenesis of this parasite. To this end ...


Analysis Of The Clear Plaque Phenotype Of The Bacteriophage Hk75, Phani Chandrika Kunapuli Dec 2010

Analysis Of The Clear Plaque Phenotype Of The Bacteriophage Hk75, Phani Chandrika Kunapuli

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The growth of bacteriophage HK75 is inhibited by specific mutations in the zinc binding domain of the host RNA polymerase beta prime subunit. It shares this rare property with bacteriophage HK022 and other phages that use RNA mediated antitermination to promote early gene expression. Recent genomic analysis of HK75 and HK022 has confirmed the relatedness of these two phages and place HK75 in the lambdoid family of bacteriophages. Lambdoid phages are temperate and can adopt a lytic or lysogenic lifestyle upon infection of a suitable host. However, HK75 only forms clear plaques and thus appears to be defective in its ...


Phylometrics: A Pipeline For Inferring Phylogenetic Trees From A Sequence Relationship Network Perspective, Samuel A. Smits, Cleber C. Ouverney Nov 2010

Phylometrics: A Pipeline For Inferring Phylogenetic Trees From A Sequence Relationship Network Perspective, Samuel A. Smits, Cleber C. Ouverney

Cleber C. Ouverney

Background Comparative sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene is frequently used to characterize the microbial diversity of environmental samples. However, sequence similarities do not always imply functional or evolutionary relatedness due to many factors, including unequal rates of change and convergence. Thus, relying on top BLASTN hits for phylogenetic studies may misrepresent the diversity of these constituents. Furthermore, attempts to circumvent this issue by including a large number of BLASTN hits per sequence in one tree to explore their relatedness presents other problems. For instance, the multiple sequence alignment will be poor and computationally costly if not relying on ...


Midgut Barrier Imparts Selective Resistance To Filarial Worm Infection In Culex Pipiens Pipiens, Michelle L. Michalski, Sarah M. Erickson, Bruce M. Christensen, Lyric C. Bartholomay Nov 2010

Midgut Barrier Imparts Selective Resistance To Filarial Worm Infection In Culex Pipiens Pipiens, Michelle L. Michalski, Sarah M. Erickson, Bruce M. Christensen, Lyric C. Bartholomay

Entomology Publications

Mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex thrive in temperate and tropical regions worldwide, and serve as efficient vectors of Bancroftian lymphatic filariasis (LF) caused by Wuchereria bancrofti in Asia, Africa, the West Indies, South America, and Micronesia. However, members of this mosquito complex do not act as natural vectors for Brugian LF caused by Brugia malayi, or for the cat parasite B. pahangi, despite their presence in South Asia where these parasites are endemic. Previous work with the Iowa strain of Culex pipiens pipiens demonstrates that it is equally susceptible to W. bancrofti as is the natural Cx. p. pipiens ...


Phylometrics: A Pipeline For Inferring Phylogenetic Trees From A Sequence Relationship Network Perspective, Samuel A. Smits, Cleber C. Ouverney Oct 2010

Phylometrics: A Pipeline For Inferring Phylogenetic Trees From A Sequence Relationship Network Perspective, Samuel A. Smits, Cleber C. Ouverney

Faculty Publications

Background
Comparative sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene is frequently used to characterize the microbial diversity of environmental samples. However, sequence similarities do not always imply functional or evolutionary relatedness due to many factors, including unequal rates of change and convergence. Thus, relying on top BLASTN hits for phylogenetic studies may misrepresent the diversity of these constituents. Furthermore, attempts to circumvent this issue by including a large number of BLASTN hits per sequence in one tree to explore their relatedness presents other problems. For instance, the multiple sequence alignment will be poor and computationally costly if not relying on ...


Jsphylosvg: A Javascript Library For Visualizing Interactive And Vector-Based Phylogenetic Trees On The Web, Samuel A. Smits, Cleber C. Ouverney Aug 2010

Jsphylosvg: A Javascript Library For Visualizing Interactive And Vector-Based Phylogenetic Trees On The Web, Samuel A. Smits, Cleber C. Ouverney

Faculty Publications

Background
Many software packages have been developed to address the need for generating phylogenetic trees intended for print. With an increased use of the web to disseminate scientific literature, there is a need for phylogenetic trees to be viewable across many types of devices and feature some of the interactive elements that are integral to the browsing experience. We propose a novel approach for publishing interactive phylogenetic trees.

Methods/Principal Findings
We present a javascript library, jsPhyloSVG, which facilitates constructing interactive phylogenetic trees from raw Newick or phyloXML formats directly within the browser in Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) format. It ...


Methicillin Resistance In Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius, Chad Christopher Black Aug 2010

Methicillin Resistance In Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius, Chad Christopher Black

Doctoral Dissertations

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius affecting dogs is analogous to S. aureus on humans, acting as both normal flora and opportunistic pathogen. Methicillin resistance in S. pseudintermedius is recent, with the first documented occurrence of an isolate bearing the methicillin resistance gene, mecA, in 1999. This gene encodes penicillin binding protein 2a, which renders all beta-lactam drugs ineffective and functions as a “gateway” antibiotic resistance determinant. In the presence of ineffective antibiotics, opportunities for mutational events and acquisition of mobile genetic elements increase as microbial densities increase, often leading to multi-drug resistance. Methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) infections have become increasingly common. For example ...


A Metagenomic Study Of The Tick Midgut, Daniel T. Yuan Aug 2010

A Metagenomic Study Of The Tick Midgut, Daniel T. Yuan

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

A Metagenomic Study of the Tick Midgut
Daniel Yuan, B.S.
Supervisory Professor : Steven J. Norris, Ph.D.
Southern tick–associated rash illness (STARI) or Master’s disease is a Lyme-like illness that occurs following bites by Amblyomma americanum, the lone-star tick. Clinical symptoms include a bull’s eye rash similar to the erythema migrans lesions of Lyme disease, as well as fever and joint pains. Lyme disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and related spirochetes. However, B. burgdorferi has not been detected in STARI patients, or in ticks in the South Central U.S. The causative agent of STARI ...


Campylobacter Pathogenesis And Subunit Vaccine Development, Ximin Zeng Aug 2010

Campylobacter Pathogenesis And Subunit Vaccine Development, Ximin Zeng

Doctoral Dissertations

Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the United States. Increasing resistance of Campylobacter to clinical antibiotics raises an urgent need for novel strategies to prevent and control infections in humans and animal reservoirs, which necessitates a better understanding of Campylobacter pathogenesis. We hypothesize that multidrug efflux pump CmeABC and ferric enterobactin (FeEnt) iron acquisition systems, which play a critical role in Campylobacter pathogenesis, are novel targets for developing effective measures against Campylobacter. To test this, the molecular, antigenic, functional, and protective characteristics of two outer membrane proteins, CmeC (an essential component of CmeABC drug efflux ...


Communities Of Cloacal Bacteria In Tree Swallow Families, Michael Lombardo, Patrick Thorpe, R. Cichewicz, M. Henshaw, C. Millard, C. Steen, T. Zeller Jul 2010

Communities Of Cloacal Bacteria In Tree Swallow Families, Michael Lombardo, Patrick Thorpe, R. Cichewicz, M. Henshaw, C. Millard, C. Steen, T. Zeller

Michael P Lombardo

Our aim in this study was to survey the communities of bacteria found in the cloacae of adult and nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), determine if there were familial patterns of prevalence, and determine if there were relationships between bacteria loads and nestling size when 12 days old and fledging success.


On The Evolution Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases In Birds, Michael Lombardo Jul 2010

On The Evolution Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases In Birds, Michael Lombardo

Michael P Lombardo

"The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com".

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in animals are caused by pathogens that are transmitted during copulation. Birds have played an important role in the development of STD-centered theories of mating behavior. However, it is not known whether STDs exist in wild bird populations. While the avian cloaca with its dual functions of gamete transfer and excretion seemingly predisposes birds for the evolution of STDs, the life history patterns of most birds (i.e., seasonal breeders with relatively brief annual periods of sexual activity) suggest otherwise. The importance of STDs as selective forces ...


Molecular Basis Of Corynebacterium Diphtheriae Virulence And Infection In The Caenorhabditis Elegans Model Host, Melissa M. Broadway May 2010

Molecular Basis Of Corynebacterium Diphtheriae Virulence And Infection In The Caenorhabditis Elegans Model Host, Melissa M. Broadway

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the causative agent of cutaneous and pharyngeal diphtheria in humans. While lethality is certainly caused by diphtheria toxin, corynebacterial colonization may primarily require proteinaceous fibers called pili, which mediate adherence to specific tissues. The type strain of C. diphtheriae possesses three distinct pilus structures, namely the SpaA, SpaD, and SpaH-type pili, which are encoded by three distinct pilus gene clusters. The pilus is assembled onto the bacterial peptidoglycan by a specific transpeptidase enzyme called sortase. Although the SpaA pili are shown to be specific for pharyngeal cells in vitro, little is known about functions of the three ...


Farnesol Signaling In Candida Albicans, Melanie L. Langford Apr 2010

Farnesol Signaling In Candida Albicans, Melanie L. Langford

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Candida albicans is a polymorphic fungus that causes a range of disease in humans, from mucosal infections to systemic disease. Its ability to cause disease is linked to conversion between yeast and filamentous forms of growth, and the first quorum-sensing molecule discovered in an eukaryote, farnesol, blocks this transition. In C. albicans, farnesol also kills mating-competent opaque cells, inhibits biofilm formation, protects the cells from oxidative stress, and can be a virulence factor or protective agent in disseminated and mucosal mouse models of infection, respectively. While much emphasis has been placed on determining its effect on C. albicans morphology, the ...


Pattern Recognition In Cytopathology For Papanicolaou Screening, Jonathan Blackledge, Dmitriy Dubovitskiy Jan 2010

Pattern Recognition In Cytopathology For Papanicolaou Screening, Jonathan Blackledge, Dmitriy Dubovitskiy

Conference papers

A unique space oriented filer is presented in order to detect and isolate the cell of a nucleus for applications in cytopathology. A classification method for nuclei is then considered based on the application of a set of features which includes certain fractal parameters. Segmentation algorithms are considered in which a self-adjustable sharpening filter is designed to enhance object location. Although the methods discussed and the algorithms developed have a range of applications, in this work we focus the engineering of a system for automating a Papanicolaou screening test using standard optical images


Enhancement Of The Antibacterial Properties Of Silver Nanoparticles Using Beta-Cyclodextrin As A Capping Agent, Swarna Jaiswal, Brendan Duffy, Niall Stobie, Patrick Mchale, Amit Jaiswal Jan 2010

Enhancement Of The Antibacterial Properties Of Silver Nanoparticles Using Beta-Cyclodextrin As A Capping Agent, Swarna Jaiswal, Brendan Duffy, Niall Stobie, Patrick Mchale, Amit Jaiswal

Articles

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by reducing silver salts using NaBH4 followed by capping with varying concentrations of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and were physically characterised. Antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus was determined by a microtitre well method. The AgNPs were spherical under TEM while DLS showed average diameters of capped particles to be smaller (4-7 nm) than their uncapped equivalents (17 nm). Capped particles demonstrated superior photostability when exposed to intense UV radiation for 4 hours and a significantly (p


Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda Jan 2010

Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Direct Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Detection Of Cercospora Beticola In Field Soils, Andrew W. Lenssen, R. T. Lartey, T. C. Caesar-Tonthat, J. Eckhoff, S. L. Hanson, R. G. Evans Jan 2010

Direct Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Detection Of Cercospora Beticola In Field Soils, Andrew W. Lenssen, R. T. Lartey, T. C. Caesar-Tonthat, J. Eckhoff, S. L. Hanson, R. G. Evans

Andrew W. Lenssen

Cercospora beticola, the causal agent of Cercospora leaf spot of sugar beet, survives as pseudostromata in infected sugar beet residues in the soil. Under optimal conditions, overwintering propagules germinate and produce conidia that are dispersed as primary inoculum to initiate infection in sugar beet. We developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for rapid detection of C. beticola in field soils. Total DNA was first isolated from soil amended with C. beticola culture using the PowerSoil DNA Kit. The purified DNA was subjected to PCR in Extract- N-Amp PCR mix with CBACTIN primers over 35 cycles. The amplified products were ...


Evolutionary Aspects Of Urea Utilization By Fungi, Dhammika H. M. L. P Navarathna, Steven D. Harris, David D. Roberts, Kenneth W. Nickerson Jan 2010

Evolutionary Aspects Of Urea Utilization By Fungi, Dhammika H. M. L. P Navarathna, Steven D. Harris, David D. Roberts, Kenneth W. Nickerson

Kenneth Nickerson Papers

The higher fungi exhibit a dichotomy with regard to urea utilization. The hemiascomycetes use urea amidolyase (DUR1,2), whereas all other higher fungi use the nickel-containing urease. Urea amidolyase is an energy-dependent biotincontaining enzyme. It likely arose before the Euascomycete/Hemiascomycete divergence c. 350 million years ago by insertion of an unknown gene into one copy of a duplicated methylcrotonyl CoA carboxylase (MccA). The dichotomy between urease and urea amidolyase coincides precisely with that for the Ni/Co transporter (Nic1p), which is present in the higher fungi that use urease and is absent in those that do not. We suggest ...


Candida Albicans Cellwall Components And Farnesol Stimulate The Expression Of Both Inflammatory And Regulatory Cytokines In The Murine Raw264.7 Macrophage Cell Line, Suman Ghosh, Nina Howe, Katie Volk, Swetha Tati, Kenneth W. Nickerson, Thomas M. Petro Jan 2010

Candida Albicans Cellwall Components And Farnesol Stimulate The Expression Of Both Inflammatory And Regulatory Cytokines In The Murine Raw264.7 Macrophage Cell Line, Suman Ghosh, Nina Howe, Katie Volk, Swetha Tati, Kenneth W. Nickerson, Thomas M. Petro

Kenneth Nickerson Papers

Candida albicans causes candidiasis, secretes farnesol, and switches from yeast to hyphae to escape from macrophages after phagocytosis. However, before escape, macrophages may respond to C. albicans’ pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) through toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and dectin-1 receptors by expressing cytokines involved in adaptive immunity, inflammation, and immune regulation. Therefore, macrophages and the RAW264.7 macrophage line were challenged with C. albicans preparations of live wild-type cells, heat-killed cells, a live mutant defective in hyphae formation, a live mutant producing less farnesol, or an isolate producing farnesoic acid instead of farnesol. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-1b, IL- 10, and tumor ...


The Chitobiose Transporter, Chbc, Is Required For Chitin Utilization In Borrelia Burgdorferi, David Nelson Dec 2009

The Chitobiose Transporter, Chbc, Is Required For Chitin Utilization In Borrelia Burgdorferi, David Nelson

David R. Nelson

Background: The bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is a limited-genome organism that must obtain many of its biochemical building blocks, including N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), from its tick or vertebrate host. GlcNAc can be imported into the cell as a monomer or dimer (chitobiose), and the annotation for several B. burgdorferi genes suggests that this organism may be able to degrade and utilize chitin, a polymer of GlcNAc. We investigated the ability of B. burgdorferi to utilize chitin in the absence of free GlcNAc, and we attempted to identify genes involved in the process. We also examined the ...