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Pathogenic Microbiology Commons

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Articles 1 - 19 of 19

Full-Text Articles in Pathogenic Microbiology

Aqueous Ozone Inactivation Of Viruses And Bacteria On Biotic And Abiotic Surfaces, Cailin Dawley Dec 2018

Aqueous Ozone Inactivation Of Viruses And Bacteria On Biotic And Abiotic Surfaces, Cailin Dawley

Theses and Dissertations

Produce is susceptible to contamination by foodborne pathogens. Food service establishments utilize sanitizing agents to reduce microbes on produce surfaces. The research objectives were to evaluate the efficacy of aqueous ozone 1) on the inactivation of viruses and bacteria on produce; 2) on the inactivation of viruses on stainless steel; and 3) against viruses in association with bacteria on produce surfaces. For objective 1, Boston bibb lettuce and cherry tomatoes were spot inoculated with a cocktail of viruses (murine norovirus (MNV) and MS2 bacteriophage) or bacteria (Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus cereus) and washed for 40 min with samples taken every ...


Experimental Approaches To Understand And Control Salmonella Infection In Poultry, Yichao Yang Dec 2017

Experimental Approaches To Understand And Control Salmonella Infection In Poultry, Yichao Yang

Theses and Dissertations

Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen around the world and chickens are the major reservoir to transmit Salmonella into the human food chain. For decreasing the infection of Salmonella, we developed six attenuated live vaccines based on Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) and Typhimurium (ST) for testing the cross-serovar and cross-serogroup protection from the challenge of Salmonella Heidelberg and Campylobacter jejuni. One of the constructed vaccine strain showed ability to protect against challenge from Salmonella Heidelberg. Even though some preventive approaches are able to decrease Salmonella colonization in the gastrointestinal tract of chickens or other farm animals, Salmonella transmission mechanisms remain unclear ...


Role Of Incompatibility Group 1 (Inci1) Plasmid-Encoded Factors On Salmonella Enterica Antimicrobial Resistance And Virulence, Pravin Raghunath Kaldhone Dec 2017

Role Of Incompatibility Group 1 (Inci1) Plasmid-Encoded Factors On Salmonella Enterica Antimicrobial Resistance And Virulence, Pravin Raghunath Kaldhone

Theses and Dissertations

Foodborne illnesses are a leading cause of infectious diseases in the world. Among enteric organisms Salmonella is a key pathogen. It’s high prevalence in poultry and other food-animal sources make it imperative to study. Salmonella has the ability to modify its genetic content with help of mobile genetic elements such as plasmids. Incompatibiltiy group 1 (IncI1) plasmids are commonly reported in Salmonella. This study evaluates role on IncI1 plasmids in antimicrobial resistance and virulence in Salmonella. Genetic determinants of resistance and virulence are noted among our IncI1-containing Salmonella isolates. These genetic elements are also transferable and reported to carry ...


Expression Of Matrix Metalloproteinases In Naegleria Fowleri And Their Role In Degradation Of The Extracellular Matrix, Charlton Lam Jan 2017

Expression Of Matrix Metalloproteinases In Naegleria Fowleri And Their Role In Degradation Of The Extracellular Matrix, Charlton Lam

Theses and Dissertations

Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba found in freshwater lakes and ponds that is the causative agent of Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been described in protozoa, such as Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei, and Balamuthia mandrillaris, and have been linked to their increased motility and invasive capability by degrading components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In addition, MMPs are often upregulated in tumorigenic cells and have been attributed as responsible for the metastasis of certain cancers. In the present study, in vitro experiments indicated that MMPs are linked functionally to the ECM degradation process. Gelatin zymography demonstrated ...


Amixicile Inhibits Anaerobic Bacteria Within An Oral Microbiome Derived From Patients With Chronic Periodontitis, Kane Ramsey Jan 2017

Amixicile Inhibits Anaerobic Bacteria Within An Oral Microbiome Derived From Patients With Chronic Periodontitis, Kane Ramsey

Theses and Dissertations

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by pathogenic bacteria residing in a complex biofilm within a susceptible host. Amixicile is a non-toxic, readily bioavailable novel antimicrobial that targets strict anaerobes through inhibition of the activity of Pyruvate Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase (PFOR), a major enzyme mediating oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate. Our study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of amixicile, when compared to metronidazole, in inhibiting the growth of bacteria present in a microbiome harvested from patients with chronic periodontitis.

Plaque samples were harvested from patients with severe chronic periodontitis and cultured under anaerobic conditions. The microbiomes were grown in the presence ...


A Portable And Automatic Biosensing Instrument For Detection Of Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria In Food Samples, Zhuo Zhao Dec 2016

A Portable And Automatic Biosensing Instrument For Detection Of Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria In Food Samples, Zhuo Zhao

Theses and Dissertations

Foodborne diseases are a growing public health problem. In recent years, many rapid detection methods have been reported, but most of them are still in lab research and not practical for use in the field. In this study, a portable and automatic biosensing instrument was designed and constructed for separation and detection of target pathogens in food samples using nanobead-based magnetic separation and quantum dots (QDs)-labeled fluorescence measurement. The instrument consisted of a laptop with LabVIEW software, a data acquisition card (DAQ), a fluorescent detector, micro-pumps, stepper motors, and 3D printed tube holders. First, a sample in a syringe ...


Genetic Determinants Of Salmonella And Campylobacter Required For In Vitro Fitness, Rabindra Kumar Mandal Dec 2016

Genetic Determinants Of Salmonella And Campylobacter Required For In Vitro Fitness, Rabindra Kumar Mandal

Theses and Dissertations

Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) and Campylobacter play a major role in foodborne illness caused by the consumption of food contaminated by pathogens worldwide. A comprehensive understanding of the genetic factors that increase the survival fitness of these foodborne pathogens will effectively help us formulate mitigation strategies without affecting the nutrition ecology. The objective of this study was to identify the genetic determinants of Salmonella and Campylobacter that are required for fitness under various in vitro conditions. For the purpose, we used a high throughput Transposon sequencing (Tn-seq) that utilizes next generation sequencing (NGS) to screen hundreds of thousands of mutants simultaneously ...


The Ccaat-Binding Factor Dependent Regulation Of The Oxidative Stress Response In Candida Albicans, Ananya Chakravarti May 2016

The Ccaat-Binding Factor Dependent Regulation Of The Oxidative Stress Response In Candida Albicans, Ananya Chakravarti

Theses and Dissertations

The success of Candida albicans as an opportunistic human pathogen has been attributed to several factors, including the ability to survive in limiting iron environments and the ability to evade the respiratory burst of human macrophages and neutrophils. The goal of this research is to elucidate the role of the CCAAT-binding factor in the oxidative stress response of Candida albicans. Prior whole genome microarray studies performed in our lab compared the gene expression of a wild type Candida albicans strain versus a hap5Δ strain under iron-limiting growth conditions. Among the differentially regulated genes, CTA1, encoding catalase, had a four-fold higher ...


Characterization Of The Interactions Between Staphylococcal Phage 80 Alpha Scaffold And Capsid Proteins, Laura Klenow Jan 2015

Characterization Of The Interactions Between Staphylococcal Phage 80 Alpha Scaffold And Capsid Proteins, Laura Klenow

Theses and Dissertations

Staphylococcal phage 80α can serve as a helper bacteriophage for a family of mobile genetic elements called Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPIs). The prototype island, SaPI1, is able to hijack the 80α capsid assembly process and redirect capsid formation to yield smaller, phage-like transducing particles carrying SaPI DNA. Capsid size redirection is accomplished through two SaPI1-encoded gene products, CpmA and an alternate scaffold protein, CpmB. The normal 80α scaffold and the SaPI1 CpmB scaffold share a small block of conserved residues at their C-termini, several of which had been shown to be essential for CpmB function. This led to the ...


Impedance Biosensors For The Rapid Detection Of Viral And Bacterial Pathogens Using Avian Influenza Virus Subtypes H5n1 And H7n2 And Escherichia Coli O157:H7 As Model Targets, Jacob David Lum Aug 2014

Impedance Biosensors For The Rapid Detection Of Viral And Bacterial Pathogens Using Avian Influenza Virus Subtypes H5n1 And H7n2 And Escherichia Coli O157:H7 As Model Targets, Jacob David Lum

Theses and Dissertations

This research investigated impedance biosensors for the rapid detection of viral and bacterial pathogens using avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5N1 and H7N2 and Escherichia coli O157:H7 as the model targets, which were chosen due to their impact on the agricultural and food industries. For the detection of AIV H7N2, a single stranded DNA aptamer was selected using systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). The selected aptamer and a previously selected aptamer against AIV H5N1 were used in a microfluidics chip with an embedded interdigitated array microelectrode to fabricate an impedance biosensor for specific detection of AIV ...


Poultry Performance And Food Safety Impacts Of Selected Organic Acids And Probiotics, Anita Menconi May 2014

Poultry Performance And Food Safety Impacts Of Selected Organic Acids And Probiotics, Anita Menconi

Theses and Dissertations

Improving production parameters and controlling foodborne pathogens have been challenges to the poultry industry. Salmonella has been the most common bacterial pathogen in laboratory confirmed foodborne illness cases, and contaminated poultry and poultry products have been identified as the most important source of transmission of Salmonella to humans. Therefore, research on effective interventions to reduce Salmonella transmission at the poultry production level has gained attention. Initially, a series of studies was conducted to evaluate the use of selected organic acids in controlling foodborne pathogens and improving poultry performance. Then, the characterization and application of lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp ...


Characterization Of The Effects Of Iron On Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Surface Protein Modulation And Host Cell Interactions, Aminat Oki Jan 2014

Characterization Of The Effects Of Iron On Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Surface Protein Modulation And Host Cell Interactions, Aminat Oki

Theses and Dissertations

Iron is an essential nutrient that is sequestered by iron-binding proteins in the human host resulting in a hostile environment for microbes. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, however, can utilize numerous iron-binding proteins such as transferrin and lactoferrin to acquire this nutrient. During initial infection, gonococci have access to transferrin and lactoferrin present in semen and vaginal fluids, as well as to hemoglobin present in blood during menses or disseminated infections. Consequently, the gonococcus likely encounters conditions of high iron at some stages in the course of natural infection. Potential contributions of iron to gonococcal invasion have however been largely over looked in ...


Proteomic Studies Of The Influenza Virus-Human Cell Interactions: The Responses Of Host Cell Protein Expression To Viral Infection And The Novel Host Proteins That Interact With Virus Protein Ns1, Yimeng Wang May 2013

Proteomic Studies Of The Influenza Virus-Human Cell Interactions: The Responses Of Host Cell Protein Expression To Viral Infection And The Novel Host Proteins That Interact With Virus Protein Ns1, Yimeng Wang

Theses and Dissertations

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) continue to be a threat to human health. Despite extensive studies, the mechanisms underlying the IAVs-host interactions during IAV infection remain elusive. We employed quantitative proteomic methods to systematically explore the host cell protein expression responses to IAV infection and examine the function of a critical IAV protein called NS1 by identifying its host binding partners. Specifically, we used a 2-dimentional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) based proteomic method to screen host proteins whose expression was substantially altered by IAV. One critical protein named IκB kinase-gamma (IKKγ) was found to be significantly down-regulated during IAV infection. Functional studies ...


Qcm Aptasensor For Rapid And Specific Detection Of Avian Influenza Virus, Luke Brockman May 2013

Qcm Aptasensor For Rapid And Specific Detection Of Avian Influenza Virus, Luke Brockman

Theses and Dissertations

There has been a need for rapid detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) H5N1 due to it being a potential pandemic threat. Most of the current methods, including culture isolation and PCR, are very sensitive and specific but require specialized laboratories and trained personnel in order to complete the tests and are time-consuming. The goal of this study was to design a biosensor that would be able to rapidly detect AIV H5N1 using aptamers as biosensing material and a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for transducing method. Specific DNA aptamers against AIV H5N1 were immobilized, through biotin and streptavidin conjugation, onto ...


Development Of A Predictive Modeling System For Validation Of The Cumulative Mirobial Inactivation Of The Salmonellae In Pepperoni Utilizing A Non-Pathogenic Surrogate Microorganism (Enterococcus Faecalis), Scott Donald Stillwell May 2013

Development Of A Predictive Modeling System For Validation Of The Cumulative Mirobial Inactivation Of The Salmonellae In Pepperoni Utilizing A Non-Pathogenic Surrogate Microorganism (Enterococcus Faecalis), Scott Donald Stillwell

Theses and Dissertations

Salmonellosis is the most frequently occurring bacterial foodborne illness in the United States and the human case rate has not improved for the past two decades. The federal agency responsible for oversight of meat and poultry processors has announced the intent to extend existing pathogen reduction performance standards for Salmonella spp. to cover all classes of products including fermented sausages that are currently produced under HACCP plans that are validated for control of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The proposed regulatory modifications will require processors to revalidate HACCP plan controls to achieve either a 6.5 or a 7.0 log10 ...


Utilization Of Natural Green Tea And Grape Seed Extracts And Nisin To Reduce Conventional Chemical Preservatives And To Inhibit The The Growth Of Listeria Monocytogenes In Ready To Eat Low And High Fat Chicken And Turkey Hotdogs, Amara Venkata Sunil Perumalla May 2012

Utilization Of Natural Green Tea And Grape Seed Extracts And Nisin To Reduce Conventional Chemical Preservatives And To Inhibit The The Growth Of Listeria Monocytogenes In Ready To Eat Low And High Fat Chicken And Turkey Hotdogs, Amara Venkata Sunil Perumalla

Theses and Dissertations

Ready-to-eat meat (RTE) products such as hotdogs represent a popular segment in convenience food purchases. Increased demand has led the processors to extend the shelf life by minimizing lipid oxidation and post-processing contaminants such as Listeria monocytogenes. There is a growing interest in the food processors and consumers regarding the use of natural alternatives in place of synthetic food additives to control the growth of foodborne pathogens and (or) lipid oxidation. In recent years, green tea (GTE) and grape seed extracts (GSE) are increasing choices as they have demonstrated antioxidant as well as antimicrobial properties in various food applications. Therefore ...


Genome-Wide Identification Of Conditionally Essential Genes In Salmonella Typhimurium Using Tn-Seq Method, Anita Khatiwara May 2012

Genome-Wide Identification Of Conditionally Essential Genes In Salmonella Typhimurium Using Tn-Seq Method, Anita Khatiwara

Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

As more whole genome sequences become available, there is an increasing need for high-throughput methods that link genes to phenotypes and facilitate discovery of new gene functions. The objective of this study was to develop a high-throughput method to study gene functions in bacteria and use this method to study gene functions of S. enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) under various environmental conditions encountered during its life cycle. Chapter I of this dissertation reviews the history and evolution of functional genomics in bacteria with focus on Salmonella, along with the recent techniques available. Chapter II, deals with the development ...


Role Of Lactic Acid Bacteria As A Bio-Sanitizer To Prevent Attachment Of Listeria Monocytogenes On Deli Slicer Contact Surfaces, And The Influence Of Listeria Innocua On The Attachment Of L. Monocytogenes On Selected Materials Located In The Food-Processing Environment, Jean Baptiste Ndahetuye May 2012

Role Of Lactic Acid Bacteria As A Bio-Sanitizer To Prevent Attachment Of Listeria Monocytogenes On Deli Slicer Contact Surfaces, And The Influence Of Listeria Innocua On The Attachment Of L. Monocytogenes On Selected Materials Located In The Food-Processing Environment, Jean Baptiste Ndahetuye

Theses and Dissertations

Listeria monocytogenes an important foodborne pathogen that continues to be a serious problem for the food industry. This pathogen contaminates food primarily during post-harvest in the food-processing environment. Its ecology in the food-processing environment is not well understood but previous research has demonstrated the ability of L. monocytogenes to survive on food contact surfaces after cleaning and disinfection. The current study explored the attachment of three lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, Lactobacillus animalis , Lb. amylovorus and Pediococcus acidilactici , their combination in a cocktail, and their influence to prevent the attachment of L. monocytogenes at room temperature by examining their cell ...


Positive Regulation Of Acetate Metabolism And Motility By The Rna-Binding Protein Csra In Escherichia Coli, Bangdong L. Wei M.B., M.S. Aug 2000

Positive Regulation Of Acetate Metabolism And Motility By The Rna-Binding Protein Csra In Escherichia Coli, Bangdong L. Wei M.B., M.S.

Theses and Dissertations

Wei, Bangdong L., Positive Regulation of Acetate Metabolism and Motility by the RNA-binding Protein CsrA in Escherichia coli. Doctor of Philosophy (Biomedical Sciences), August, 2000, 118 pp., 5 tables, 19 illustrations, bibliography, 175 titles. The carbon storage regulatory (Csr) system consists of a small RNA-binding effector protein, CsrA, and non-coding RNA, CsrB. CsrA acts as a global regulator and modulates specific mRNA stability in Escherichia coli. It regulates central carbon metabolism, physiology, and cell surface properties on a broad scale. In this study, the regulatory roles of csrA in acetate metabolism and motility were examined. The csrA gene was demonstrated ...