Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Pathogenic Microbiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 9 of 9

Full-Text Articles in Pathogenic Microbiology

Multilayered Regulation Of The Type I Toxin Zoro In Ehec, Jia Wen Aug 2016

Multilayered Regulation Of The Type I Toxin Zoro In Ehec, Jia Wen

Doctoral Dissertations

A bacterial type I toxin-antitoxin system contains two genes: one encodes a small toxic protein and the second, a small regulatory RNA (sRNA) that inhibits toxin production. To date, very few type I loci have been described thoroughly in regards to the regulation of toxin and the function of the toxin at endogenous levels. In this study, I demonstrated that the zor-orz locus of Escherichia coli O157:H7 is composed of two highly homologous type I toxin-antitoxin systems: zorO-orzO and zorP-orzP. The zor genes encode the toxins and the orz genes encode the antitoxin sRNAs. Overexpression of zorO is toxic ...


The Role Of Phosphatidylserine And Phosphatidylethanolamine In Candida Albicans Virulence, Sarah Elizabeth Davis Aug 2015

The Role Of Phosphatidylserine And Phosphatidylethanolamine In Candida Albicans Virulence, Sarah Elizabeth Davis

Doctoral Dissertations

In hospitalized patients with neutropenia, Candida albicans is the fourth leading cause of systemic bloodstream infections, which have a mortality rate of approximately 30 %. The phosphatidylserine synthase enzyme of C. albicans, Cho1p, appears to be a good drug target as a mutant lacking this enzyme (the cho1Δ/Δ [null mutant]) is avirulent in animal models of Candida infections and this enzyme is not conserved in humans. We discovered that the loss of phosphatidylserine (PS) synthesis affects C. albicans' expression of the Als3p adhesin, a virulence protein, and loss of PS synthesis also compromises the cell wall, causing increased exposure ...


Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, And Evolution Of Virulence In Toxoplasma Gondii, Elliot Keats Cullen Shwab May 2015

Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, And Evolution Of Virulence In Toxoplasma Gondii, Elliot Keats Cullen Shwab

Doctoral Dissertations

Toxoplasma gondii is among the most widespread eukaryotic pathogens known. It chronically infects approximately one third of the world’s human population and has been isolated from an extremely diverse array of globally distributed mammals and birds. Understanding the structure of the worldwide T. gondii population enhances our understanding of the factors that have shaped that structure and led to the proliferation of one of the most evolutionarily successful pathogens on Earth. Herein we collate genotypic data from global isolates, demonstrating that T. gondii possesses a unique population structure in which only a small number of genotypes dominate throughout the ...


Thermal Inactivation Of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli In Foods, Malcond David Valladares May 2015

Thermal Inactivation Of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli In Foods, Malcond David Valladares

Doctoral Dissertations

Emerging non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) were recently added to the zero tolerance policy by the USDA-FSIS. Therefore, the precise characterization of their thermal inactivation kinetics in different foods and the effect of stress on thermal inactivation are needed. This research aimed at determining the heat inactivation kinetics of non-O157 and O157 STECs in buffer and model food matrices and the effects of DnaK levels on thermal resistance after acid and heat-shock. Thermal inactivation was carried out in either in 2-ml glass vials or nylon vacuum-sealed bags for buffer and food (spinach, ground-beef, turkey deli-meat, pasta) samples, respectively. Vials ...


Comparative Genomics Of Microbial Chemoreceptor Sequence, Structure, And Function, Aaron Daniel Fleetwood Dec 2014

Comparative Genomics Of Microbial Chemoreceptor Sequence, Structure, And Function, Aaron Daniel Fleetwood

Doctoral Dissertations

Microbial chemotaxis receptors (chemoreceptors) are complex proteins that sense the external environment and signal for flagella-mediated motility, serving as the GPS of the cell. In order to sense a myriad of physicochemical signals and adapt to diverse environmental niches, sensory regions of chemoreceptors are frenetically duplicated, mutated, or lost. Conversely, the chemoreceptor signaling region is a highly conserved protein domain. Extreme conservation of this domain is necessary because it determines very specific helical secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of the protein while simultaneously choreographing a network of interactions with the adaptor protein CheW and the histidine kinase CheA. This dichotomous ...


Efficacy Of Biopesticides For Organic Management Of Cucumber Beetles, Mary A. Rogers Dec 2012

Efficacy Of Biopesticides For Organic Management Of Cucumber Beetles, Mary A. Rogers

Doctoral Dissertations

Organic growers are limited in crop protection techniques for cucumber beetle management. Spotted (Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi) and striped (Acalymma vitatta) cucumber beetles and are significant pests of cucurbits in the U.S. Feeding results in aesthetic damage and reduction in marketable yields as well as transmission of bacterial wilt that can result in plant mortality. Biopesticides are products formulated from naturally occurring organisms such as fungi and bacteria that are pathogenic or toxic to insect pests. Advantages to these products are that they have low environmental risk, low risk to non-target organisms including mammals and beneficial insects, and can help ...


Investigation Of Host Responses Upon Infection Of Distinct Toxoplasma Strains, Rachel Devonne Hill Dec 2011

Investigation Of Host Responses Upon Infection Of Distinct Toxoplasma Strains, Rachel Devonne Hill

Doctoral Dissertations

Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent of Toxoplasmosis in human and animals. T. gondii isolates are highly diverse. Hundreds of genotypes have been identified, but only three clonal lineages, namely Type I, II and III are prevalent worldwide. In mouse model, T. gondii strains can be divided into three groups based on their virulence, including the virulent (LD100=1), the intermediately virulent (LD50 = 103-104) and the non virulent (LD50 > 105). The clonal Type I, II and III T. gondii strains belong to these three groups, respectively. Epidemiologic studies suggest the difference of virulence ...


Methicillin Resistance In Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius, Chad Christopher Black Aug 2010

Methicillin Resistance In Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius, Chad Christopher Black

Doctoral Dissertations

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius affecting dogs is analogous to S. aureus on humans, acting as both normal flora and opportunistic pathogen. Methicillin resistance in S. pseudintermedius is recent, with the first documented occurrence of an isolate bearing the methicillin resistance gene, mecA, in 1999. This gene encodes penicillin binding protein 2a, which renders all beta-lactam drugs ineffective and functions as a “gateway” antibiotic resistance determinant. In the presence of ineffective antibiotics, opportunities for mutational events and acquisition of mobile genetic elements increase as microbial densities increase, often leading to multi-drug resistance. Methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) infections have become increasingly common. For example ...


Campylobacter Pathogenesis And Subunit Vaccine Development, Ximin Zeng Aug 2010

Campylobacter Pathogenesis And Subunit Vaccine Development, Ximin Zeng

Doctoral Dissertations

Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the United States. Increasing resistance of Campylobacter to clinical antibiotics raises an urgent need for novel strategies to prevent and control infections in humans and animal reservoirs, which necessitates a better understanding of Campylobacter pathogenesis. We hypothesize that multidrug efflux pump CmeABC and ferric enterobactin (FeEnt) iron acquisition systems, which play a critical role in Campylobacter pathogenesis, are novel targets for developing effective measures against Campylobacter. To test this, the molecular, antigenic, functional, and protective characteristics of two outer membrane proteins, CmeC (an essential component of CmeABC drug efflux ...