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Pathogenic Microbiology Commons

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Articles 1 - 27 of 27

Full-Text Articles in Pathogenic Microbiology

Genomic Plasticity And Rapid Host Switching Can Promote The Evolution Of Generalism: A Case Study In The Zoonotic Pathogen Campylobacter, Dan J. Woodcock, Peter Krusche, Norval J. C. Strachan, Ken J. Forbes, Frederick M. Cohan, Guillaume Meric, Samuel K. Sheppard Dec 2016

Genomic Plasticity And Rapid Host Switching Can Promote The Evolution Of Generalism: A Case Study In The Zoonotic Pathogen Campylobacter, Dan J. Woodcock, Peter Krusche, Norval J. C. Strachan, Ken J. Forbes, Frederick M. Cohan, Guillaume Meric, Samuel K. Sheppard

Frederick M. Cohan

Horizontal gene transfer accelerates bacterial adaptation to novel environments, allowing selection to act on genes that have evolved in multiple genetic backgrounds. This can lead to ecological specialization. However, little is known about how zoonotic bacteria maintain the ability to colonize multiple hosts whilst competing with specialists in the same niche. Here we develop a stochastic evolutionary model and show how genetic transfer of host segregating alleles, distributed as predicted for niche specifying genes, and the opportunity for host transition could interact to promote the emergence of host generalist lineages of the zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter. Using a modelling approach we ...


Jmh Dissertation 2016.Pdf, Jennifer Hayashi Dec 2016

Jmh Dissertation 2016.Pdf, Jennifer Hayashi

Jennifer Hayashi

Mycobacterium is a diverse genus of actinobacteria that includes the causative agents of human tuberculosis and leprosy. Mycobacteria are protected by their unique, multilaminar cell envelope, which grants them intrinsic resistance to environmental challenges such as antibiotics. This essential cellular structure is elongated at the polar ends of cells, but the regulation of cytosolic precursor synthesis and localized envelope synthesis remains unclear. Here, we present the PMf (plasma membrane free of cell wall components), a membrane domain distinct from the bulk plasma membrane of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Proteomic and lipidomic characterization demonstrate that the PMf contains lipidic substrates ...


Improving Food Safety In Meat And Poultry: Will New Regulations Benefit Consumers?, Laurian J. Unnevehr, Tanya Roberts, Helen H. Jensen Oct 2016

Improving Food Safety In Meat And Poultry: Will New Regulations Benefit Consumers?, Laurian J. Unnevehr, Tanya Roberts, Helen H. Jensen

Helen Jensen

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) state that "food­ borne disease remams one of the most common and important cases of illness and deaths" (Harman, et al., 1991). According to researchers at CDC and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 6.5 million to 33 million illnesses and up to 9,000 deaths may occur each year from foodborne pathogens (namely, bactena, parasites, virus­ es, and fungi). For just the few foodborne bacterial and parasitic diseases for which there are cost estimates, medical costs, and lost productivity cost society $6.5 to $35 bil­ lion annually ...


Leishmania Amazonensis Engages Cd36 To Drive Parasitophorous Vacuole Maturation, Kendi Okuda, Mei Tong, Brian Dempsey, Kathryn J. Moore, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Neal S. Silverman Sep 2016

Leishmania Amazonensis Engages Cd36 To Drive Parasitophorous Vacuole Maturation, Kendi Okuda, Mei Tong, Brian Dempsey, Kathryn J. Moore, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Neal S. Silverman

Neal Silverman

Leishmania amastigotes manipulate the activity of macrophages to favor their own success. However, very little is known about the role of innate recognition and signaling triggered by amastigotes in this host-parasite interaction. In this work we developed a new infection model in adult Drosophila to take advantage of its superior genetic resources to identify novel host factors limiting Leishmania amazonensis infection. The model is based on the capacity of macrophage-like cells, plasmatocytes, to phagocytose and control the proliferation of parasites injected into adult flies. Using this model, we screened a collection of RNAi-expressing flies for anti-Leishmania defense factors. Notably, we ...


The Ifitms Inhibit Zika Virus Replication, George Savidis, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Paul Meraner, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Abraham L. Brass Jun 2016

The Ifitms Inhibit Zika Virus Replication, George Savidis, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Paul Meraner, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Abraham L. Brass

Sharone Green

Zika virus has emerged as a severe health threat with a rapidly expanding range. The IFITM family of restriction factors inhibits the replication of a broad range of viruses, including the closely related flaviruses West Nile virus and dengue virus. Here, we show that IFITM1 and IFITM3 inhibit Zika virus infection early in the viral life cycle. Moreover, IFITM3 can prevent Zika-virus-induced cell death. These results suggest that strategies to boost the actions and/or levels of the IFITMs might be useful for inhibiting a broad range of emerging viruses.


Identification Of Zika Virus And Dengue Virus Dependency Factors Using Functional Genomics, George Savidis, William M. Mcdougall, Paul Meraner, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Gaia Trincucci, Sinu P. John, Aaron M. Aker, Nicholas Renzette, Douglas R. Robbins, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Timothy F. Kowalik, Abraham L. Brass Jun 2016

Identification Of Zika Virus And Dengue Virus Dependency Factors Using Functional Genomics, George Savidis, William M. Mcdougall, Paul Meraner, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Gaia Trincucci, Sinu P. John, Aaron M. Aker, Nicholas Renzette, Douglas R. Robbins, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Timothy F. Kowalik, Abraham L. Brass

Sharone Green

The flaviviruses dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are severe health threats with rapidly expanding ranges. To identify the host cell dependencies of DENV and ZIKV, we completed orthologous functional genomic screens using RNAi and CRISPR/Cas9 approaches. The screens recovered the ZIKV entry factor AXL as well as multiple host factors involved in endocytosis (RAB5C and RABGEF), heparin sulfation (NDST1 and EXT1), and transmembrane protein processing and maturation, including the endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex (EMC). We find that both flaviviruses require the EMC for their early stages of infection. Together, these studies generate a high-confidence, systems-wide view of ...


Blastomyces: Why Be Dimorphic?, Dennis J. Baumgardner May 2016

Blastomyces: Why Be Dimorphic?, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Dennis J. Baumgardner. MD

In introducing the infectious disease focus for this edition of the Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews, the author describes the unsolved mysteries surrounding the dimorphic fungus Blastomyces and the related pathogenesis of pulmonary blastomycosis.


Changes In Gut And Plasma Microbiome Following Exercise Challenge In Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (Me/Cfs), Sanjay K. Shukla, Dane B. Cook, Jacob Meyer, Suzanne D. Vernon, Thảo Lê, Derek Clevidence, Charles E. Robertson, Steven J. Schrodi, Steven Yale, Daniel N. Frank Dec 2015

Changes In Gut And Plasma Microbiome Following Exercise Challenge In Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (Me/Cfs), Sanjay K. Shukla, Dane B. Cook, Jacob Meyer, Suzanne D. Vernon, Thảo Lê, Derek Clevidence, Charles E. Robertson, Steven J. Schrodi, Steven Yale, Daniel N. Frank

Jacob Meyer

Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a disease characterized by intense and debilitating fatigue not due to physical activity that has persisted for at least 6 months, post-exertional malaise, unrefreshing sleep, and accompanied by a number of secondary symptoms, including sore throat, memory and concentration impairment, headache, and muscle/joint pain. In patients with post-exertional malaise, significant worsening of symptoms occurs following physical exertion and exercise challenge serves as a useful method for identifying biomarkers for exertion intolerance. . Evidence suggests that intestinal dysbiosis and systemic responses to gut microorganisms may play a role in the symptomology of ME ...


Human Sewage Identified As Likely Source Of White Pox Disease Of The Threatened Caribbean Elkhorn Coral, Kathryn Sutherland, James Porter, Jeffrey Turner, Brian Thomas, Erin Looney, Trevor Luna, Meredith Meyers, J. Futch, Erin Lipp Jun 2015

Human Sewage Identified As Likely Source Of White Pox Disease Of The Threatened Caribbean Elkhorn Coral, Kathryn Sutherland, James Porter, Jeffrey Turner, Brian Thomas, Erin Looney, Trevor Luna, Meredith Meyers, J. Futch, Erin Lipp

Kathryn Patterson Sutherland PhD

Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, has been decimated in recent years, resulting in the listing of this species as threatened under the United States Endangered Species Act. A major contributing factor in the decline of this iconic species is white pox disease. In 2002, we identified the faecal enterobacterium, Serratia marcescens, as an etiological agent for white pox. During outbreaks in 2003 a unique strain of S. marcescens was identified in both human sewage and white pox lesions. This strain (PDR60) was also identified from corallivorious snails (Coralliophila abbreviata), reef water, and two non-acroporid coral species, Siderastrea siderea and Solenastrea ...


The Shellfish Corner -- Vibrios And Shellfish, Michael Rice May 2015

The Shellfish Corner -- Vibrios And Shellfish, Michael Rice

Michael A Rice

Pathogenic Vibrios are becoming an increasing problem for shellfish producers in North America and elsewhere. This paper reviews current research into the pathogenic nature of Vibrios and provides some practical advice for avoiding the propagation of Vibrios on shellfish farms nd in wild harvest molluscan shellfish.


The Shellfish Corner--Shellfish Sanitation And The Price Of Shellfish, Michael A. Rice Jan 2015

The Shellfish Corner--Shellfish Sanitation And The Price Of Shellfish, Michael A. Rice

Michael A Rice

Prices of raw molluscan shellfish in different countries around the world are tied to perceived risk of becoming ill if consumed. Wholesale prices of oysters in the southern New England from 1880 to 2010 are analyzed in relation to introduction of flush toilets and sewer systems in the early 20th Century, the initiation of the US National Shellfish Sanitation Program in 1925 and renewed consumer interest in consuming raw shellfish in the latter half of the 20th Century.


Density-Dependent Prophylaxis In Crowded Beet Webworm, Loxostege Sticticalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Larvae To A Parasitoid And A Fungal Pathogen, Hailong Kong, Yunxia Cheng, Lizhi Luo, Thomas W. Sappington, Xingfu Jiang, Lei Zhang Oct 2014

Density-Dependent Prophylaxis In Crowded Beet Webworm, Loxostege Sticticalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Larvae To A Parasitoid And A Fungal Pathogen, Hailong Kong, Yunxia Cheng, Lizhi Luo, Thomas W. Sappington, Xingfu Jiang, Lei Zhang

Thomas W. Sappington

Transmission of parasites and pathogens is generally positively density-dependent: as an insect population's density increases, the risk of an individual becoming attacked or infected also increases. In some insect species, individuals experiencing crowded conditions are more resistant to natural enemies than those experiencing low density conditions, and they are predicted to divert resources to increase resistance. This phenomenon is called density-dependent prophylaxis. Here, possible expression of prophylaxis in fifth-instar larvae of Beet Webworm, Loxostege sticticalis, to biocontrol agents was investigated under rearing densities of 1, 10, and 30 larvae per jar (650 mL). Larvae reared at the moderate density ...


Characterization Of Fusobacterium Isolates From The Respiratory Tract Of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus ), Amit Kumar, Dvm, Ms, Phd Mar 2014

Characterization Of Fusobacterium Isolates From The Respiratory Tract Of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus ), Amit Kumar, Dvm, Ms, Phd

Amit Kumar, DVM, MS, PhD

A total of 23 clinical isolates of Fusobacterium spp. were recovered at necropsy over a 2-year period from the respiratory tract of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Isolates were identified as Fusobacterium varium (18/23),Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme (3/23), and Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum (2/23). Usingpolymerase chain reaction–based detection of virulence genes, all F. necrophorum isolates were positive for the promoter region of the leukotoxin operon and the hemagglutinin-related protein gene, while all F. varium isolates were negative. The presence of the leukotoxin gene in F. necrophorum isolates and the absence of this gene in F. varium ...


North Atlantic Vibrio Vulnificus Surveillance From Postharvest Oysters At A Us Shellfish Processing Facility, Kenneth Lavalley, Joseph Dealteris, Michael Rice, Marta Gomez-Chiarri Dec 2013

North Atlantic Vibrio Vulnificus Surveillance From Postharvest Oysters At A Us Shellfish Processing Facility, Kenneth Lavalley, Joseph Dealteris, Michael Rice, Marta Gomez-Chiarri

Marta Gomez-Chiarri

Postharvest surveillance for Vibrio vulnificus by a commercial processing facility was conducted from May 2001 to September 2003. Harvest areas included the Delaware Bay, Long Island Sound and Prince Edward Island. Occurrence followed a seasonal distribution. Low densities were observed in June, increased through August, and became rare by September. Given the ubiquitous nature of marine Vibrios, it was not surprising to find V. vulnificus everywhere, which was investigated. Observations confirmed the importance of strict time/temperature and product handling practices by shellfish harvesters, dealers and processors. Mishandling led to a potentially dangerous and uncharacteristically high V. vulnificus observation.


Outer Membrane Protein P5 Is Required For Resistance Of Nontypeable Haemophilus Influenzae To Both The Classical And Alternative Complement Pathways., Charles Rosadini, Sanjay Ram, Brian Akerley Nov 2013

Outer Membrane Protein P5 Is Required For Resistance Of Nontypeable Haemophilus Influenzae To Both The Classical And Alternative Complement Pathways., Charles Rosadini, Sanjay Ram, Brian Akerley

Brian J. Akerley

No abstract provided.


Regulation Of The Escherichia Coli Hipba Toxin-Antitoxin System By Proteolysis, Sonja Hansen, Marin Vulić, Tien-Jui Yen, Maria A. Schumacher, Richard G. Brennan, Kim Lewis Jun 2013

Regulation Of The Escherichia Coli Hipba Toxin-Antitoxin System By Proteolysis, Sonja Hansen, Marin Vulić, Tien-Jui Yen, Maria A. Schumacher, Richard G. Brennan, Kim Lewis

Marin Vulić

Bacterial populations produce antibiotic-tolerant persister cells. A number of recent studies point to the involvement of toxin/antitoxin (TA) modules in persister formation. hipBA is a type II TA module that codes for the HipB antitoxin and the HipA toxin. HipA is an EF-Tu kinase, which causes protein synthesis inhibition and dormancy upon phosphorylation of its substrate. Antitoxins are labile proteins that are degraded by one of the cytosolic ATP-dependent proteases. We followed the rate of HipB degradation in different protease deficient strains and found that HipB was stabilized in a lon- background. These findings were confirmed in an in ...


Regulation Of The Escherichia Coli Hipba Toxin-Antitoxin System By Proteolysis, Sonja Hansen, Marin Vulić, Tien-Jui Yen, Maria A. Schumacher, Richard G. Brennan, Kim Lewis Jan 2013

Regulation Of The Escherichia Coli Hipba Toxin-Antitoxin System By Proteolysis, Sonja Hansen, Marin Vulić, Tien-Jui Yen, Maria A. Schumacher, Richard G. Brennan, Kim Lewis

Kim Lewis

Bacterial populations produce antibiotic-tolerant persister cells. A number of recent studies point to the involvement of toxin/antitoxin (TA) modules in persister formation. hipBA is a type II TA module that codes for the HipB antitoxin and the HipA toxin. HipA is an EF-Tu kinase, which causes protein synthesis inhibition and dormancy upon phosphorylation of its substrate. Antitoxins are labile proteins that are degraded by one of the cytosolic ATP-dependent proteases. We followed the rate of HipB degradation in different protease deficient strains and found that HipB was stabilized in a lon- background. These findings were confirmed in an in ...


Empower Research Through Comparative Genomics & Next-Gen Sequencing, Li-Jun Ma Sep 2012

Empower Research Through Comparative Genomics & Next-Gen Sequencing, Li-Jun Ma

Li-Jun Ma

Describes research in comparative fungal genomics, specifically the the plant-fungal interactions of wilt diseases caused by Fusarium oxysporum.


Morphological, Anatomical And Molecular Investigation Into Witches’ Broom Disease Of Mamejvo (Enicostemma Axillare), K. Abirami, Anjali Sharma, Jatindra Nath Samanta, V. S. Rana, Kunal Mandal Dec 2011

Morphological, Anatomical And Molecular Investigation Into Witches’ Broom Disease Of Mamejvo (Enicostemma Axillare), K. Abirami, Anjali Sharma, Jatindra Nath Samanta, V. S. Rana, Kunal Mandal

Kunal Mandal

Mamejvo (Enicostemma axillare Raynal) is a perennial herb with diversified health benefits. It was found to be affected by a witches’ broom disease under the field conditions at Anand, Gujarat, India. Affected plants were 53.33% reduced in height due to shortened internodes, leading to typical witches’ broom symptoms. Flower size was reduced significantly in the affected plants compared with the healthy ones and their petal color gradually turned green (virescence). Affected plants produced 2.5 times more dry herbage than the normal plants but with less active ingredient (swertiamarin). Symptomatic plants died early while root suckers from such plants ...


Phylometrics: A Pipeline For Inferring Phylogenetic Trees From A Sequence Relationship Network Perspective, Samuel A. Smits, Cleber C. Ouverney Nov 2010

Phylometrics: A Pipeline For Inferring Phylogenetic Trees From A Sequence Relationship Network Perspective, Samuel A. Smits, Cleber C. Ouverney

Cleber C. Ouverney

Background Comparative sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene is frequently used to characterize the microbial diversity of environmental samples. However, sequence similarities do not always imply functional or evolutionary relatedness due to many factors, including unequal rates of change and convergence. Thus, relying on top BLASTN hits for phylogenetic studies may misrepresent the diversity of these constituents. Furthermore, attempts to circumvent this issue by including a large number of BLASTN hits per sequence in one tree to explore their relatedness presents other problems. For instance, the multiple sequence alignment will be poor and computationally costly if not relying on ...


Communities Of Cloacal Bacteria In Tree Swallow Families, Michael Lombardo, Patrick Thorpe, R. Cichewicz, M. Henshaw, C. Millard, C. Steen, T. Zeller Jul 2010

Communities Of Cloacal Bacteria In Tree Swallow Families, Michael Lombardo, Patrick Thorpe, R. Cichewicz, M. Henshaw, C. Millard, C. Steen, T. Zeller

Michael P Lombardo

Our aim in this study was to survey the communities of bacteria found in the cloacae of adult and nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), determine if there were familial patterns of prevalence, and determine if there were relationships between bacteria loads and nestling size when 12 days old and fledging success.


On The Evolution Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases In Birds, Michael Lombardo Jul 2010

On The Evolution Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases In Birds, Michael Lombardo

Michael P Lombardo

"The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com".

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in animals are caused by pathogens that are transmitted during copulation. Birds have played an important role in the development of STD-centered theories of mating behavior. However, it is not known whether STDs exist in wild bird populations. While the avian cloaca with its dual functions of gamete transfer and excretion seemingly predisposes birds for the evolution of STDs, the life history patterns of most birds (i.e., seasonal breeders with relatively brief annual periods of sexual activity) suggest otherwise. The importance of STDs as selective forces ...


The Chitobiose Transporter, Chbc, Is Required For Chitin Utilization In Borrelia Burgdorferi, David Nelson Dec 2009

The Chitobiose Transporter, Chbc, Is Required For Chitin Utilization In Borrelia Burgdorferi, David Nelson

David R. Nelson

Background: The bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is a limited-genome organism that must obtain many of its biochemical building blocks, including N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), from its tick or vertebrate host. GlcNAc can be imported into the cell as a monomer or dimer (chitobiose), and the annotation for several B. burgdorferi genes suggests that this organism may be able to degrade and utilize chitin, a polymer of GlcNAc. We investigated the ability of B. burgdorferi to utilize chitin in the absence of free GlcNAc, and we attempted to identify genes involved in the process. We also examined the ...


North Atlantic Vibrio Vulnificus Surveillance From Postharvest Oysters At A Us Shellfish Processing Facility, Kenneth Lavalley, Joseph Dealteris, Michael Rice, Marta Gomez-Chiarri Jun 2008

North Atlantic Vibrio Vulnificus Surveillance From Postharvest Oysters At A Us Shellfish Processing Facility, Kenneth Lavalley, Joseph Dealteris, Michael Rice, Marta Gomez-Chiarri

Michael A Rice

Postharvest surveillance for Vibrio vulnificus by a commercial processing facility was conducted from May 2001 to September 2003. Harvest areas included the Delaware Bay, Long Island Sound and Prince Edward Island. Occurrence followed a seasonal distribution. Low densities were observed in June, increased through August, and became rare by September. Given the ubiquitous nature of marine Vibrios, it was not surprising to find V. vulnificus everywhere, which was investigated. Observations confirmed the importance of strict time/temperature and product handling practices by shellfish harvesters, dealers and processors. Mishandling led to a potentially dangerous and uncharacteristically high V. vulnificus observation.


Compartmental Specificity Of Cellular Membrane Fusion Encoded In Snare Proteins, James Mcnew, Frank Parlati, Ryorichi Fukuda, Robert Johnston, Keren Paz, Fabienne Paumet, Thomas Sollner, James Rothman Dec 1999

Compartmental Specificity Of Cellular Membrane Fusion Encoded In Snare Proteins, James Mcnew, Frank Parlati, Ryorichi Fukuda, Robert Johnston, Keren Paz, Fabienne Paumet, Thomas Sollner, James Rothman

Fabienne Paumet

No abstract provided.


Soluble Nsf Attachment Protein Receptors (Snares) In Rbl-2h3 Mast Cells: Functional Role Of Syntaxin4 In Exocytosis And Identification Of A Vamp8-Containing Secretory Compartment, Fabienne Paumet, Joelle Le Mao, Sophie Martin, Thierry Galli, Bernard David, Ulrich Blank, Michele Roa Dec 1999

Soluble Nsf Attachment Protein Receptors (Snares) In Rbl-2h3 Mast Cells: Functional Role Of Syntaxin4 In Exocytosis And Identification Of A Vamp8-Containing Secretory Compartment, Fabienne Paumet, Joelle Le Mao, Sophie Martin, Thierry Galli, Bernard David, Ulrich Blank, Michele Roa

Fabienne Paumet

No abstract provided.


Involvement Of The Ras-Like Gtpase Rab3d In Rbl-2h3 Mast Cell Exocytosis Following Stimulation Via High Affinity Ige Receptors (Fcεri), Michele Roa, Fabienne Paumet, Joelle Le Mao, Bernard David, Ulrich Blank Dec 1996

Involvement Of The Ras-Like Gtpase Rab3d In Rbl-2h3 Mast Cell Exocytosis Following Stimulation Via High Affinity Ige Receptors (Fcεri), Michele Roa, Fabienne Paumet, Joelle Le Mao, Bernard David, Ulrich Blank

Fabienne Paumet

No abstract provided.