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Pathogenic Microbiology Commons

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Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Pathogenic Microbiology

Prokaryotic Diversity In The Rhizosphere Of Organic, Intensive, And Transitional Coffee Farms In Brazil, Adam Caldwell, Livia Silva, Cynthia Da Silva, Cleber Ouverney Jun 2015

Prokaryotic Diversity In The Rhizosphere Of Organic, Intensive, And Transitional Coffee Farms In Brazil, Adam Caldwell, Livia Silva, Cynthia Da Silva, Cleber Ouverney

Faculty Publications

Despite a continuous rise in consumption of coffee over the past 60 years and recent studies showing positive benefits linked to human health, intensive coffee farming practices have been associated with environmental damage, risks to human health, and reductions in biodiversity. In contrast, organic farming has become an increasingly popular alternative, with both environmental and health benefits. This study aimed to characterize and determine the differences in the prokaryotic soil microbiology of three Brazilian coffee farms: one practicing intensive farming, one practicing organic farming, and one undergoing a transition from intensive to organic practices. Soil samples were collected from 20 ...


Phylometrics: A Pipeline For Inferring Phylogenetic Trees From A Sequence Relationship Network Perspective, Samuel A. Smits, Cleber C. Ouverney Oct 2010

Phylometrics: A Pipeline For Inferring Phylogenetic Trees From A Sequence Relationship Network Perspective, Samuel A. Smits, Cleber C. Ouverney

Faculty Publications

Background
Comparative sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene is frequently used to characterize the microbial diversity of environmental samples. However, sequence similarities do not always imply functional or evolutionary relatedness due to many factors, including unequal rates of change and convergence. Thus, relying on top BLASTN hits for phylogenetic studies may misrepresent the diversity of these constituents. Furthermore, attempts to circumvent this issue by including a large number of BLASTN hits per sequence in one tree to explore their relatedness presents other problems. For instance, the multiple sequence alignment will be poor and computationally costly if not relying on ...


Jsphylosvg: A Javascript Library For Visualizing Interactive And Vector-Based Phylogenetic Trees On The Web, Samuel A. Smits, Cleber C. Ouverney Aug 2010

Jsphylosvg: A Javascript Library For Visualizing Interactive And Vector-Based Phylogenetic Trees On The Web, Samuel A. Smits, Cleber C. Ouverney

Faculty Publications

Background
Many software packages have been developed to address the need for generating phylogenetic trees intended for print. With an increased use of the web to disseminate scientific literature, there is a need for phylogenetic trees to be viewable across many types of devices and feature some of the interactive elements that are integral to the browsing experience. We propose a novel approach for publishing interactive phylogenetic trees.

Methods/Principal Findings
We present a javascript library, jsPhyloSVG, which facilitates constructing interactive phylogenetic trees from raw Newick or phyloXML formats directly within the browser in Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) format. It ...


Modulation Of The Nf-Κb Pathway By Bordetella Pertussis Filamentous Hemagglutinin, Tzvia Abramson, Hassya Kedem, David A. Relman Nov 2008

Modulation Of The Nf-Κb Pathway By Bordetella Pertussis Filamentous Hemagglutinin, Tzvia Abramson, Hassya Kedem, David A. Relman

Faculty Publications

Background
Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) is a cell-associated and secreted adhesin produced by Bordetella pertussis with pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory activity in host cells. Given the importance of the NF-κB transcription factor family in these host cell responses, we examined the effect of FHA on NF-κB activation in macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells, both of which are relevant cell types during natural infection.

Methodology/Principal Findings
Exposure to FHA of primary human monocytes and transformed U-937 macrophages, but not BEAS-2B epithelial cells, resulted in early activation of the NF-κB pathway, as manifested by the degradation of cytosolic IκBα, by NF-κB DNA binding ...


Dissecting Biological “Dark Matter” With Single-Cell Genetic Analysis Of Rare And Uncultivated Tm7 Microbes From The Human Mouth, Yann Marcy, Cleber C. Ouverney, Elisabeth M. Bik, Tina Lösekann, Natalia Ivanova, Hector Garcia Martin, Ernest Szeto, Darren Platt, Philip Hugenholtz, David A. Relman, Stephen R. Quake Jul 2007

Dissecting Biological “Dark Matter” With Single-Cell Genetic Analysis Of Rare And Uncultivated Tm7 Microbes From The Human Mouth, Yann Marcy, Cleber C. Ouverney, Elisabeth M. Bik, Tina Lösekann, Natalia Ivanova, Hector Garcia Martin, Ernest Szeto, Darren Platt, Philip Hugenholtz, David A. Relman, Stephen R. Quake

Faculty Publications

We have developed a microfluidic device that allows the isolation and genome amplification of individual microbial cells, thereby enabling organism-level genomic analysis of complex microbial ecosystems without the need for culture. This device was used to perform a directed survey of the human subgingival crevice and to isolate bacteria having rod-like morphology. Several isolated microbes had a 16S rRNA sequence that placed them in candidate phylum TM7, which has no cultivated or sequenced members. Genome amplification from individual TM7 cells allowed us to sequence and assemble >1,000 genes, providing insight into the physiology of members of this phylum. This ...


Methanogenic Archaea And Human Periodontal Disease, Paul W. Lepp, Mary M. Brinig, Cleber C. Ouverney, Katherine Palm, Gary C. Armitage, David A. Relman Apr 2004

Methanogenic Archaea And Human Periodontal Disease, Paul W. Lepp, Mary M. Brinig, Cleber C. Ouverney, Katherine Palm, Gary C. Armitage, David A. Relman

Faculty Publications

Archaea have been isolated from the human colon, vagina, and oral cavity, but have not been established as causes of human disease. In this study, we reveal a relationship between the severity of periodontal disease and the relative abundance of archaeal small subunit ribosomal RNA genes (SSU rDNA) in the subgingival crevice by using quantitative PCR. Furthermore, the relative abundance of archaeal small subunit rDNA decreased at treated sites in association with clinical improvement. Archaea were harbored by 36% of periodontitis patients and were restricted to subgingival sites with periodontal disease. The presence of archaeal cells at these sites was ...


Single-Cell Enumeration Of An Uncultivated Tm7 Subgroup In The, Cleber C. Ouverney, Gary C. Armitage, David A. Relman Oct 2003

Single-Cell Enumeration Of An Uncultivated Tm7 Subgroup In The, Cleber C. Ouverney, Gary C. Armitage, David A. Relman

Faculty Publications

Specific oligonucleotide hybridization conditions were established for single-cell enumeration of uncultivated TM7 and IO25 bacteria by using clones expressing heterologous 16S rRNA. In situ analysis of human subgingival crevice specimens revealed that a greater proportion of samples from sites of chronic periodontitis than from healthy sites contained TM7 subgroup IO25. In addition, IO25 bacterial cells from periodontitis site samples were more abundant and fourfold longer than IO25 cells from healthy site samples.


Cultivation Of Tropheryma Whipplei From Cerebrospinal Fluid, Matthias Maiwald, Axel Von Herbay, David N. Fredricks, Cleber C. Ouverney, Jon C. Kosek, David A. Relman Sep 2003

Cultivation Of Tropheryma Whipplei From Cerebrospinal Fluid, Matthias Maiwald, Axel Von Herbay, David N. Fredricks, Cleber C. Ouverney, Jon C. Kosek, David A. Relman

Faculty Publications

Whipple disease (WD) is a systemic disorder caused by the bacterium Tropheryma whipplei. Since the recognition of a bacterial etiology in 1961, many attempts have been made to cultivate this bacterium in vitro. It was eventually isolated, in 2000, from an infected heart valve, in coculture with human fibroblasts. Here we report the isolation of 2 new strains of T. whipplei from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 2 patients with intestinal WD but no neurological signs or symptoms. One culture-positive specimen was obtained before treatment; the other was obtained 12 months after discontinuation of therapy, at a time of intestinal remission ...


Prevalence Of Bacteria Of Division Tm7 In Human Subgingival Plaque And Their Association With Disease, Mary M. Brinig, Paul W. Lepp, Cleber C. Ouverney, Gary C. Armitage, David A. Relman Mar 2003

Prevalence Of Bacteria Of Division Tm7 In Human Subgingival Plaque And Their Association With Disease, Mary M. Brinig, Paul W. Lepp, Cleber C. Ouverney, Gary C. Armitage, David A. Relman

Faculty Publications

Members of the uncultivated bacterial division TM7 have been detected in the human mouth, but little information is available regarding their prevalence and diversity at this site. Human subgingival plaque samples from healthy sites and sites exhibiting various stages of periodontal disease were analyzed for the presence of TM7 bacteria. TM7 ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was found in 96% of the samples, and it accounted for approximately 0.3%, on average, of all bacterial rDNA in the samples as determined by real-time quantitative PCR. Two new phylotypes of this division were identified, and members of the division were found to exhibit ...


Marine Planktonic Archaea Take Up Amino Acids, Cleber C. Ouverney, Jed A. Fuhrman Nov 2000

Marine Planktonic Archaea Take Up Amino Acids, Cleber C. Ouverney, Jed A. Fuhrman

Faculty Publications

Archaea are traditionally thought of as “extremophiles,” but recent studies have shown that marine planktonic Archaea make up a surprisingly large percentage of ocean midwater microbial communities, up to 60% of the total prokaryotes. However, the basic physiology and contribution of Archaea to community microbial activity remain unknown. We have studied Archaea from 200-m depths of the northwest Mediterranean Sea and the Pacific Ocean near California, measuring the archaeal activity under simulated natural conditions (8 to 17°C, dark and anaerobic) by means of a method called substrate tracking autoradiography fluorescence in situ hybridization (STARFISH) that simultaneously detects specific cell ...


Increase In Fluorescence Intensity Of 16s Rrna In Situ Hybridization In Natural Samples Treated With Chloramphenicol, Cleber C. Ouverney, Jed A. Fuhrman Jul 1997

Increase In Fluorescence Intensity Of 16s Rrna In Situ Hybridization In Natural Samples Treated With Chloramphenicol, Cleber C. Ouverney, Jed A. Fuhrman

Faculty Publications

Despite the numerous advantages of fluorescent in situ hybridization for the identification of single prokaryotic cells with 16S rRNA probes, use of the technique with natural samples, especially those from the marine environment, is still problematic. The low percentage of fluorescently labeled cells constitutes the primary problem for in situ hybridization of natural samples, probably due to low cellular rRNA content. This study represents an attempt to improve detection of marine prokaryotes by increasing cellular rRNA content without changing the species composition. Cells from three California coastal sites were treated with chloramphenicol, an inhibitor of protein synthesis and rRNA degradation ...