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Pathogenic Microbiology Commons

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Articles 1 - 30 of 38

Full-Text Articles in Pathogenic Microbiology

Assessment Of The Potential Use Of Recombinant Baculovirus-Expressed Lassa Virus Nucleoprotein As A Serodiagnostic Antigen, Sahiba Grover Apr 2019

Assessment Of The Potential Use Of Recombinant Baculovirus-Expressed Lassa Virus Nucleoprotein As A Serodiagnostic Antigen, Sahiba Grover

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Lassa virus is an arenavirus causing a disseminated systemic primary viral infection. This virus causes Lassa fever which is a viral hemorrhagic fever endemic in West Africa and is responsible for the deaths of thousands of people each year. There is a possibility for the Lassa virus to be introduced into the US and used as a biological weapon with the potential to harm a large-scale population. Because of increasing international travel, a sizeable burden from the disease, and its potential use for biological warfare, it is necessary to develop sensitive diagnostic assays to accurately detect virus infections and mitigate ...


Interferon-Induced Transmembrane Protein 3 Blocks Fusion Of Sensitive But Not Resistant Viruses By Partitioning Into Virus-Carrying Endosomes, Krishna C. Suddala, Christine C. Lee, Paul Meraner, Mariana Marin, Ruben M. Markosyan, Tanay M. Desai, Fredric S. Cohen, Abraham L. Brass, Gregory B. Melikyan Jan 2019

Interferon-Induced Transmembrane Protein 3 Blocks Fusion Of Sensitive But Not Resistant Viruses By Partitioning Into Virus-Carrying Endosomes, Krishna C. Suddala, Christine C. Lee, Paul Meraner, Mariana Marin, Ruben M. Markosyan, Tanay M. Desai, Fredric S. Cohen, Abraham L. Brass, Gregory B. Melikyan

Open Access Articles

Late endosome-resident interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) inhibits fusion of diverse viruses, including Influenza A virus (IAV), by a poorly understood mechanism. Despite the broad antiviral activity of IFITM3, viruses like Lassa virus (LASV), are fully resistant to its inhibitory effects. It is currently unclear whether resistance arises from a highly efficient fusion machinery that is capable of overcoming IFITM3 restriction or the ability to enter from cellular sites devoid of this factor. Here, we constructed and validated a functional IFITM3 tagged with EGFP or other fluorescent proteins. This breakthrough allowed live cell imaging of virus co-trafficking and fusion with ...


Select Gp120 V2 Domain Specific Antibodies Derived From Hiv And Siv Infection And Vaccination Inhibit Gp120 Binding To Alpha4beta7, Sakaorat Lertjuthaporn, Shan Lu, Yang Lou, Shixia Wang, James Arthos Aug 2018

Select Gp120 V2 Domain Specific Antibodies Derived From Hiv And Siv Infection And Vaccination Inhibit Gp120 Binding To Alpha4beta7, Sakaorat Lertjuthaporn, Shan Lu, Yang Lou, Shixia Wang, James Arthos

Open Access Articles

The GI tract is preferentially targeted during acute/early HIV-1 infection. Consequent damage to the gut plays a central role in HIV pathogenesis. The basis for preferential targeting of gut tissues is not well defined. Recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides derived from HIV and SIV gp120 bind directly to integrin alpha4beta7, a gut-homing receptor. Using both cell-surface expressed alpha4beta7 and a soluble alpha4beta7 heterodimer we demonstrate that its specific affinity for gp120 is similar to its affinity for MAdCAM (its natural ligand). The gp120 V2 domain preferentially engages extended forms of alpha4beta7 in a cation -sensitive manner and is inhibited ...


Downregulation Of Microrna Eca-Mir-128 In Seminal Exosomes And Enhanced Expression Of Cxcl16 In The Stallion Reproductive Tract Are Associated With Long-Term Persistence Of Equine Arteritis Virus, Mariano Carossino, Pouya Dini, Theodore S. Kalbfleisch, Alan T. Loynachan, Igor F. Canisso, Kathleen M. Shuck, Peter J. Timoney, R. Frank Cook, Udeni B. R. Balasuriya May 2018

Downregulation Of Microrna Eca-Mir-128 In Seminal Exosomes And Enhanced Expression Of Cxcl16 In The Stallion Reproductive Tract Are Associated With Long-Term Persistence Of Equine Arteritis Virus, Mariano Carossino, Pouya Dini, Theodore S. Kalbfleisch, Alan T. Loynachan, Igor F. Canisso, Kathleen M. Shuck, Peter J. Timoney, R. Frank Cook, Udeni B. R. Balasuriya

Gluck Equine Research Center Faculty Publications

Equine arteritis virus (EAV) can establish long-term persistent infection in the reproductive tract of stallions and is shed in the semen. Previous studies showed that long-term persistence is associated with a specific allele of the CXCL16 gene (CXCL16S) and that persistent infection is maintained despite the presence of a local inflammatory and humoral and mucosal antibody responses. In this study, we demonstrated that equine seminal exosomes (SEs) are enriched in a small subset of microRNAs (miRNAs). Most importantly, we demonstrated that long-term EAV persistence is associated with the downregulation of an SE-associated miRNA (eca-mir-128) and with an enhanced expression of ...


Changes In The Prevalence Of Salmonella Serovars Associated Swine Production And Correlations Of Avian, Bovine And Swine‐Associated Serovars With Human‐Associated Serovars In The United States (1997–2015), Chaohui Yuan, Adam C. Krull, Chong Wang, M. Erdman, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, C. M. Logue, Annette M. O'Connor Apr 2018

Changes In The Prevalence Of Salmonella Serovars Associated Swine Production And Correlations Of Avian, Bovine And Swine‐Associated Serovars With Human‐Associated Serovars In The United States (1997–2015), Chaohui Yuan, Adam C. Krull, Chong Wang, M. Erdman, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, C. M. Logue, Annette M. O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

As Salmonella enterica is an important pathogen of food animals, surveillance programmes for S. enterica serovars have existed for many years in the United States. Surveillance programmes serve many purposes, one of which is to evaluate alterations in the prevalence of serovars that may signal changes in the ecology of the target organism. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the proportion of S. enterica serovars isolated from swine over a near 20‐year observation period (1997–2015) using four longitudinal data sets from different food animal species. The secondary aim was to evaluate correlations between ...


On The Demographic And Selective Forces Shaping Patterns Of Human Cytomegalovirus Variation Within Hosts, Andrew M. Sackman, Susanne P. Pfeifer, Timothy F. Kowalik, Jeffrey D. Jensen Jan 2018

On The Demographic And Selective Forces Shaping Patterns Of Human Cytomegalovirus Variation Within Hosts, Andrew M. Sackman, Susanne P. Pfeifer, Timothy F. Kowalik, Jeffrey D. Jensen

Open Access Articles

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a member of the beta -herpesvirus subfamily within Herpesviridae that is nearly ubiquitous in human populations, and infection generally results only in mild symptoms. However, symptoms can be severe in immunonaive individuals, and transplacental congenital infection of HCMV can result in serious neurological sequelae. Recent work has revealed much about the demographic and selective forces shaping the evolution of congenitally transmitted HCMV both on the level of hosts and within host compartments, providing insight into the dynamics of congenital infection, reinfection, and evolution of HCMV with important implications for the development of effective treatments and vaccines.


The Effect Of Diet On Midgut And Resulting Changes In Infectiousness Of Acmnpv Baculovirus In Trichoplusia Ni, Elizabeth Chen Sep 2017

The Effect Of Diet On Midgut And Resulting Changes In Infectiousness Of Acmnpv Baculovirus In Trichoplusia Ni, Elizabeth Chen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, a global generalist lepidopteran pest, has developed resistance to many synthetic and biological insecticides, requiring effective and environmentally acceptable alternatives. One possibility is the Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). This baculovirus is highly infectious for T. ni, with potential as a biocontrol agent, however, its effectiveness is strongly influenced by dietary context. In this study, microscopy and transcriptomics were used to examine how the efficacy of this virus was affected when T. ni larvae were raised on different diets. Larvae raised on potato host plants had lower chitinase and chitin deacetylase transcript levels and thickened ...


Natural Vertical Transmission Of Wnv In Montana, Inderbir Bains Mar 2017

Natural Vertical Transmission Of Wnv In Montana, Inderbir Bains

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

West Nile Virus (WNV) emerged and rapidly spread throughout the United States within several years. WNV is spread in Montana primarily by the mosquito vector Culex tarsalis. Horizontal transmission of WNV has been extensively studied, while little is known regarding vertical transmission. Previous research suggests vertical transmission is possible in controlled laboratory studies. This research attempts to document natural vertical transmission in Montana. Larvae were collected and analyzed for WNV via RTPCR. Results show no presence of natural vertical transmission. Culex larvae and adult male mosquito collection methods were insufficient, fluctuations in temperatures and variant rainfall were contributing factors. Future ...


Neurotrophic Factors Ngf, Gdnf And Ntn Selectively Modulate Hsv1 And Hsv2 Lytic Infection And Reactivation In Primary Adult Sensory And Autonomic Neurons, Andy Y. Yanez, Telvin Harrell, Heather J. Sriranganathan, Angela M. Ives, Andrea S. Bertke Mar 2017

Neurotrophic Factors Ngf, Gdnf And Ntn Selectively Modulate Hsv1 And Hsv2 Lytic Infection And Reactivation In Primary Adult Sensory And Autonomic Neurons, Andy Y. Yanez, Telvin Harrell, Heather J. Sriranganathan, Angela M. Ives, Andrea S. Bertke

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

Herpes simplex viruses (HSV1 and HSV2) establish latency in peripheral ganglia after ocular or genital infection, and can reactivate to produce different patterns and frequencies of recurrent disease. Previous studies showed that nerve growth factor (NGF) maintains HSV1 latency in embryonic sympathetic and sensory neurons. However, adult sensory neurons are no longer dependent on NGF for survival, some populations cease expression of NGF receptors postnatally, and the viruses preferentially establish latency in different populations of sensory neurons responsive to other neurotrophic factors (NTFs). Thus, NGF may not maintain latency in adult sensory neurons. To identify NTFs important for maintaining HSV1 ...


The Ifitms Inhibit Zika Virus Replication, George Savidis, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Paul Meraner, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Abraham L. Brass Jun 2016

The Ifitms Inhibit Zika Virus Replication, George Savidis, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Paul Meraner, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Abraham L. Brass

Sharone Green

Zika virus has emerged as a severe health threat with a rapidly expanding range. The IFITM family of restriction factors inhibits the replication of a broad range of viruses, including the closely related flaviruses West Nile virus and dengue virus. Here, we show that IFITM1 and IFITM3 inhibit Zika virus infection early in the viral life cycle. Moreover, IFITM3 can prevent Zika-virus-induced cell death. These results suggest that strategies to boost the actions and/or levels of the IFITMs might be useful for inhibiting a broad range of emerging viruses.


Identification Of Zika Virus And Dengue Virus Dependency Factors Using Functional Genomics, George Savidis, William M. Mcdougall, Paul Meraner, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Gaia Trincucci, Sinu P. John, Aaron M. Aker, Nicholas Renzette, Douglas R. Robbins, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Timothy F. Kowalik, Abraham L. Brass Jun 2016

Identification Of Zika Virus And Dengue Virus Dependency Factors Using Functional Genomics, George Savidis, William M. Mcdougall, Paul Meraner, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Gaia Trincucci, Sinu P. John, Aaron M. Aker, Nicholas Renzette, Douglas R. Robbins, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Timothy F. Kowalik, Abraham L. Brass

Sharone Green

The flaviviruses dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are severe health threats with rapidly expanding ranges. To identify the host cell dependencies of DENV and ZIKV, we completed orthologous functional genomic screens using RNAi and CRISPR/Cas9 approaches. The screens recovered the ZIKV entry factor AXL as well as multiple host factors involved in endocytosis (RAB5C and RABGEF), heparin sulfation (NDST1 and EXT1), and transmembrane protein processing and maturation, including the endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex (EMC). We find that both flaviviruses require the EMC for their early stages of infection. Together, these studies generate a high-confidence, systems-wide view of ...


Identification Of Zika Virus And Dengue Virus Dependency Factors Using Functional Genomics, George Savidis, William M. Mcdougall, Paul Meraner, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Gaia Trincucci, Sinu P. John, Aaron M. Aker, Nicholas Renzette, Douglas R. Robbins, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Timothy F. Kowalik, Abraham L. Brass Jun 2016

Identification Of Zika Virus And Dengue Virus Dependency Factors Using Functional Genomics, George Savidis, William M. Mcdougall, Paul Meraner, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Gaia Trincucci, Sinu P. John, Aaron M. Aker, Nicholas Renzette, Douglas R. Robbins, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Timothy F. Kowalik, Abraham L. Brass

Microbiology and Physiological Systems Publications and Presentations

The flaviviruses dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are severe health threats with rapidly expanding ranges. To identify the host cell dependencies of DENV and ZIKV, we completed orthologous functional genomic screens using RNAi and CRISPR/Cas9 approaches. The screens recovered the ZIKV entry factor AXL as well as multiple host factors involved in endocytosis (RAB5C and RABGEF), heparin sulfation (NDST1 and EXT1), and transmembrane protein processing and maturation, including the endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex (EMC). We find that both flaviviruses require the EMC for their early stages of infection. Together, these studies generate a high-confidence, systems-wide view of ...


The Ifitms Inhibit Zika Virus Replication, George Savidis, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Paul Meraner, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Abraham L. Brass Jun 2016

The Ifitms Inhibit Zika Virus Replication, George Savidis, Jill Perreira, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Paul Meraner, Zhiru Guo, Sharone Green, Abraham L. Brass

Microbiology and Physiological Systems Publications and Presentations

Zika virus has emerged as a severe health threat with a rapidly expanding range. The IFITM family of restriction factors inhibits the replication of a broad range of viruses, including the closely related flaviruses West Nile virus and dengue virus. Here, we show that IFITM1 and IFITM3 inhibit Zika virus infection early in the viral life cycle. Moreover, IFITM3 can prevent Zika-virus-induced cell death. These results suggest that strategies to boost the actions and/or levels of the IFITMs might be useful for inhibiting a broad range of emerging viruses.


Defining The Binding Region In Factor H To Develop A Therapeutic Factor H-Fc Fusion Protein Against Non-Typeable Haemophilus Influenzae, Sandy M. Wong, Jutamas Shaughnessy, Sanjay Ram, Brian J. Akerley Apr 2016

Defining The Binding Region In Factor H To Develop A Therapeutic Factor H-Fc Fusion Protein Against Non-Typeable Haemophilus Influenzae, Sandy M. Wong, Jutamas Shaughnessy, Sanjay Ram, Brian J. Akerley

Open Access Articles

Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) cause a range of illnesses including otitis media, sinusitis, and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, infections that contribute to the problem of antibiotic resistance and are themselves often intractable to standard antibiotic treatment regimens. We investigated a strategy to exploit binding of the complement inhibitor Factor H (FH) to NTHi as a functional target for an immunotherapeutic containing the NTHi binding domain of FH fused to the Fc domain of IgG1. Chimeric proteins containing the regions that most FH-binding bacteria use to engage human FH, domains 6 and 7 (FH6,7/Fc) and/or 18 ...


A Lipidomics Approach To The Viral-Host Dynamics Of The Unicellular, Eukaryotic Alga Chlorella Variabilis And Its Viral Pathogen, Pbcv-1, Suzanne Rose Dec 2015

A Lipidomics Approach To The Viral-Host Dynamics Of The Unicellular, Eukaryotic Alga Chlorella Variabilis And Its Viral Pathogen, Pbcv-1, Suzanne Rose

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

This thesis focuses on the sterol and sphingolipid composition in the unicellular, green alga Chlorella variabilis and the lipidomic changes that occur during viral infection. Using lipid analysis by mass spectrometry, we have identified the major sterol, ergosterol and sphingolipid, glucosyl inositol phosphoceramide (GIPC) as constituents of C. variabilis cell membranes. Sterols and sphingolipids have essential biological functions such as hormone-based signaling, plant defense, and apoptosis as well as critical roles in structural components of the cell and organelle membranes. In chapters two and three, we focus on the characterization of sterol composition among both freshwater and marine alga and ...


Rnasek Is A V-Atpase-Associated Factor Required For Endocytosis And The Replication Of Rhinovirus, Influenza A Virus, And Dengue Virus, Jill Perreira, Aaron Aker, George Savidis, Christopher R. Chin, William M. Mcdougall, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Paul Meraner, Miles Smith, Motiur Rahman, Richard E. Baker, Annick Gauthier, Michael Franti, Abraham L. Brass Aug 2015

Rnasek Is A V-Atpase-Associated Factor Required For Endocytosis And The Replication Of Rhinovirus, Influenza A Virus, And Dengue Virus, Jill Perreira, Aaron Aker, George Savidis, Christopher R. Chin, William M. Mcdougall, Jocelyn M. Portmann, Paul Meraner, Miles Smith, Motiur Rahman, Richard E. Baker, Annick Gauthier, Michael Franti, Abraham L. Brass

Open Access Articles

Human rhinovirus (HRV) causes upper respiratory infections and asthma exacerbations. We screened multiple orthologous RNAi reagents and identified host proteins that modulate HRV replication. Here, we show that RNASEK, a transmembrane protein, was needed for the replication of HRV, influenza A virus, and dengue virus. RNASEK localizes to the cell surface and endosomal pathway and closely associates with the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) proton pump. RNASEK is required for endocytosis, and its depletion produces enlarged clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) at the cell surface. These enlarged CCPs contain endocytic cargo and are bound by the scissioning GTPase, DNM2. Loss of RNASEK alters the ...


Transduction As The Method Of Horizontal Gene Transfer Of The Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette Mec (Sccmec), Amber B. Sauder Jan 2015

Transduction As The Method Of Horizontal Gene Transfer Of The Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette Mec (Sccmec), Amber B. Sauder

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) gains resistance to β-lactam antibiotics through a mutated penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) encoded on the SCCmec element. In combination with the recombinase encoded by ccr, these two genes are used as markers of the mobile genetic element (SCCmec). Due to recent increases in community acquired MRSA infections, the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance gene transfer have gained attention. Transduction, a method of horizontal gene transfer mediated by bacteriophage, is believed to be responsible for the movement of the SCCmec element. Recent studies have shown the transduction of the SCCmec element in clinical isolates; however, this study is ...


Characterization Of The Interactions Between Staphylococcal Phage 80 Alpha Scaffold And Capsid Proteins, Laura Klenow Jan 2015

Characterization Of The Interactions Between Staphylococcal Phage 80 Alpha Scaffold And Capsid Proteins, Laura Klenow

Theses and Dissertations

Staphylococcal phage 80α can serve as a helper bacteriophage for a family of mobile genetic elements called Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPIs). The prototype island, SaPI1, is able to hijack the 80α capsid assembly process and redirect capsid formation to yield smaller, phage-like transducing particles carrying SaPI DNA. Capsid size redirection is accomplished through two SaPI1-encoded gene products, CpmA and an alternate scaffold protein, CpmB. The normal 80α scaffold and the SaPI1 CpmB scaffold share a small block of conserved residues at their C-termini, several of which had been shown to be essential for CpmB function. This led to the ...


Impedance Biosensors For The Rapid Detection Of Viral And Bacterial Pathogens Using Avian Influenza Virus Subtypes H5n1 And H7n2 And Escherichia Coli O157:H7 As Model Targets, Jacob David Lum Aug 2014

Impedance Biosensors For The Rapid Detection Of Viral And Bacterial Pathogens Using Avian Influenza Virus Subtypes H5n1 And H7n2 And Escherichia Coli O157:H7 As Model Targets, Jacob David Lum

Theses and Dissertations

This research investigated impedance biosensors for the rapid detection of viral and bacterial pathogens using avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5N1 and H7N2 and Escherichia coli O157:H7 as the model targets, which were chosen due to their impact on the agricultural and food industries. For the detection of AIV H7N2, a single stranded DNA aptamer was selected using systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). The selected aptamer and a previously selected aptamer against AIV H5N1 were used in a microfluidics chip with an embedded interdigitated array microelectrode to fabricate an impedance biosensor for specific detection of AIV ...


Chlorovirus Skp1 And Core Ankyrin-Repeat Protein Interplay And Mimicry Of Cellular Ubiquitin Ligase Machinery, Eric Andrew Noel Jun 2014

Chlorovirus Skp1 And Core Ankyrin-Repeat Protein Interplay And Mimicry Of Cellular Ubiquitin Ligase Machinery, Eric Andrew Noel

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

The ubiquitin-proteasome system is a common target of several unrelated viruses that have evolved convergent strategies to redirect host ubiquitin machinery to serve their own needs. Members of the genus Chlorovirus, a group of large dsDNA viruses that infect certain freshwater chlorella-like green algae, encode a conserved Skp1 homolog and ankyrin-repeat (ANK) proteins, some of which contain C-terminal domains characteristic of cellular F-boxes or related viral PRANC domains. These observations suggested that this unique combination of chlorovirus proteins either interact with or imitate the key components of the SCF (Skp1-Cul1-F-box) ubiquitin ligases. Using mass spectrometry, we identified two functional classes ...


Ifitm3 Restricts Influenza A Virus Entry By Blocking The Formation Of Fusion Pores Following Virus-Endosome Hemifusion, Tanay M. Desai, Mariana Marin, Christopher R. Chin, George Savidis, Abraham L. Brass, Gregory B. Melikyan Apr 2014

Ifitm3 Restricts Influenza A Virus Entry By Blocking The Formation Of Fusion Pores Following Virus-Endosome Hemifusion, Tanay M. Desai, Mariana Marin, Christopher R. Chin, George Savidis, Abraham L. Brass, Gregory B. Melikyan

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) inhibit infection of diverse enveloped viruses, including the influenza A virus (IAV) which is thought to enter from late endosomes. Recent evidence suggests that IFITMs block virus hemifusion (lipid mixing in the absence of viral content release) by altering the properties of cell membranes. Consistent with this mechanism, excess cholesterol in late endosomes of IFITM-expressing cells has been reported to inhibit IAV entry. Here, we examined IAV restriction by IFITM3 protein using direct virus-cell fusion assay and single virus imaging in live cells. IFITM3 over-expression did not inhibit lipid mixing, but abrogated the release of viral ...


Characterization Of The Role(S) Of Env Protein Of Human Endogenous Retrovirus-K In Multiple Human Cancers, Ming Li Dec 2013

Characterization Of The Role(S) Of Env Protein Of Human Endogenous Retrovirus-K In Multiple Human Cancers, Ming Li

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are remnants from ancient retroviral infections, and most of them are inactive in normal tissues. One family of HERV, HERV-K, is found to be associated with multiple human cancers including breast cancer, pancreatic cancer and melanoma, but the causal relationship between HERV-K and cancer is still unclear. Increased expression of HERV-K in melanoma cells correlates with malignant transformation, while a serological response to HERV-K in breast cancer or melanoma patients correlates with survival probability. However, the mechanism behind these observations remains obscure. Our laboratory reported that anti-HERV-K envelope (Env) protein antibodies show antitumor potential in targeting ...


Neuropathogenic Escherichia Coli K1 Does Not Exhibit Proteolytic Activities To Exert Its Pathogenicity, Junaid Iqbal, Mehak Rajan, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqu, Naveed Ahmed Khan May 2013

Neuropathogenic Escherichia Coli K1 Does Not Exhibit Proteolytic Activities To Exert Its Pathogenicity, Junaid Iqbal, Mehak Rajan, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqu, Naveed Ahmed Khan

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Background: Proteases are well-known virulence factors that promote survival, pathogenesis and immune evasion of many pathogens. Several lines of evidence suggest that the blood-brain barrier permeability is a prerequisite in microbial invasion of the central nervous system. Because proteases are frequently associated with vascular permeability by targeting junctional proteins, here it is hypothesized that neuropathogenic Escherichia coli K1 exhibit proteolytic activities to exert its pathogenicity.
Methods: Zymographic assays were performed using collagen and gelatin as substrates. The lysates of whole E. coli K1 strain E44, or E. coli K-12 strain HB101 were tested for proteolytic activities. The conditioned media were ...


Proteomic Studies Of The Influenza Virus-Human Cell Interactions: The Responses Of Host Cell Protein Expression To Viral Infection And The Novel Host Proteins That Interact With Virus Protein Ns1, Yimeng Wang May 2013

Proteomic Studies Of The Influenza Virus-Human Cell Interactions: The Responses Of Host Cell Protein Expression To Viral Infection And The Novel Host Proteins That Interact With Virus Protein Ns1, Yimeng Wang

Theses and Dissertations

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) continue to be a threat to human health. Despite extensive studies, the mechanisms underlying the IAVs-host interactions during IAV infection remain elusive. We employed quantitative proteomic methods to systematically explore the host cell protein expression responses to IAV infection and examine the function of a critical IAV protein called NS1 by identifying its host binding partners. Specifically, we used a 2-dimentional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) based proteomic method to screen host proteins whose expression was substantially altered by IAV. One critical protein named IκB kinase-gamma (IKKγ) was found to be significantly down-regulated during IAV infection. Functional studies ...


Qcm Aptasensor For Rapid And Specific Detection Of Avian Influenza Virus, Luke Brockman May 2013

Qcm Aptasensor For Rapid And Specific Detection Of Avian Influenza Virus, Luke Brockman

Theses and Dissertations

There has been a need for rapid detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) H5N1 due to it being a potential pandemic threat. Most of the current methods, including culture isolation and PCR, are very sensitive and specific but require specialized laboratories and trained personnel in order to complete the tests and are time-consuming. The goal of this study was to design a biosensor that would be able to rapidly detect AIV H5N1 using aptamers as biosensing material and a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for transducing method. Specific DNA aptamers against AIV H5N1 were immobilized, through biotin and streptavidin conjugation, onto ...


Biology And Pathogenesis Of Acanthamoeba., Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Naveed Ahmed Khan Jan 2012

Biology And Pathogenesis Of Acanthamoeba., Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Naveed Ahmed Khan

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Acanthamoeba is a free-living protist pathogen, capable of causing a blinding keratitis and fatal granulomatous encephalitis. The factors that contribute to Acanthamoeba infections include parasite biology, genetic diversity, environmental spread and host susceptibility, and are highlighted together with potential therapeutic and preventative measures. The use of Acanthamoeba in the study of cellular differentiation mechanisms, motility and phagocytosis, bacterial pathogenesis and evolutionary processes makes it an attractive model organism. There is a significant emphasis on Acanthamoeba as a Trojan horse of other microbes including viral, bacterial, protists and yeast pathogens.


Dissection Of A Type I Interferon Pathway In Controlling Bacterial Intracellular Infection In Mice, Juliane Lippmann, Holger Müller, Jan Naujoks, Christoph Tabeling, Sunny Shin, Martin Witzenrath, Katharina Hellwig, Carsten J. Kirschning, Gregory A. Taylor, Winfried Barchet, Stefan Bauer, Norbert Suttorp, Craig A. Roy, Bastian Opitz Nov 2011

Dissection Of A Type I Interferon Pathway In Controlling Bacterial Intracellular Infection In Mice, Juliane Lippmann, Holger Müller, Jan Naujoks, Christoph Tabeling, Sunny Shin, Martin Witzenrath, Katharina Hellwig, Carsten J. Kirschning, Gregory A. Taylor, Winfried Barchet, Stefan Bauer, Norbert Suttorp, Craig A. Roy, Bastian Opitz

Department of Microbiology Papers

Defense mechanisms against intracellular bacterial pathogens are incompletely understood. Our study characterizes a type I IFN-dependent cell-autonomous defense pathway directed against Legionella pneumophila, an intracellular model organism and frequent cause of pneumonia. We show that macrophages infected with L. pneumophila produced IFNβ in a STING- and IRF3- dependent manner. Paracrine type I IFNs stimulated up-regulation of IFN-stimulated genes and a cell-autonomous defense pathway acting on replicating and non-replicating Legionella within their specialized vacuole. Our infection experiments in mice lacking receptors for type I and/or II IFNs show that type I IFNs contribute to expression of IFN-stimulated genes and to ...


Group Size And Nest Spacing Affect Buggy Creek Virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) Infection In Nestling House Sparrows, Valerie A. Brown, Charles R. Brown Sep 2011

Group Size And Nest Spacing Affect Buggy Creek Virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) Infection In Nestling House Sparrows, Valerie A. Brown, Charles R. Brown

Papers in Ornithology

The transmission of parasites and pathogens among vertebrates often depends on host population size, host species diversity, and the extent of crowding among potential hosts, but little is known about how these variables apply to most vector-borne pathogens such as the arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses). Buggy Creek virus (BCRV; Togaviridae: Alphavirus) is an RNA arbovirus transmitted by the swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius) to the cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and the introduced house sparrow (Passer domesticus) that has recently invaded swallow nesting colonies. The virus has little impact on cliff swallows, but house sparrows are seriously affected by BCRV. For house sparrows ...


An Autonomous Cdr3Δ Is Sufficient For Γδ T Cell Recognition Of The Nonclassical Mhc-I T10/T22, Erin J. Adams, Pavel Strop, Sunny Shin, Yueh-Hsiu Chien, K. Christopher Garcia Jul 2008

An Autonomous Cdr3Δ Is Sufficient For Γδ T Cell Recognition Of The Nonclassical Mhc-I T10/T22, Erin J. Adams, Pavel Strop, Sunny Shin, Yueh-Hsiu Chien, K. Christopher Garcia

Department of Microbiology Papers

It remains unclear whether γδ T cell receptors (TCRs) detect antigens in a manner similar to antibodies or αβ TCRs. Here we show that reactivity between G8 and KN6 γδ TCRs and the MHC class Ib molecule T22 can be transplanted, with retention of wild-type ligand affinity, after en bloc grafting of G8 and KN6 CDR3δ loops in place onto the CDR3α loop of an αβ TCR. We also find that a shared sequence motif within CDR3δ loops of all T22-reactive γδ TCRs binds T22 in energetically distinct fashions, and that T10d, which binds G8 with weak affinity, is converted ...


Induced Aggregation Of Culture Cells By Measles Virus And Its Possible Link To Viral Dissemination, Walter Kemp Apr 1993

Induced Aggregation Of Culture Cells By Measles Virus And Its Possible Link To Viral Dissemination, Walter Kemp

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Measles Virus (MV) Enders and MV Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) were grown in both U937 cells and PBLs to study their dissemination. The > presence of aggregation and formation of giant cells was observed in those cultures infected with MV EZ, while it was notably absent from cultures infected with the MV Enders. Believing this difference to be a possible link in the understanding of measles virus dissemination, further studies were conducted to test the idea that MV EZ may disseminate intracellularly, while MV Enders disseminates extracellularly. Gamma Gard was added to cultures to study its effects on the dissemination of the two ...