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Articles 1 - 30 of 38

Full-Text Articles in Pathogenic Microbiology

Assembly-Hub Function Of Er-Localized Snare Proteins In Biogenesis Of Tombusvirus Replication Compartment, Zsuzsanna Sasvari, Nikolay Kovalev, Paulina Alatriste Gonzalez, Kai Xu, Peter D. Nagy May 2018

Assembly-Hub Function Of Er-Localized Snare Proteins In Biogenesis Of Tombusvirus Replication Compartment, Zsuzsanna Sasvari, Nikolay Kovalev, Paulina Alatriste Gonzalez, Kai Xu, Peter D. Nagy

Plant Pathology Faculty Publications

Positive-strand RNA viruses assemble numerous membrane-bound viral replicase complexes within large replication compartments to support their replication in infected cells. Yet the detailed mechanism of how given subcellular compartments are subverted by viruses is incompletely understood. Although, Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) uses peroxisomal membranes for replication, in this paper, we show evidence that the ER-resident SNARE (soluble NSF attachment protein receptor) proteins play critical roles in the formation of active replicase complexes in yeast model host and in plants. Depletion of the syntaxin 18-like Ufe1 and Use1, which are components of the ER SNARE complex in the ERAS (ER ...


Fluorescence-Reported Allelic Exchange Mutagenesis Reveals A Role For Chlamydia Trachomatis Tmea In Invasion That Is Independent Of Host Ahnak, M. J. Mckuen, Konrad E. Mueller, Y. S. Bae, Kenneth A. Fields Dec 2017

Fluorescence-Reported Allelic Exchange Mutagenesis Reveals A Role For Chlamydia Trachomatis Tmea In Invasion That Is Independent Of Host Ahnak, M. J. Mckuen, Konrad E. Mueller, Y. S. Bae, Kenneth A. Fields

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

Development of approaches to genetically manipulate Chlamydia is fostering important advances in understanding pathogenesis. Fluorescence-reported allelic exchange mutagenesis (FRAEM) now enables the complete deletion of specific genes in C. trachomatis L2. We have leveraged this technology to delete the coding sequences for a known type III effector. The evidence provided here indicates that CT694/CTL0063 is a virulence protein involved in chlamydial invasion. Based on our findings, we designate the gene product corresponding to ct694-ctl0063 translocated membrane-associated effector A (TmeA). Deletion of tmeA did not impact development of intracellular chlamydiae. However, the absence of TmeA manifested as a decrease in ...


The Molecular Mechanism Of N-Acetylglucosamine Side-Chain Attachment To The Lancefield Group A Carbohydrate In Streptococcus Pyogenes, Jeffrey Rush, Rebecca J. Edgar, Pan Deng, Jing Chen, Haining Zhu, Nina M. Van Sorge, Andrew J. Morris, Konstantin V. Korotkov, Natalia Korotkova Oct 2017

The Molecular Mechanism Of N-Acetylglucosamine Side-Chain Attachment To The Lancefield Group A Carbohydrate In Streptococcus Pyogenes, Jeffrey Rush, Rebecca J. Edgar, Pan Deng, Jing Chen, Haining Zhu, Nina M. Van Sorge, Andrew J. Morris, Konstantin V. Korotkov, Natalia Korotkova

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

In many Lactobacillales species (i.e. lactic acid bacteria), peptidoglycan is decorated by polyrhamnose polysaccharides that are critical for cell envelope integrity and cell shape and also represent key antigenic determinants. Despite the biological importance of these polysaccharides, their biosynthetic pathways have received limited attention. The important human pathogen, Streptococcus pyogenes, synthesizes a key antigenic surface polymer, the Lancefield group A carbohydrate (GAC). GAC is covalently attached to peptidoglycan and consists of a polyrhamnose polymer, with N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) side chains, which is an essential virulence determinant. The molecular details of the mechanism of polyrhamnose modification with GlcNAc are currently ...


The Effect Of Diet On Midgut And Resulting Changes In Infectiousness Of Acmnpv Baculovirus In Trichoplusia Ni, Elizabeth Chen Sep 2017

The Effect Of Diet On Midgut And Resulting Changes In Infectiousness Of Acmnpv Baculovirus In Trichoplusia Ni, Elizabeth Chen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, a global generalist lepidopteran pest, has developed resistance to many synthetic and biological insecticides, requiring effective and environmentally acceptable alternatives. One possibility is the Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). This baculovirus is highly infectious for T. ni, with potential as a biocontrol agent, however, its effectiveness is strongly influenced by dietary context. In this study, microscopy and transcriptomics were used to examine how the efficacy of this virus was affected when T. ni larvae were raised on different diets. Larvae raised on potato host plants had lower chitinase and chitin deacetylase transcript levels and thickened ...


Determination Of The Effects That A Previously Uncharacterized Secreted Product From Klebsiella Pneumoniae Has On Citrobacter Freundii And Enterobacter Cloacae Biofilms, Cody M. Hastings May 2017

Determination Of The Effects That A Previously Uncharacterized Secreted Product From Klebsiella Pneumoniae Has On Citrobacter Freundii And Enterobacter Cloacae Biofilms, Cody M. Hastings

Undergraduate Honors Theses

More so than ever, Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR) bacteria are on the rise due to overuse of antibiotics along with natural selection for adaptations that enhance drug-resistant properties. One particular bacterial family, Enterobacteriaceae, has been problematic, exhibiting several bacterial members that have developed a precipitous resistance to modern antibiotics and are also primary causative agents of nosocomial, or hospital acquired, infections. Citrobacter freundii (CF) and Enterobacter cloacae (ECL) are two species of the Enterobacteriaceae family causing significant medical concern due to their role in producing numerous opportunistic infections such as bacteremia, lower respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and endocarditis ...


Jmh Dissertation 2016.Pdf, Jennifer Hayashi Dec 2016

Jmh Dissertation 2016.Pdf, Jennifer Hayashi

Jennifer Hayashi

Mycobacterium is a diverse genus of actinobacteria that includes the causative agents of human tuberculosis and leprosy. Mycobacteria are protected by their unique, multilaminar cell envelope, which grants them intrinsic resistance to environmental challenges such as antibiotics. This essential cellular structure is elongated at the polar ends of cells, but the regulation of cytosolic precursor synthesis and localized envelope synthesis remains unclear. Here, we present the PMf (plasma membrane free of cell wall components), a membrane domain distinct from the bulk plasma membrane of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Proteomic and lipidomic characterization demonstrate that the PMf contains lipidic substrates ...


The Roles Of Biotin In Candida Albicans Physiology, Nur Ras Aini Ahmad Hussin Nov 2016

The Roles Of Biotin In Candida Albicans Physiology, Nur Ras Aini Ahmad Hussin

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Due to the increased number of immunocompromised patients, infections by Candida albicans have significantly increased in recent years. C. albicans transition from yeast to germ tubes is an essential factor for virulence. In this study we noted that Lee's medium, commonly used to induce filamentation, contained 500-fold more biotin than needed for growth. Thus, we investigated the effects of excess biotin on growth rate and filamentation by C. albicans in different media. At 37 °C, excess biotin (4 µM) enhanced germ tube formation (GTF) ca. 10-fold in both Lee's medium and a defined glucose proline medium, and ca ...


Identification Of Host Factors Required For Yersinia Pestis Macrophage Intracellular Survival And Their Impact On Vacuole Maturation, Acidification And Trafficking., Michael Graylin Connor May 2016

Identification Of Host Factors Required For Yersinia Pestis Macrophage Intracellular Survival And Their Impact On Vacuole Maturation, Acidification And Trafficking., Michael Graylin Connor

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Y. pestis is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of plague. This bacterium, while most noted or the Black Death during the European 14th century, is not a historic pathogen but a re-emerging pandemic with both domestic and global impact. Y. pestis is capable of colonizing the macrophage, and actively subverts phagolysosome maturation to establish a replicative niche known as the Yersinia containing vacuole (YCV). The exploited host factors required to support the YCV are unknown. Here we identified a comprehensive list of host factors required for Y. pestis survival through a genome-wide RNAi high-throughput screen. We ...


The Ccaat-Binding Factor Dependent Regulation Of The Oxidative Stress Response In Candida Albicans, Ananya Chakravarti May 2016

The Ccaat-Binding Factor Dependent Regulation Of The Oxidative Stress Response In Candida Albicans, Ananya Chakravarti

Theses and Dissertations

The success of Candida albicans as an opportunistic human pathogen has been attributed to several factors, including the ability to survive in limiting iron environments and the ability to evade the respiratory burst of human macrophages and neutrophils. The goal of this research is to elucidate the role of the CCAAT-binding factor in the oxidative stress response of Candida albicans. Prior whole genome microarray studies performed in our lab compared the gene expression of a wild type Candida albicans strain versus a hap5Δ strain under iron-limiting growth conditions. Among the differentially regulated genes, CTA1, encoding catalase, had a four-fold higher ...


Exploring The Mechanisms Of Action Of Antifungal Peptides Using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae., Michelle L. Mason May 2016

Exploring The Mechanisms Of Action Of Antifungal Peptides Using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae., Michelle L. Mason

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Candida albicans is a normal inhabitant of the skin and mucosal membranes of humans, however, in individuals with depressed immune systems or disrupted cutaneous flora, Candida can overgrow and cause serious infection. Candida infection is the fourth leading cause of nosocomial infection in the United States. These infections are often associated with longer hospital stays and higher mortality. Current drug therapies for this infection are largely ineffective due to the increased drug resistance of Candida species, and for some therapeutics, high levels of drug toxicity to humans. Histatin 5 is a naturally occurring salivary peptide that has strong antifungal properties ...


Defining Environmental Stresses That Activate The Rna Repair Operon In Salmonella Typhimurium, Caleb M. Gulledge Mar 2016

Defining Environmental Stresses That Activate The Rna Repair Operon In Salmonella Typhimurium, Caleb M. Gulledge

Honors Program Projects

Background

RNA polymerase holoenzyme (Eσ) mediates transcription in eubacteria, and is composed of five constant subunits (α2ββ’ω) and a variable sigma (σ) subunit that is responsible for promoter recognition and initiation of transcription. An alternative sigma factor in Salmonella Typhimurium, σ54 (also called RpoN), is mechanistically different than classical σ70-type sigmas, requiring a different promoter consensus sequence, an activator, and ATP hydrolysis. The Rtc RNA repair operon lies within the regulon of RpoN in S. Typhimurium, but has no known physiological function. Previous work characterized similar systems in archaea and humans, which were determined ...


A Lipidomics Approach To The Viral-Host Dynamics Of The Unicellular, Eukaryotic Alga Chlorella Variabilis And Its Viral Pathogen, Pbcv-1, Suzanne Rose Dec 2015

A Lipidomics Approach To The Viral-Host Dynamics Of The Unicellular, Eukaryotic Alga Chlorella Variabilis And Its Viral Pathogen, Pbcv-1, Suzanne Rose

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

This thesis focuses on the sterol and sphingolipid composition in the unicellular, green alga Chlorella variabilis and the lipidomic changes that occur during viral infection. Using lipid analysis by mass spectrometry, we have identified the major sterol, ergosterol and sphingolipid, glucosyl inositol phosphoceramide (GIPC) as constituents of C. variabilis cell membranes. Sterols and sphingolipids have essential biological functions such as hormone-based signaling, plant defense, and apoptosis as well as critical roles in structural components of the cell and organelle membranes. In chapters two and three, we focus on the characterization of sterol composition among both freshwater and marine alga and ...


Impedance Biosensors For The Rapid Detection Of Viral And Bacterial Pathogens Using Avian Influenza Virus Subtypes H5n1 And H7n2 And Escherichia Coli O157:H7 As Model Targets, Jacob David Lum Aug 2014

Impedance Biosensors For The Rapid Detection Of Viral And Bacterial Pathogens Using Avian Influenza Virus Subtypes H5n1 And H7n2 And Escherichia Coli O157:H7 As Model Targets, Jacob David Lum

Theses and Dissertations

This research investigated impedance biosensors for the rapid detection of viral and bacterial pathogens using avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5N1 and H7N2 and Escherichia coli O157:H7 as the model targets, which were chosen due to their impact on the agricultural and food industries. For the detection of AIV H7N2, a single stranded DNA aptamer was selected using systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). The selected aptamer and a previously selected aptamer against AIV H5N1 were used in a microfluidics chip with an embedded interdigitated array microelectrode to fabricate an impedance biosensor for specific detection of AIV ...


Chlorovirus Skp1 And Core Ankyrin-Repeat Protein Interplay And Mimicry Of Cellular Ubiquitin Ligase Machinery, Eric Andrew Noel Jun 2014

Chlorovirus Skp1 And Core Ankyrin-Repeat Protein Interplay And Mimicry Of Cellular Ubiquitin Ligase Machinery, Eric Andrew Noel

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

The ubiquitin-proteasome system is a common target of several unrelated viruses that have evolved convergent strategies to redirect host ubiquitin machinery to serve their own needs. Members of the genus Chlorovirus, a group of large dsDNA viruses that infect certain freshwater chlorella-like green algae, encode a conserved Skp1 homolog and ankyrin-repeat (ANK) proteins, some of which contain C-terminal domains characteristic of cellular F-boxes or related viral PRANC domains. These observations suggested that this unique combination of chlorovirus proteins either interact with or imitate the key components of the SCF (Skp1-Cul1-F-box) ubiquitin ligases. Using mass spectrometry, we identified two functional classes ...


Caspase-11 Activation In Response To Bacterial Secretion Systems That Access The Host Cytosol, Cierra N. Casson, Alan M. Copenhaver, Erin E. Zwack, Hieu T. Nguyen, Till Strowig, Bahar Javdan, William P. Bradley, Thomas C. Fung, Richard A. Flavell, Igor E. Brodsky, Sunny Shin Jun 2013

Caspase-11 Activation In Response To Bacterial Secretion Systems That Access The Host Cytosol, Cierra N. Casson, Alan M. Copenhaver, Erin E. Zwack, Hieu T. Nguyen, Till Strowig, Bahar Javdan, William P. Bradley, Thomas C. Fung, Richard A. Flavell, Igor E. Brodsky, Sunny Shin

Department of Microbiology Papers

Inflammasome activation is important for antimicrobial defense because it induces cell death and regulates the secretion of IL-1 family cytokines, which play a critical role in inflammatory responses. The inflammasome activates caspase-1 to process and secrete IL-1β. However, the mechanisms governing IL-1α release are less clear. Recently, a non-canonical inflammasome was described that activates caspase-11 and mediates pyroptosis and release of IL-1α and IL-1β. Caspase-11 activation in response to Gram-negative bacteria requires Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TIR-domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β (TRIF)-dependent interferon production. Whether additional bacterial signals trigger caspase-11 activation is unknown. Many bacterial pathogens use specialized secretion systems ...


Analysis Of The Chondroitinase Operon Of Flavobacterium Columnare, Erin L. Sorlien May 2013

Analysis Of The Chondroitinase Operon Of Flavobacterium Columnare, Erin L. Sorlien

Senior Honors Projects

Analysis of the chondroitinase operon of Flavobacterium columnare

Erin Sorlien

Major

Cell and Molecular Biology, Chemistry

Advisor

Dr. David R. Nelson

Date

May 2, 2013

Keywords

Flavobacterium columnare, columnaris disease, chondroitin AC lyase, complementation, csl operon

Abstract
Flavobacterium columnare, an opportunistic bacterial pathogen of fish, is the causative agent of columnaris disease (CD). The bacterium is a Gram-negative rod that exhibits gliding motility and avidly forms biofilms. CD affects both wild and cultured freshwater fish, and continues to cause large economic losses to the fish farming industry. According to an investigation conducted by the National Animal Health Monitoring System, CD ...


Detection Of Viable Microorganisms Using Propidium Monoazide, Erik J. Mcfarland, Adrian Ponce Dr. Jan 2013

Detection Of Viable Microorganisms Using Propidium Monoazide, Erik J. Mcfarland, Adrian Ponce Dr.

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Propidium monoazide (PMA) is a molecular tool used to assess viability of microorganisms. Currently, PMA is thought to discern viability through membrane permeability; PMA enters only membrane compromised cells, irreversibly crosslinks to theirDNAand precipitates theDNAout of solution, preventing it from being amplified during polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using PMA on a sample of live and dead microorganisms results in only theDNAof living organisms being amplified and identified. Therefore, a comparison ofPCRresults with and without PMA allows one to determine the live fraction and total population, respectively.

Current literature provides conflicting evidence as to the effectiveness of the technique. Our research ...


Inhibition Of Burkholderia Multivorans Adhesion To Lung Epithelial Cells By Bivalent Lactosides, Ciara Wight, Rosaria Leyden, Paul V. Murphy, Máire Callaghan, Trinidad Velasco-Torrijos, Siobhan Mcclean Aug 2012

Inhibition Of Burkholderia Multivorans Adhesion To Lung Epithelial Cells By Bivalent Lactosides, Ciara Wight, Rosaria Leyden, Paul V. Murphy, Máire Callaghan, Trinidad Velasco-Torrijos, Siobhan Mcclean

Articles

Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is an opportunistic pathogen in cystic fibrosis patients which is inherently resistant to antimicrobial agents. The mechanisms of attachment and pathogenesis of Bcc, a group of 17 species, are poorly understood. The most commonly identified Bcc species in newly colonised patients, Burkholderia multivorans, continues to be acquired from the environment. Development of therapies which can prevent or reduce the risk of colonization on exposure to Bcc in the environment would be a better alternative to antimicrobial agents. Previously, it has been shown that Bcc strains bound to many glycolipid receptors on lung epithelia. Using a real-time ...


Host Pathogen Interactions: Is Arabidopsis Thaliana Remembered By Its Nemesis Pseudomonas Syringae?, Daniel Z. Kreiser May 2012

Host Pathogen Interactions: Is Arabidopsis Thaliana Remembered By Its Nemesis Pseudomonas Syringae?, Daniel Z. Kreiser

Lawrence University Honors Projects

Plants contain innate immune systems that deter pathogen infection. Pattern recognition receptors bind microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), triggering immunity. MAMPs are proteins exclusive to pathogens that are typically indispensable for their survival. For this reason, MAMPs cannot be mutated or removed without causing pathogen death. However, this does not necessitate constitutive expression of MAMPs. In this study, the MAMP response of Arabidopsis thaliana was utilized to determine differential detection of MAMPs expressed by Pseudomonas syringe pv. tomato DC3000 when pretreated with A. thaliana. Results demonstrated that more MAMPs are detected when P. syringae had previously encountered A. thaliana, suggesting that ...


Genome-Wide Identification Of Conditionally Essential Genes In Salmonella Typhimurium Using Tn-Seq Method, Anita Khatiwara May 2012

Genome-Wide Identification Of Conditionally Essential Genes In Salmonella Typhimurium Using Tn-Seq Method, Anita Khatiwara

Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

As more whole genome sequences become available, there is an increasing need for high-throughput methods that link genes to phenotypes and facilitate discovery of new gene functions. The objective of this study was to develop a high-throughput method to study gene functions in bacteria and use this method to study gene functions of S. enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) under various environmental conditions encountered during its life cycle. Chapter I of this dissertation reviews the history and evolution of functional genomics in bacteria with focus on Salmonella, along with the recent techniques available. Chapter II, deals with the development ...


Thoughts On Quorum Sensing And Fungal Dimorphism, Kenneth W. Nickerson, Audrey L. Atkin, Jessica C. Hargarten, Ruvini U. Pathirana, Sahar Hasim Jan 2012

Thoughts On Quorum Sensing And Fungal Dimorphism, Kenneth W. Nickerson, Audrey L. Atkin, Jessica C. Hargarten, Ruvini U. Pathirana, Sahar Hasim

Papers in Microbiology

Farnesol has been best studied for its role in regulating fungal dimorphism. However, farnesol is also a lipid and in this review we analyze data relevant to farnesol’s function and synthesis from the perspective of farnesol and bacterial endotoxins acting as membrane active compounds. This analysis implicates the possible roles of: (1) endotoxins in the regulation of farnesol production by C. albicans; (2) farnesol in the interactions between C. albicans and the host during disseminated infections; and (3) ubiquinones in the mechanisms for unusually high resistance to farnesol by some C. albicans cell types. Finally we discuss the implications ...


Impact Of Collateral Enlargement On Smooth Muscle Phenotype, Alexander Jerome Bynum Dec 2011

Impact Of Collateral Enlargement On Smooth Muscle Phenotype, Alexander Jerome Bynum

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Peripheral Artery Disease is a very serious disease characterized by an arterial occlusion due to atherosclerotic plaques. In response to an arterial occlusion, arteriogenesis occurs, causing smooth muscle cells to transition from a contractile to synthetic state. Also following an arterial occlusion, functional impairment was seen in the collateral circuit. An immunofluorescence protocol was developed in order to assess the impact of collateral enlargement (arteriogenesis) on smooth muscle phenotype at various time points. Smooth muscle α-actin was used to mark all smooth muscle cells, Ki-67 was used to label proliferating smooth muscle cells, and a fluorescent nuclear stain was used ...


Dissection Of A Type I Interferon Pathway In Controlling Bacterial Intracellular Infection In Mice, Juliane Lippmann, Holger Müller, Jan Naujoks, Christoph Tabeling, Sunny Shin, Martin Witzenrath, Katharina Hellwig, Carsten J. Kirschning, Gregory A. Taylor, Winfried Barchet, Stefan Bauer, Norbert Suttorp, Craig A. Roy, Bastian Opitz Nov 2011

Dissection Of A Type I Interferon Pathway In Controlling Bacterial Intracellular Infection In Mice, Juliane Lippmann, Holger Müller, Jan Naujoks, Christoph Tabeling, Sunny Shin, Martin Witzenrath, Katharina Hellwig, Carsten J. Kirschning, Gregory A. Taylor, Winfried Barchet, Stefan Bauer, Norbert Suttorp, Craig A. Roy, Bastian Opitz

Department of Microbiology Papers

Defense mechanisms against intracellular bacterial pathogens are incompletely understood. Our study characterizes a type I IFN-dependent cell-autonomous defense pathway directed against Legionella pneumophila, an intracellular model organism and frequent cause of pneumonia. We show that macrophages infected with L. pneumophila produced IFNβ in a STING- and IRF3- dependent manner. Paracrine type I IFNs stimulated up-regulation of IFN-stimulated genes and a cell-autonomous defense pathway acting on replicating and non-replicating Legionella within their specialized vacuole. Our infection experiments in mice lacking receptors for type I and/or II IFNs show that type I IFNs contribute to expression of IFN-stimulated genes and to ...


Activation Of Mmp-9 By Human Lung Epithelial Cells In Response To The Cystic Fibrosis-Associated Pathogen Burkholderia Cenocepacia Reduced Wound Healing In Vitro, Ciara Wright ], Ruth Pilkington, Máire Callaghan, Siobhan Mcclean Oct 2011

Activation Of Mmp-9 By Human Lung Epithelial Cells In Response To The Cystic Fibrosis-Associated Pathogen Burkholderia Cenocepacia Reduced Wound Healing In Vitro, Ciara Wright ], Ruth Pilkington, Máire Callaghan, Siobhan Mcclean

Articles

Burkholderia cepacia complex is a group of bacterial pathogens that cause opportunistic infections in cystic fibrosis (CF). The most virulent of these is Burkholderia cenocepacia. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are upregulated in CF patients. The aim of this work was to examine the role of MMPs in the pathogenesis of B. cepacia complex, which has not been explored to date. Real-time PCR analysis showed that B. cenocepacia infection upregulated MMP-2 and MMP-9 genes in the CF lung cell line CFBE41o- within 1 h, whereas MMP-2, -7, and -9 genes were upregulated in the non-CF lung cell line 16HBE14o-. Conditioned media from ...


Gata-Family Transcription Factors In Magnaporthe Oryzae, Cristian F. Quispe Aug 2011

Gata-Family Transcription Factors In Magnaporthe Oryzae, Cristian F. Quispe

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

The filamentous fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, responsible for blast rice disease, destroys around 10-30% of the rice crop annually. Infection begins when the specialized infection structure, the appressorium, generates enormous internal turgor pressure through the accumulation of glycerol. This turgor acts on a penetration peg emerging at the base of the cell, causing it to breach the leaf surface allowing its infection.

The enzyme trehalose-6- phosphate synthase (Tps1) is a central regulator of the transition from appressorium development to infectious hyphal growth. In the first chapter we show that initiation of rice blast disease requires a regulatory mechanism involving an NADPH ...


Pattern Recognition In Cytopathology For Papanicolaou Screening, Jonathan Blackledge, Dmitriy Dubovitskiy Jan 2010

Pattern Recognition In Cytopathology For Papanicolaou Screening, Jonathan Blackledge, Dmitriy Dubovitskiy

Conference papers

A unique space oriented filer is presented in order to detect and isolate the cell of a nucleus for applications in cytopathology. A classification method for nuclei is then considered based on the application of a set of features which includes certain fractal parameters. Segmentation algorithms are considered in which a self-adjustable sharpening filter is designed to enhance object location. Although the methods discussed and the algorithms developed have a range of applications, in this work we focus the engineering of a system for automating a Papanicolaou screening test using standard optical images


Rapid Pathogen-Induced Apoptosis: A Mechanism Used By Dendritic Cells To Limit Intracellular Replication Of Legionella Pneumophila, Catarina V. Nogueira, Tullia Lindsten, Amanda M. Jamieson, Christopher L. Case, Sunny Shin, Craig B. Thompson, Craig R. Roy Jun 2009

Rapid Pathogen-Induced Apoptosis: A Mechanism Used By Dendritic Cells To Limit Intracellular Replication Of Legionella Pneumophila, Catarina V. Nogueira, Tullia Lindsten, Amanda M. Jamieson, Christopher L. Case, Sunny Shin, Craig B. Thompson, Craig R. Roy

Department of Microbiology Papers

Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized phagocytes that internalize exogenous antigens and microbes at peripheral sites, and then migrate to lymphatic organs to display foreign peptides to naïve T cells. There are several examples where DCs have been shown to be more efficient at restricting the intracellular replication of pathogens compared to macrophages, a property that could prevent DCs from enhancing pathogen dissemination. To understand DC responses to pathogens, we investigated the mechanisms by which mouse DCs are able to restrict replication of the intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila. We show that both DCs and macrophages have the ability to interfere with ...


Thymic Selection Determines Γδ T Cell Effector Fate: Antigen-Naive Cells Make Interleukin-17 And Antigen-Experienced Cells Make Interferon Γ, Kirk D. C Jensen, Xiaoqin Su, Sunny Shin, Luke Li, Sawsan Youssef, Sho Yamasaki, Lawrence Steinman, Takashi Saito, Richard M. Locksley, Mark M. Davis, Nicole Baumgarth, Yueh-Hsiu Chien Jul 2008

Thymic Selection Determines Γδ T Cell Effector Fate: Antigen-Naive Cells Make Interleukin-17 And Antigen-Experienced Cells Make Interferon Γ, Kirk D. C Jensen, Xiaoqin Su, Sunny Shin, Luke Li, Sawsan Youssef, Sho Yamasaki, Lawrence Steinman, Takashi Saito, Richard M. Locksley, Mark M. Davis, Nicole Baumgarth, Yueh-Hsiu Chien

Department of Microbiology Papers

γδ T cells contribute uniquely to host immune competence, but how they do so remain unclear. Here, by analyzing T10/T22-specific γδ T cells in mice with different T10/T22 expression patterns, we find that encountering antigen in the thymus is neither required nor inhibitory for the development of these cells. Instead, ligand recognition determines which of two distinct functional subsets γδ T cells will become. When triggered through the TCR, lymphoid-γδ T cells that encounter ligand during development produce IFNγ, while those that develop in the absence of ligand make IL-17, a major inducer of granulopoiesis during inflammation. Indeed ...


An Autonomous Cdr3Δ Is Sufficient For Γδ T Cell Recognition Of The Nonclassical Mhc-I T10/T22, Erin J. Adams, Pavel Strop, Sunny Shin, Yueh-Hsiu Chien, K. Christopher Garcia Jul 2008

An Autonomous Cdr3Δ Is Sufficient For Γδ T Cell Recognition Of The Nonclassical Mhc-I T10/T22, Erin J. Adams, Pavel Strop, Sunny Shin, Yueh-Hsiu Chien, K. Christopher Garcia

Department of Microbiology Papers

It remains unclear whether γδ T cell receptors (TCRs) detect antigens in a manner similar to antibodies or αβ TCRs. Here we show that reactivity between G8 and KN6 γδ TCRs and the MHC class Ib molecule T22 can be transplanted, with retention of wild-type ligand affinity, after en bloc grafting of G8 and KN6 CDR3δ loops in place onto the CDR3α loop of an αβ TCR. We also find that a shared sequence motif within CDR3δ loops of all T22-reactive γδ TCRs binds T22 in energetically distinct fashions, and that T10d, which binds G8 with weak affinity, is converted ...


Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profiling Of The Cyclic Amp-Dependent Signaling Pathway During Morphogenic Transitions Of Candida Albicans, Yong-Sun Bahn, Matthew Molenda, Janet F. Staab, Courtney A. Lyman, Laura J. Gordon, Paula Sundstrom Dec 2007

Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profiling Of The Cyclic Amp-Dependent Signaling Pathway During Morphogenic Transitions Of Candida Albicans, Yong-Sun Bahn, Matthew Molenda, Janet F. Staab, Courtney A. Lyman, Laura J. Gordon, Paula Sundstrom

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen that causes systemic candidiasis as well as superficial mucosal candidiasis. In response to the host environment, C. albicans transitions between yeast and hyphal forms. In particular, hyphal growth is important in facilitating adhesion and invasion of host tissues, concomitant with the expression of various hypha-specific virulence factors. In previous work, we showed that the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in morphogenic transitions and virulence of C. albicans by studying genes encoding adenylate cyclase-associated protein (CAP1) and high-affinity phosphodiesterase (PDE2) (Y. S. Bahn, J. Staab, and P. Sundstrom, Mol ...