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Articles 1 - 30 of 1468

Full-Text Articles in Biomechanics

Reliability Of Popliteal Artery Flow-Mediated Dilation In The Seated Position, Taskina Akhter Apr 2024

Reliability Of Popliteal Artery Flow-Mediated Dilation In The Seated Position, Taskina Akhter

Rehabilitation Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a noninvasive measurement of endothelial function, which is a useful prognostic tool for cardiovascular disease risk. Despite its widespread use since 1992, the reproducibility of FMD varies widely between studies. This variability in reproducibility is especially significant in the case of the popliteal artery due to different methodological approaches. Studies perform popliteal FMD in various body positions, with the prone and seated positions most common. However, no studies have examined the reproducibility of both the seated and prone positions of the popliteal artery FMD. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the test-retest and …


Tail Stand Supplementary Data, David Kramer, Frank E. Fish Jan 2024

Tail Stand Supplementary Data, David Kramer, Frank E. Fish

Biology Data Repository

Dataset of flexibility of flukes related to tail stand effort of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)


Acute Ingestion Of Dark Chocolate Fails To Affect Running Economy In Recreational Female Runners, Bianca J. De Lucia, Beau Kjerulf Greer, Christopher B. Taber Jan 2024

Acute Ingestion Of Dark Chocolate Fails To Affect Running Economy In Recreational Female Runners, Bianca J. De Lucia, Beau Kjerulf Greer, Christopher B. Taber

Topics in Exercise Science and Kinesiology

Topics in Exercise Science and Kinesiology Volume 5: Issue 1, Article 1, 2024. Ingestion of dark chocolate (DC), a dietary source high in flavanols, may increase nitric oxide bioavailability. Elevating blood nitric oxide concentrations may augment metabolic efficiency by reducing the amount of oxygen or energy needed to perform a given task. Utilizing a crossover design, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute ingestion of DC on running economy (RE). Nineteen recreationally trained females (age: 20±1 years) volunteered for this investigation, with 16 completing all procedures (n = 16). Two-hours before RE assessment, participants consumed …


Acute Ingestion Of Dark Chocolate Fails To Affect Running Economy In Recreationally Trained Female Runners, Bianca De Lucia, Beau K. Greer, Christopher B. Taber Jan 2024

Acute Ingestion Of Dark Chocolate Fails To Affect Running Economy In Recreationally Trained Female Runners, Bianca De Lucia, Beau K. Greer, Christopher B. Taber

PTHMS Graduate Publications

Ingestion of dark chocolate (DC), a dietary source high in flavanols, may increase nitric oxide bioavailability. Elevating blood nitric oxide concentrations may augment metabolic efficiency by reducing the amount of oxygen or energy needed to perform a given task. Utilizing a crossover design, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute ingestion of DC on running economy (RE). Nineteen recreationally trained females (age: 20±1 years) volunteered for this investigation, with 16 completing all procedures (n = 16). Two-hours before RE assessment, participants consumed either 42.5 g of DC or an isocaloric amount of white chocolate (WC) …


Spin Turns, Frank E. Fish Jan 2024

Spin Turns, Frank E. Fish

Biology Data Repository

Dataset of spin leaps of cetaceans determined by moment of inertia.


Influence Of Maximal Strength On Joint-Specific Function And Coordination Across Stretch-Shortening Cycle Task Demands, Michael H. Haischer Dec 2023

Influence Of Maximal Strength On Joint-Specific Function And Coordination Across Stretch-Shortening Cycle Task Demands, Michael H. Haischer

Dissertations (1934 -)

Jumping involves the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) and is a familiar movement in many sports. More explosive jumping may provide a competitive advantage, but the biomechanics that relate to optimal SSC utilization for performance are not well understood. Furthermore, while strength relates to better jump performance and may facilitate mechanisms like joint stiffness that benefit SSC utilization, how strength impacts adjustments to biomechanics and locomotor functional roles of the lower extremity joints under different SSC demands has not been established. Therefore, the purpose of this dissertation was to investigate how strength influences biomechanics and functional roles of the ankle, knee, and …


Characterization Of Adipocyte Mechanical Properties And Stretch Control Of Mechanosignaling In Adipocytes, Tasneem Bouzid Dec 2023

Characterization Of Adipocyte Mechanical Properties And Stretch Control Of Mechanosignaling In Adipocytes, Tasneem Bouzid

Dissertations and Doctoral Documents from University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 2024–

Obesity has reached global epidemic levels in recent decades and is the leading risk factor for type-2 diabetes (T2D). Adipose tissue behaves as a link between obesity and T2D, with dysfunctional extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, adipokine secretion and lipid metabolism leading to insulin resistance. The extracellular mechanophysical milieus is understood to regulate adipocyte differentiation and function through activation of mechanosensory machinery and related pathways. Therefore, exploring the adipocytic response to mechanical loading can provide great pathophysiological insight into obesity and T2D. Adipose tissue is exposed to various compound forces due to weight-bearing and movement, and adipocyte stiffness influences stress distribution …


The Effect Of Step Rate Training On Running Economy And Biomechanics, Nahir Negron-Fernandez Dec 2023

The Effect Of Step Rate Training On Running Economy And Biomechanics, Nahir Negron-Fernandez

All NMU Master's Theses

It is known that running economy is a determinant of running performance. Increased step rate has been correlated with improved running economy, but it is unknown whether these improvements can be maintained with chronic training. The purpose of this study was to determine if a step rate training intervention improves running economy and improves lower body kinetic factors in distance runners. Nine participants were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (n = 7) undergoing a 6-week supplemental training program, or a non-training control group (n = 2). The intervention group trained three times a week, running at a higher …


Head Stabilization And Cortical Activation In Contact Sport Athletes During Walking Under Different Visual Task Constraints, Sam Zeff Nov 2023

Head Stabilization And Cortical Activation In Contact Sport Athletes During Walking Under Different Visual Task Constraints, Sam Zeff

Doctoral Dissertations

Contact sport participation exposes athletes to repetitive sub-concussive head impacts, which have been shown to elicit cortical neurophysiologic, cognitive, and motor performance alterations that have the potential to disrupt visual perception. Despite the growing concern regarding sub-concussive impacts, our understanding of their implications on motor performance and risk for further injury is limited. A stable head provides a consistent perceptual platform for the visual and vestibular sensory systems, but the effects of contact sport participation on head stability and visual perception remain poorly understood. The goal of this dissertation was to understand whether contact sport participation modifies athletes’ ability to …


Magnetic Endothelialization Of Flow Diverters To Promote Rapid Healing Of Cerebral Aneurysms, Amanda Thome Nov 2023

Magnetic Endothelialization Of Flow Diverters To Promote Rapid Healing Of Cerebral Aneurysms, Amanda Thome

Dissertations (1934 -)

Cerebral aneurysms are dilations of normal vasculature in the brain. When patients are diagnosed with a cerebral aneurysm there are many different treatment options, but one of the newest treatments is flow diversion. Flow diverters create a barrier over the neck of the aneurysm that restores flow to the parent vessel and away from the aneurysm. While these devices have high success rates thus far, they are still associated with some clinical issues such as in-stent thrombosis, delayed aneurysmal occlusion, and side brand occlusion. To mitigate this the current standard of treatment includes a dual anti-platelet therapy regimen which poses …


Exploration Of Motion Capture System To Investigate Human Shoulder Kinematics, Ola Alsaadi Nov 2023

Exploration Of Motion Capture System To Investigate Human Shoulder Kinematics, Ola Alsaadi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The glenohumeral joint (GH) is commonly conceptualized as a ball-and-socket joint [1], and its center of rotation (COR) is presumed to coincide with the geometric center of the medial-superior region of the humeral head [2]. Recent research has endorsed improvements in COR estimation through invasive and noninvasive techniques, including cadaver studies, stereophotogrammetry, and motion capture (MOCAP) systems. Despite increased interest in wearable technology within human movement analysis, the problem of COR estimation employing MOCAP systems and its validation against bi-planar fluoroscopy remains relatively unexplored.

This study employed a marker-based MOCAP system to compare the accuracy, error, and precision of three …


Kinematic Analysis Of Gait And Deep Knee Flexion For Pre- And Post-Operative Total Knee Arthroplasty, Samantha Collins Nov 2023

Kinematic Analysis Of Gait And Deep Knee Flexion For Pre- And Post-Operative Total Knee Arthroplasty, Samantha Collins

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a form of arthritis that develops in the joint due to overuse and aging causing pain, discomfort, and disability. Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) is a surgical procedure performed when OA symptoms are severe with an estimated 600,000 patients in the United States currently receiving TKA. Studies have reported dissatisfaction of the knee for 14-39% of patients. This study collected knee kinematics before and after surgery using stereo radiography for precise measurement of gait and deep knee flexion activities. Results showed healthy knee kinematics were not restored and no significant changes could be seen from OA kinematics in …


Understanding Physical Activity Preferences And Motives In U.S. Adults, Christopher R. Hill, Malasher Johnson, Victoria Mazaras, Stephen Samendinger Oct 2023

Understanding Physical Activity Preferences And Motives In U.S. Adults, Christopher R. Hill, Malasher Johnson, Victoria Mazaras, Stephen Samendinger

Topics in Exercise Science and Kinesiology

Topics in Exercise Science and Kinesiology Volume 4: Issue 1, Article 16, 2023. This study examined U.S. adult physical activity preferences and explored how a sample of Americans conceptualize these preferences, as previous attempts have primarily focused on non-U.S. or special populations. A sample of adults (n=402) was surveyed and stratified into 'Alone' or 'Group' physical activity preference conditions, with additional items exploring preference characteristics and social-psychological motives. Most adults preferred to exercise Alone (n=126), with a Partner (n=88), or with the use of a Virtual/Video environment (n=122) compared to those who preferred Group exercise (n=66). While there were no …


A Framework For Biomechanical Analysis Of Jump Landings For Injury Risk Assessment, Srishti Sharma, Srikrishnan Divakaran, Kaya Tolga, Christopher B. Taber, Mehul S. Raval Oct 2023

A Framework For Biomechanical Analysis Of Jump Landings For Injury Risk Assessment, Srishti Sharma, Srikrishnan Divakaran, Kaya Tolga, Christopher B. Taber, Mehul S. Raval

School of Computer Science & Engineering Faculty Publications

Competitive sports require rapid and intense movements, such as jump landings, making athletes susceptible to injuries due to altered neuromuscular control and joint mechanics. Biomechanical features during landings are associated with injury risk, emphasizing proper movement and postural stability. Computer vision techniques offer a time-efficient, noninvasive, and unbiased method to assess jump-landings and identify injury risks. This study proposes a video analysis framework to evaluate jump landing biomechanics in athletes todetermineirregularmovementsandincorrectpostures.It providesadviceandrecommendationstocoachesforinjury predictionandtrainingimprovements.Theproposedframework istestedusingcountermovementjumpvideosof17NCAA DivisionIfemalebasketballathletes.Theresultsindicateda lowMeanAbsoluteError(0.97),highcorrelation(0.89),high averageaccuracy(98.31%)andF1score(0.98),signifyingthe framework’sreliabilityinidentifyinginjuryrisk.


Age, Lower Extremity Muscle Strength, And Running Biomechanics In Healthy Female Recreational Runners, Heather Mcconchie Hamilton Oct 2023

Age, Lower Extremity Muscle Strength, And Running Biomechanics In Healthy Female Recreational Runners, Heather Mcconchie Hamilton

Rehabilitation Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Middle-age and older runners demonstrate differences in running biomechanics compared to younger runners. Females and males demonstrate differences in running biomechanics, and females experience additional hormonal changes with age due to menopause. Despite the biomechanical and physiological differences between females and males, little research has investigated the effect of age specifically in female runners. The overall purpose of this research was to determine the relationships among age, lower extremity muscle strength, and running biomechanics in healthy female recreational runners. Healthy female recreational runners aged 25 – 65 years were recruited. Participants ran on an instrumented treadmill at a training pace …


Biomechanical Adaptations While Performing Bilateral Drop Landings With A Unilateral Ankle Tape Application, Eric Daniel Jenkins Oct 2023

Biomechanical Adaptations While Performing Bilateral Drop Landings With A Unilateral Ankle Tape Application, Eric Daniel Jenkins

Rehabilitation Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Ankle sprains are the most common injury in sport and exercise performance, which makes the utilization of ankle taping a common procedure to both prevent potential sprain, as well as protect against reinjury. However, unilateral ankle taping may have unintended consequences on the mechanics of the ankle and other joints of both legs. The aim of this dissertation was to determine the effects of ankle taping on lower body kinetics and kinematics, stiffness, and coordination during a bilateral landing task.

Twelve female participants completed a total of 90 drop landings across two visits, randomized from landing platforms of 30, 45, …


The Effects Of Lifting With Intent On Hip And Knee Moments During Back Squats, Kyle A. Parrish Oct 2023

The Effects Of Lifting With Intent On Hip And Knee Moments During Back Squats, Kyle A. Parrish

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Back squatting is a widely used movement in the strength and conditioning community. Within the last few years, velocity-dependent training and its application of tracking intensity have increased in popularity. Biomechanics research has frequently examined force generation, joint loading, and muscle contributions of back squats with different bar placement, stance width, and increasing barbell loads. However, no information exists regarding whether lifting with intent increases velocity and how increased velocity is biomechanically achieved. This study aimed to examine how lifting with intent affects bar velocity and how joint moment alterations could contribute to these potential changes in velocity. Fifteen males …


Successful Closed Reduction And Tooth-To-Tooth Wire-Fixation Of A Mandibular Singular Parasymphysis Fracture In A Male Collegiate Lacrosse Player, Steven Ross Murray, Coryann L. Leadford, Nathaniel Snyder, Robert W. Pettitt, Jeremy R. Hawkins Sep 2023

Successful Closed Reduction And Tooth-To-Tooth Wire-Fixation Of A Mandibular Singular Parasymphysis Fracture In A Male Collegiate Lacrosse Player, Steven Ross Murray, Coryann L. Leadford, Nathaniel Snyder, Robert W. Pettitt, Jeremy R. Hawkins

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

A 19-year-old male collegiate lacrosse player suffered an acute singular parasymphysis fracture of the mandible when he was struck in the facemask of his helmet by a lacrosse ball during practice. The fracture was confirmed via panoramic radiography and treated with a closed reduction under local anesthetic by looping a 26-gauge wire around the two right incisors and the right cuspid. This approach to managing the fracture was taken instead of an open reduction and plate application to be less invasive with the hope of a faster recovery and fewer complications. The fracture healed and aligned properly, and after six …


Reliability And Construct Validity Of The Single-Leg Landing Error Scoring System (Sl-Less) In Physically Active Females, Jennifer E. Earl-Boehm, Madison Mach, Erin Lally, Maegan O'Connor, Hayley Ericksen Sep 2023

Reliability And Construct Validity Of The Single-Leg Landing Error Scoring System (Sl-Less) In Physically Active Females, Jennifer E. Earl-Boehm, Madison Mach, Erin Lally, Maegan O'Connor, Hayley Ericksen

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

PURPOSE Single-leg landings are common in sport and often result in injury, however a rubric to evaluate biomechanics during single-leg jump landing (SLL) does not exist. The Single-Leg Landing Error Scoring System (SL-LESS) is a rubric developed to evaluate movement during SLL. The purpose of this study was to 1) determine inter- and intra-rater reliability of the SL-LESS, 2) and determine the content and construct validity of the SL-LESS when evaluating SLL

METHOD 28 healthy females completed SLL on two days while 2D and 3D data were recorded. 3D angles were trunk flexion/lateral-flexion, pelvic tilt/contralateral drop, hip flexion/adduction, and knee …


Leadership And Management Curricula Trends In Athletic Training Education, Stephanie Wise, Matthew R. Kutz Sep 2023

Leadership And Management Curricula Trends In Athletic Training Education, Stephanie Wise, Matthew R. Kutz

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

Purpose: Leadership and management skills both are needed by athletic trainers. However, most professional education emphasizes management-related behaviors. The purpose of this study was to differentiate between leadership and management behaviors taught in athletic training programs and explore the pedagogical strategies used in teaching those behaviors. Method: A cross-sectional exploratory design was used to survey Athletic Training Program Directors (PDs). The Leadership and Management Education Assessment Instrument (LMEAI) was developed for this investigation. The LMEAI collected standard demographic characteristics of respondents and used a 5-point Likert scale (1 = extremely important to 5 = not at all important) to assess …


Quality Of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Performed Over Hockey Shoulder Pads: A Simulation Study, Jennifer Longo, Katie J. Lyman, Thomas A. Hanson, Adam G. Estabrooks Sep 2023

Quality Of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Performed Over Hockey Shoulder Pads: A Simulation Study, Jennifer Longo, Katie J. Lyman, Thomas A. Hanson, Adam G. Estabrooks

Journal of Sports Medicine and Allied Health Sciences: Official Journal of the Ohio Athletic Trainers Association

Purpose: Athletic trainers (ATs) must be prepared to manage cardiac arrest events in all athletes, including those participating in equipment-intensive sports. The goal of this study was to determine if first responders, specifically ATs, were able to perform high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) over hockey shoulder pads. Methods: A sample of 50 ATs completed a one-minute, compression-only CPR proficiency test on a medium-fidelity manikin (Resusci Anne QCPR). Once deemed proficient, each participant completed CPR according to 2020 AHA guidelines on the manikin fitted with hockey shoulder pads for 8 minutes and 59 seconds. The primary measures of interest were the percentage …


The Effects Of Different Training Types On Phase Angle In Men - An Exploratory Study, Trevor Short, Paulette Yamada Sep 2023

The Effects Of Different Training Types On Phase Angle In Men - An Exploratory Study, Trevor Short, Paulette Yamada

Topics in Exercise Science and Kinesiology

Topics in Exercise Science and Kinesiology Volume 4: Issue 1, Article 12, 2023. Phase Angle (PhA) has emerged as a valuable measure in clinical and sports settings due to its predictive relationship with health and sports performance. Fitness is related to PhA, but the type of exercise training that is most influential over PhA has yet to be determined. The purpose was to explore the effects of endurance training (ET), strength-based resistance training (RT), and sprint-interval training (SIT) on PhA, resistance (R), and reactance (Xc) in men. Thirty-five recreationally-trained healthy young adult males (24±4 years) were randomly assigned to one …


Quantifying Balance: Computational And Learning Frameworks For The Characterization Of Balance In Bipedal Systems, Kubra Akbas Aug 2023

Quantifying Balance: Computational And Learning Frameworks For The Characterization Of Balance In Bipedal Systems, Kubra Akbas

Dissertations

In clinical practice and general healthcare settings, the lack of reliable and objective balance and stability assessment metrics hinders the tracking of patient performance progression during rehabilitation; the assessment of bipedal balance plays a crucial role in understanding stability and falls in humans and other bipeds, while providing clinicians important information regarding rehabilitation outcomes. Bipedal balance has often been examined through kinematic or kinetic quantities, such as the Zero Moment Point and Center of Pressure; however, analyzing balance specifically through the body's Center of Mass (COM) state offers a holistic and easily comprehensible view of balance and stability.

Building upon …


Body Movement Syllabus - The City College Of New York - Department Of Theatre - Prof Timothy Allen, Timothy J. Allen Aug 2023

Body Movement Syllabus - The City College Of New York - Department Of Theatre - Prof Timothy Allen, Timothy J. Allen

Open Educational Resources

This course will explore three modules of learning.

  1. Anatomy and Psycho-Physical Centering, will explore two foundations: (1) the start of our research and practical application of the human anatomy in regards to how our body moves; and (2) your ability to tune into movement centers within the body by utilizing Chakra as a guiding study. Please note: Anatomy will be a continuous study throughout the entire semester.

  2. THE SECOND MODULE, Partnered Connection, will focus on partnering with lifts, counter-balances, falls, and rolls that will build to a partnering sequence of the tools presented.

  3. THE LAST MODULE, Global Archetypes, …


A Comparison Of Ground Reaction Forces And Muscle Activity Of The Tsunami Bar® Against A Rigid Barbell During Back Squat Phases, John Carver Middleton Aug 2023

A Comparison Of Ground Reaction Forces And Muscle Activity Of The Tsunami Bar® Against A Rigid Barbell During Back Squat Phases, John Carver Middleton

Theses and Dissertations

An Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved study was conducted to investigate the effects of the Tsunami Bar® (TB), a flexible barbell, on ground reaction force (GRF) production and muscle activity in the quadricep, hamstring, and gluteal muscle groups during phases of the squat exercise and compare the effects to the effects to using a rigid barbell (RB). A two-by-two repeated measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test was used to compare the results. Descriptive statistics showed significantly higher GRFs for the TB during the unweighting phase, significant differences in GRFs between speeds for each phase, significantly higher forces on average with the …


Using Music To Modify Step-Rate And Running Biomechanics In Healthy Runners, Erin Marie Lally Aug 2023

Using Music To Modify Step-Rate And Running Biomechanics In Healthy Runners, Erin Marie Lally

Theses and Dissertations

Context: Running-related injury (RRI) is a significant public health issue that may be caused by injurious running biomechanics. Increasing step-rate (SR) using gait retraining may prevent and treat RRI. The Optimizing Performance Through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention for Learning (OPTIMAL) theory indicates enhanced expectancies, autonomy, and external focus of attention will optimize motor learning. Music has been shown to create enhanced expectancies, can provide incidental choices (autonomy), directs attention externally, and may increase compliance. No studies have investigated if music can be used to alter SR and running biomechanics or strategies that may improve compliance to gait retraining. Objective: The …


The Effects Of Task Complexity On Knee Mechanics And Joint Coordination Variability During A Side-Step Cutting Task, Carter Michael Schmitz Aug 2023

The Effects Of Task Complexity On Knee Mechanics And Joint Coordination Variability During A Side-Step Cutting Task, Carter Michael Schmitz

Theses and Dissertations

Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a very common and debilitating injury suffered by athletes of all ages, genders, and abilities. Practitioners attempt to minimize risks by implementing ACL prevention programs designed to physically prepare athletes for the demands of sport, however, the success of these programs is very inconsistent. The majority of past ACL prevention programs prioritize constrained run and cut activities, the removal of motor variability - attempting to “idealize” mechanics - and limited task complexity. Due to the inherent complexities that exist within sport, it is possible that more task complexity and motor variability is …


Age-Related Differences In Motor Performance, Jessica Anne Prebor Aug 2023

Age-Related Differences In Motor Performance, Jessica Anne Prebor

Rehabilitation Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this work was to study the age effects on average performance and variability of movement responses in children, young adults, and older adults across multiple motor tasks. Optimal motor performance is observed in healthy young adults with declines observed at either end of the lifespan. This pattern has been represented as a U-shaped/inverted U-shaped curve. Little is known about if this pattern persists in chewing dynamics. While chewing has been found to improve aspects of attention, a cognitive function, research is limited on the relationship between chewing and other motor tasks.

The first aim of this research …


Biomat (Biomechanics Multiactivity Transformer) Model, Mohsen Sharifi Renani Jul 2023

Biomat (Biomechanics Multiactivity Transformer) Model, Mohsen Sharifi Renani

BioMAT (Biomechanics Multiactivity Transformer)

No abstract provided.


A Dynamical Systems Approach To Characterizing Brain–Body Interactions During Movement: Challenges, Interpretations, And Recommendations, Derek C. Monroe, Nathaniel T. Berry, Peter C. Fino, Christopher K. Rhea Jul 2023

A Dynamical Systems Approach To Characterizing Brain–Body Interactions During Movement: Challenges, Interpretations, And Recommendations, Derek C. Monroe, Nathaniel T. Berry, Peter C. Fino, Christopher K. Rhea

Rehabilitation Sciences Faculty Publications

Brain–body interactions (BBIs) have been the focus of intense scrutiny since the inception of the scientific method, playing a foundational role in the earliest debates over the philosophy of science. Contemporary investigations of BBIs to elucidate the neural principles of motor control have benefited from advances in neuroimaging, device engineering, and signal processing. However, these studies generally suffer from two major limitations. First, they rely on interpretations of ‘brain’ activity that are behavioral in nature, rather than neuroanatomical or biophysical. Second, they employ methodological approaches that are inconsistent with a dynamical systems approach to neuromotor control. These limitations represent a …