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Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

The Complex Role Of Sequence And Structure In The Stability And Function Of The Tim Barrel Proteins, Yvonne H. Chan Nov 2017

The Complex Role Of Sequence And Structure In The Stability And Function Of The Tim Barrel Proteins, Yvonne H. Chan

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Sequence divergence of orthologous proteins enables adaptation to a plethora of environmental stresses and promotes evolution of novel functions. As one of the most common motifs in biology capable of diverse enzymatic functions, the TIM barrel represents an ideal model system for mapping the phenotypic manifestations of protein sequence. Limits on evolution imposed by constraints on sequence and structure were investigated using a model TIM barrel protein, indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase (IGPS). Exploration of fitness landscapes of phylogenetically distant orthologs provides a strategy for elucidating the complex interrelationship in the context of a protein fold.

Fitness effects of point mutations in ...


Dna Polymerase Zeta-Dependent Mutagenesis: Molecular Specificity, Extent Of Error-Prone Synthesis, And The Role Of Dntp Pools, Olga V. Kochenova Dec 2016

Dna Polymerase Zeta-Dependent Mutagenesis: Molecular Specificity, Extent Of Error-Prone Synthesis, And The Role Of Dntp Pools, Olga V. Kochenova

Theses & Dissertations

Despite multiple DNA repair pathways, DNA lesions can escape repair and compromise normal chromosomal replication, leading to genome instability. Cells utilize specialized low-fidelity Translesion Synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases to bypass lesions and rescue arrested replication forks. TLS is a highly conserved two-step process that involves insertion of a nucleotide opposite a lesion and extension of the resulting aberrant primer terminus. The first step can be performed by both replicative and TLS DNA polymerases and, because of non-instructive DNA lesions, often results in a nucleotide misincorporation. The second step is almost exclusively catalyzed by DNA polymerase ζ ...


It Is All About (U)Biquitin: Role Of Altered Ubiquitin-Proteasome System And Uchl1 In Alzheimer Disease, Antonella Tramutola, Fabio Di Domenico, Eugenio Barone, Marzia Perluigi, D. Allan Butterfield Jan 2016

It Is All About (U)Biquitin: Role Of Altered Ubiquitin-Proteasome System And Uchl1 In Alzheimer Disease, Antonella Tramutola, Fabio Di Domenico, Eugenio Barone, Marzia Perluigi, D. Allan Butterfield

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Free radical-mediated damage to macromolecules and the resulting oxidative modification of different cellular components are a common feature of aging, and this process becomes much more pronounced in age-associated pathologies, including Alzheimer disease (AD). In particular, proteins are particularly sensitive to oxidative stress-induced damage and these irreversible modifications lead to the alteration of protein structure and function. In order to maintain cell homeostasis, these oxidized/damaged proteins have to be removed in order to prevent their toxic accumulation. It is generally accepted that the age-related accumulation of “aberrant” proteins results from both the increased occurrence of damage and the decreased ...


The Decapping Scavenger Enzyme Dcs-1 Controls Microrna Levels In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Gabriel Bosse, Stefan Ruegger, Maria Ow, Alejandro Vasquez-Rifo, Evelyne Rondeau, Victor Ambros, Helge Grosshans, Martin Simard Oct 2015

The Decapping Scavenger Enzyme Dcs-1 Controls Microrna Levels In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Gabriel Bosse, Stefan Ruegger, Maria Ow, Alejandro Vasquez-Rifo, Evelyne Rondeau, Victor Ambros, Helge Grosshans, Martin Simard

Victor R. Ambros

In metazoans, microRNAs play a critical role in the posttranscriptional regulation of genes required for cell proliferation and differentiation. MicroRNAs themselves are regulated by a multitude of mechanisms influencing their transcription and posttranscriptional maturation. However, there is only sparse knowledge on pathways regulating the mature, functional form of microRNA. Here, we uncover the implication of the decapping scavenger protein DCS-1 in the control of microRNA turnover. In Caenorhabditis elegans, mutations in dcs-1 increase the levels of functional microRNAs. We demonstrate that DCS-1 interacts with the exonuclease XRN-1 to promote microRNA degradation in an independent manner from its known decapping scavenger ...


Mutations In Conserved Residues Of The C. Elegans Microrna Argonaute Alg-1 Identify Separable Functions In Alg-1 Mirisc Loading And Target Repression, Anna Y. Zinovyeva, Samir Bouasker, Martin J. Simard, Christopher M. Hammell, Victor R. Ambros Oct 2015

Mutations In Conserved Residues Of The C. Elegans Microrna Argonaute Alg-1 Identify Separable Functions In Alg-1 Mirisc Loading And Target Repression, Anna Y. Zinovyeva, Samir Bouasker, Martin J. Simard, Christopher M. Hammell, Victor R. Ambros

Victor R. Ambros

microRNAs function in diverse developmental and physiological processes by regulating target gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. ALG-1 is one of two Caenorhabditis elegans Argonautes (ALG-1 and ALG-2) that together are essential for microRNA biogenesis and function. Here, we report the identification of novel antimorphic (anti) alleles of ALG-1 as suppressors of lin-28(lf) precocious developmental phenotypes. The alg-1(anti) mutations broadly impair the function of many microRNAs and cause dosage-dependent phenotypes that are more severe than the complete loss of ALG-1. ALG-1(anti) mutant proteins are competent for promoting Dicer cleavage of microRNA precursors and for associating with and ...


Micrornas: Genetically Sensitized Worms Reveal New Secrets, Victor Ambros Oct 2015

Micrornas: Genetically Sensitized Worms Reveal New Secrets, Victor Ambros

Victor R. Ambros

Why do many microRNA gene mutants display no evident phenotype? Multiply mutant worms that are selectively impaired in genetic regulatory network activities have been used to uncover previously unknown functions for numerous Caenorhabditis elegans microRNAs.


A Conserved Three-Nucleotide Core Motif Defines Musashi Rna Binding Specificity, Nancy Zearfoss, Laura Deveau, Carina Clingman, Eric Schmidt, Emily Johnson, Francesca Massi, Sean Ryder Sep 2015

A Conserved Three-Nucleotide Core Motif Defines Musashi Rna Binding Specificity, Nancy Zearfoss, Laura Deveau, Carina Clingman, Eric Schmidt, Emily Johnson, Francesca Massi, Sean Ryder

Sean P. Ryder

Musashi (MSI) family proteins control cell proliferation and differentiation in many biological systems. They are overexpressed in tumors of several origins, and their expression level correlates with poor prognosis. MSI proteins control gene expression by binding RNA and regulating its translation. They contain two RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains, which recognize a defined sequence element. The relative contribution of each nucleotide to the binding affinity and specificity is unknown. We analyzed the binding specificity of three MSI family RRM domains using a quantitative fluorescence anisotropy assay. We found that the core element driving recognition is the sequence UAG. Nucleotides outside ...


Translesion Synthesis And Mutations: On The Mutagenic Properties Of The Two Dna Lesions, 8-Oxo-G And Pt-Gg, And The Functions Of Y-Family Dna Polymerases And Rev3l On The Bypass Of Each Of The Dna Lesions In Mammalian Cells, Lizhen Guo Apr 2015

Translesion Synthesis And Mutations: On The Mutagenic Properties Of The Two Dna Lesions, 8-Oxo-G And Pt-Gg, And The Functions Of Y-Family Dna Polymerases And Rev3l On The Bypass Of Each Of The Dna Lesions In Mammalian Cells, Lizhen Guo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

I studied the capabilities of the two DNA lesions 8-oxo-guanine and cisplatin intrastrand crosslinked 1,2-d(GpG) or Pt-GG to cause mutations in mammalian cells. Using isogenic cell lines generated from mice with selective gene knockouts of distinct DNA polymerases as models, I deduced the biological functions of the translesion DNA polymerases Pol eta, Pol kappa, Pol iota, Rev1 and Rev3L on bypassing each of the lesions 8-oxo-G and Pt-GG. My study takes advantage of the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology to determine mutagenic effects of the DNA lesions in vivo and effects of translesion DNA polymerases on bypassing the ...


Evolution Of The Influenza A Virus Genome During Development Of Oseltamivir Resistance In Vitro, Nicholas Renzette, Daniel Caffrey, Konstantin Zeldovich, Ping Liu, Glen Gallagher, Daniel Aiello, Alyssa Porter, Evelyn Kurt-Jones, Daniel Bolon, Yu-Ping Poh, Jeffrey Jensen, Celia Schiffer, Timothy Kowalik, Robert Finberg, Jennifer Wang Mar 2015

Evolution Of The Influenza A Virus Genome During Development Of Oseltamivir Resistance In Vitro, Nicholas Renzette, Daniel Caffrey, Konstantin Zeldovich, Ping Liu, Glen Gallagher, Daniel Aiello, Alyssa Porter, Evelyn Kurt-Jones, Daniel Bolon, Yu-Ping Poh, Jeffrey Jensen, Celia Schiffer, Timothy Kowalik, Robert Finberg, Jennifer Wang

Glen R. Gallagher

Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Current antiviral therapies include oseltamivir, a neuraminidase inhibitor that prevents the release of nascent viral particles from infected cells. However, the IAV genome can evolve rapidly, and oseltamivir resistance mutations have been detected in numerous clinical samples. Using an in vitro evolution platform and whole-genome population sequencing, we investigated the population genomics of IAV during the development of oseltamivir resistance. Strain A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1) was grown in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells with or without escalating concentrations of oseltamivir over serial passages. Following drug ...


Evolution Of The Influenza A Virus Genome During Development Of Oseltamivir Resistance In Vitro, Nicholas Renzette, Daniel R. Caffrey, Konstantin B. Zeldovich, Ping Liu, Glen R. Gallagher, Daniel Aiello, Alyssa J. Porter, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Daniel N. Bolon, Yu-Ping Poh, Jeffrey D. Jensen, Celia A. Schiffer, Timothy F. Kowalik, Robert W. Finberg, Jennifer P. Wang Jan 2015

Evolution Of The Influenza A Virus Genome During Development Of Oseltamivir Resistance In Vitro, Nicholas Renzette, Daniel R. Caffrey, Konstantin B. Zeldovich, Ping Liu, Glen R. Gallagher, Daniel Aiello, Alyssa J. Porter, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Daniel N. Bolon, Yu-Ping Poh, Jeffrey D. Jensen, Celia A. Schiffer, Timothy F. Kowalik, Robert W. Finberg, Jennifer P. Wang

Celia A. Schiffer

Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Current antiviral therapies include oseltamivir, a neuraminidase inhibitor that prevents the release of nascent viral particles from infected cells. However, the IAV genome can evolve rapidly, and oseltamivir resistance mutations have been detected in numerous clinical samples. Using an in vitro evolution platform and whole-genome population sequencing, we investigated the population genomics of IAV during the development of oseltamivir resistance. Strain A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1) was grown in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells with or without escalating concentrations of oseltamivir over serial passages. Following drug ...


Conversion Of Red Fluorescent Protein Into A Bright Blue Probe, Oksana M. Subach, Illia S. Gundorov, Masami Yoshimura, Fedor V. Subach, Jinghang Zhang, David Grunwald, Ekaterina A. Souslova, Dmitriy M. Chudakov, Vladislav V. Verkhusha Nov 2014

Conversion Of Red Fluorescent Protein Into A Bright Blue Probe, Oksana M. Subach, Illia S. Gundorov, Masami Yoshimura, Fedor V. Subach, Jinghang Zhang, David Grunwald, Ekaterina A. Souslova, Dmitriy M. Chudakov, Vladislav V. Verkhusha

David Grünwald

We used a red chromophore formation pathway, in which the anionic red chromophore is formed from the neutral blue intermediate, to suggest a rational design strategy to develop blue fluorescent proteins with a tyrosine-based chromophore. The strategy was applied to red fluorescent proteins of the different genetic backgrounds, such as TagRFP, mCherry, HcRed1, M355NA, and mKeima, which all were converted into blue probes. Further improvement of the blue variant of TagRFP by random mutagenesis resulted in an enhanced monomeric protein, mTagBFP, characterized by the substantially higher brightness, the faster chromophore maturation, and the higher pH stability than blue fluorescent proteins ...


Autonomy And Robustness Of Translocation Through The Nuclear Pore Complex: A Single-Molecule Study, Thomas Dange, David Grunwald, Antje Grunwald, Reiner Peters, Ulrich Kubitscheck Nov 2014

Autonomy And Robustness Of Translocation Through The Nuclear Pore Complex: A Single-Molecule Study, Thomas Dange, David Grunwald, Antje Grunwald, Reiner Peters, Ulrich Kubitscheck

David Grünwald

All molecular traffic between nucleus and cytoplasm occurs via the nuclear pore complex (NPC) within the nuclear envelope. In this study we analyzed the interactions of the nuclear transport receptors kapalpha2, kapbeta1, kapbeta1DeltaN44, and kapbeta2, and the model transport substrate, BSA-NLS, with NPCs to determine binding sites and kinetics using single-molecule microscopy in living cells. Recombinant transport receptors and BSA-NLS were fluorescently labeled by AlexaFluor 488, and microinjected into the cytoplasm of living HeLa cells expressing POM121-GFP as a nuclear pore marker. After bleaching the dominant GFP fluorescence the interactions of the microinjected molecules could be studied using video microscopy ...


Mutations In Conserved Residues Of The C. Elegans Microrna Argonaute Alg-1 Identify Separable Functions In Alg-1 Mirisc Loading And Target Repression, Anna Y. Zinovyeva, Samir Bouasker, Martin J. Simard, Christopher M. Hammell, Victor R. Ambros Apr 2014

Mutations In Conserved Residues Of The C. Elegans Microrna Argonaute Alg-1 Identify Separable Functions In Alg-1 Mirisc Loading And Target Repression, Anna Y. Zinovyeva, Samir Bouasker, Martin J. Simard, Christopher M. Hammell, Victor R. Ambros

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications

microRNAs function in diverse developmental and physiological processes by regulating target gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. ALG-1 is one of two Caenorhabditis elegans Argonautes (ALG-1 and ALG-2) that together are essential for microRNA biogenesis and function. Here, we report the identification of novel antimorphic (anti) alleles of ALG-1 as suppressors of lin-28(lf) precocious developmental phenotypes. The alg-1(anti) mutations broadly impair the function of many microRNAs and cause dosage-dependent phenotypes that are more severe than the complete loss of ALG-1. ALG-1(anti) mutant proteins are competent for promoting Dicer cleavage of microRNA precursors and for associating with and ...


Mutation And Complementation Of A Cellulose Synthase (Cesa) Gene, Ahmed Y. El-Araby May 2012

Mutation And Complementation Of A Cellulose Synthase (Cesa) Gene, Ahmed Y. El-Araby

Senior Honors Projects

Cellulose is a carbohydrate polymer that is composed of repeating glucose subunits. Being the most abundant organic compound in the biosphere and comprising a large percentage of all plant biomass, cellulose is extremely plentiful and has a significant role in nature. Cellulose is present in plant cell walls, in commercial products such as those made from wood or cotton, and is of interest to the biofuel industry as a potential alternative fuel source. Although indigestible by humans, cellulose is nutritionally valuable, serving as a dietary fiber. Because of its ubiquity and importance in many areas, studying cellulose will prove to ...


Characterization Of Novel Histone H2b Mutants Associated With Chromosome Segregation Defects In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Thiruchelvam Rajagopal May 2012

Characterization Of Novel Histone H2b Mutants Associated With Chromosome Segregation Defects In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Thiruchelvam Rajagopal

Theses and Dissertations

Histones are small basic proteins that associate with DNA to form the basic unit of chromatin, the nucleosome. Histones H3 and H4 form a tetramer that is bound by two H2A-H2B dimers to form the histone octamer, to which approximately 146 bp of DNA wrap around to form the nucleosome. High resolution structural information and recent advances in the understanding of histone post-translational modifications have illuminated the many regulatory functions chromatin exerts in the cell, from the transcriptional control of gene expression to chromosome segregation. However, the specific role that histones play in these processes is not well understood. Previous ...


Guanosine Diphosphatase Is Required For Protein And Sphingolipid Glycosylation In The Golgi Lumen Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Claudia Abeijon, Ken Yanagisawa, Elisabet Mandon, Alex Hausler, Kelley Moremen, Carlos Hirschberg, Phillips Robbins Feb 2012

Guanosine Diphosphatase Is Required For Protein And Sphingolipid Glycosylation In The Golgi Lumen Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Claudia Abeijon, Ken Yanagisawa, Elisabet Mandon, Alex Hausler, Kelley Moremen, Carlos Hirschberg, Phillips Robbins

Elisabet Mandon

Current models for nucleotide sugar use in the Golgi apparatus predict a critical role for the lumenal nucleoside diphosphatase. After transfer of sugars to endogenous macromolecular acceptors, the enzyme converts nucleoside diphosphates to nucleoside monophosphates which in turn exit the Golgi lumen in a coupled antiporter reaction, allowing entry of additional nucleotide sugar from the cytosol. To test this model, we cloned the gene for the S. cerevisiae guanosine diphosphatase and constructed a null mutation. This mutation should reduce the concentrations of GDP-mannose and GMP and increase the concentration of GDP in the Golgi lumen. The alterations should in turn ...


Heparin Modulates The 99-Loop Of Factor Ixa: Effects On Reactivity With Isolated Kunitz-Type Inhibitor Domains, Pierre F. Neuenschwander, Stephen R. Williamson, Armen Nalian, Kimberly J. Baker-Deadmond Jan 2006

Heparin Modulates The 99-Loop Of Factor Ixa: Effects On Reactivity With Isolated Kunitz-Type Inhibitor Domains, Pierre F. Neuenschwander, Stephen R. Williamson, Armen Nalian, Kimberly J. Baker-Deadmond

Faculty Publications

Reactivity of factor IXa with basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor is enhanced by low molecular weight heparin (enoxaparin). Previous studies by us have suggested that this effect involves allosteric modulation of factor IXa. We examined the reactivity of factor IXa with several isolated Kunitz-type inhibitor domains: basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, the Kunitz inhibitor domain of protease Nexin-2, and the first two inhibitor domains of tissue factor pathway inhibitor. We find that enhancement of factor IXa reactivity by enoxaparin is greatest for basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (>10-fold), followed by the second tissue factor pathway inhibitor domain (1.7-fold) and the Kunitz inhibitor ...