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Articles 1 - 30 of 58

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Histone Citrullination Represses Mirna Expression Resulting In Increased Oncogene Mrnas In Somatolactotrope Cells., Stanley B Devore, Coleman H. Young, Guangyuan Li, Anitha Sundararajan, Thiruvarangan Ramaraj, Joann Mudge, Faye Schilkey, Aaron Muth, Paul R. Thompson, Brian D. Cherrington Sep 2018

Histone Citrullination Represses Mirna Expression Resulting In Increased Oncogene Mrnas In Somatolactotrope Cells., Stanley B Devore, Coleman H. Young, Guangyuan Li, Anitha Sundararajan, Thiruvarangan Ramaraj, Joann Mudge, Faye Schilkey, Aaron Muth, Paul R. Thompson, Brian D. Cherrington

University of Massachusetts Medical School Publications

Peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) enzymes convert histone arginine residues into citrulline to modulate chromatin organization and gene expression. Although PADs are expressed in anterior pituitary gland cells, their functional role and expression in pituitary adenomas is unknown. To begin to address these questions, we first examined normal human pituitaries and pituitary adenomas and found that PAD2, PAD4 and citrullinated histones are highest in prolactinomas and somatoprolactinomas. In the somatoprolactinoma-derived GH3 cell line, PADs citrullinate histone H3, which is attenuated by a pan-PAD inhibitor. RNA-sequencing and ChIP studies show that the expression of microRNAs let-7c-2, miR-23b and miR-29c is suppressed by histone ...


A Single Mechanism Of Biogenesis, Initiated And Directed By Piwi Proteins, Explains Pirna Production In Most Animals, Phillip D. Zamore, Ildar Gainetdinov, Cansu Colpan, Katharine Cecchini Apr 2018

A Single Mechanism Of Biogenesis, Initiated And Directed By Piwi Proteins, Explains Pirna Production In Most Animals, Phillip D. Zamore, Ildar Gainetdinov, Cansu Colpan, Katharine Cecchini

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

In animals, piRNAs guide PIWI-proteins to silence transposons and regulate gene expression. The mechanisms for making piRNAs have been proposed to differ among cell types, tissues, and animals. Our data instead suggest a single model that explains piRNA production in most animals. piRNAs initiate piRNA production by guiding PIWI proteins to slice precursor transcripts. Next, PIWI proteins direct the stepwise fragmentation of the sliced precursor transcripts, yielding tail-to-head strings of phased pre-piRNAs. Our analyses detect evidence for this piRNA biogenesis strategy across an evolutionarily broad range of animals including humans. Thus, PIWI proteins initiate and sustain piRNA biogenesis by the ...


Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu Apr 2018

Role Of Protein Charge Density On Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Formation, Xinyu Sun, Dong Li, Zhaoshuai Wang, Panchao Yin, Rundong Hu, Rundong Hu, Hui Li, Qiao Liu, Yunyi Gao, Baiping Ren, Jie Zheng, Yinan Wei, Tianbo Liu

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The role of electrostatic interactions in the viral capsid assembly process was studied by comparing the assembly process of a truncated hepatitis B virus capsid protein Cp149 with its mutant protein D2N/D4N, which has the same conformational structure but four fewer charges per dimer. The capsid protein self-assembly was investigated under a wide range of protein surface charge densities by changing the protein concentration, buffer pH, and solution ionic strength. Lowering the protein charge density favored the capsid formation. However, lowering charge beyond a certain point resulted in capsid aggregation and precipitation. Interestingly, both the wild-type and D2N/D4N ...


Oxidative Stress And Inflammation In Hepatic Diseases: Current And Future Therapy., Karina Reyes-Gordillo, Ruchi Shah, Pablo Muriel Jan 2017

Oxidative Stress And Inflammation In Hepatic Diseases: Current And Future Therapy., Karina Reyes-Gordillo, Ruchi Shah, Pablo Muriel

Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine Faculty Publications

Liver disease is a highly prevalent disease that is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The continuous exposure of the liver to some factors such as viruses, alcohol, fat, and biotransformed metabolites can cause hepatic injury, which can lead to inflammation and liver degeneration. When the injury is sustained for long time, it can cause chronic liver diseases (CLDs), which include a spectrum of disease states ranging from simple steatosis and steatohepatitis (steatosis with inflammation and hepatocyte injury and death) to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Multiple evidences indicate that oxidative stress and inflammation are the most ...


Measurement Of Elastic Modulus Of Collagen Type I Single Fiber, Pavel Dutov, Olga Antipova, Sameer Varma, Joseph P R O Orgel, Jay D Schieber Jan 2016

Measurement Of Elastic Modulus Of Collagen Type I Single Fiber, Pavel Dutov, Olga Antipova, Sameer Varma, Joseph P R O Orgel, Jay D Schieber

Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

Collagen fibers are the main components of the extra cellular matrix and the primary contributors to the mechanical properties of tissues. Here we report a novel approach to measure the longitudinal component of the elastic moduli of biological fibers under conditions close to those found in vivo and apply it to type I collagen from rat tail tendon. This approach combines optical tweezers, atomic force microscopy, and exploits Euler-Bernoulli elasticity theory for data analysis. This approach also avoids drying for measurements or visualization, since samples are freshly extracted. Importantly, strains are kept below 0.5%, which appear consistent with the ...


Effect Of Hydroxychloroquine And Characterization Of Autophagy In A Mouse Model Of Endometriosis, A. Ruiz, S. Rockfield, N. Taran, E. Haller, Robert Engelman, I Flores, P Panina-Bordignon, Meera Nanjundan Jan 2016

Effect Of Hydroxychloroquine And Characterization Of Autophagy In A Mouse Model Of Endometriosis, A. Ruiz, S. Rockfield, N. Taran, E. Haller, Robert Engelman, I Flores, P Panina-Bordignon, Meera Nanjundan

Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

In endometriosis, the increased survival potential of shed endometrial cells (which normally undergo anoikis) is suggested to promote lesion development. One mechanism that may alter anoikis is autophagy. Using an autophagic flux inhibitor hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), we identified that it reduces the in vitro survival capacity of human endometriotic and endometrial T-HESC cells. We also identified that HCQ could decrease lesion numbers and disrupt lesion histopathology, as well as increase the levels of peritoneal macrophages and the IP-10 (10 kDa interferon-γ-induced protein) chemokine in a mouse model of endometriosis. We noted that RNA levels of a subset of autophagic ...


Repositioning Of Drugs Using Open-Access Data Portal Dtome: A Test Case With Probenecid (Review), Mohammad U. Ahmed, Dylan J. Bennett, Tze-Chen Hsieh, Barbara B. Doonan, Saba Ahmed, Joseph M. Wu Jan 2016

Repositioning Of Drugs Using Open-Access Data Portal Dtome: A Test Case With Probenecid (Review), Mohammad U. Ahmed, Dylan J. Bennett, Tze-Chen Hsieh, Barbara B. Doonan, Saba Ahmed, Joseph M. Wu

NYMC Faculty Publications

The one gene-one enzyme hypothesis, first introduced by Beadle and Tatum in the 1940s and based on their genetic analysis and observation of phenotype changes in Neurospora crassa challenged by various experimental conditions, has witnessed significant advances in recent decades. Much of our understanding of the association between genes and their phenotype expression has benefited from the completion of the human genome project, and has shown continual transformation guided by the effort directed at the annotation and characterization of human genes. Similarly, the idea of one drug‑one primary disease indication that traditionally has been the benchmark for the labeling ...


It Is All About (U)Biquitin: Role Of Altered Ubiquitin-Proteasome System And Uchl1 In Alzheimer Disease, Antonella Tramutola, Fabio Di Domenico, Eugenio Barone, Marzia Perluigi, D. Allan Butterfield Jan 2016

It Is All About (U)Biquitin: Role Of Altered Ubiquitin-Proteasome System And Uchl1 In Alzheimer Disease, Antonella Tramutola, Fabio Di Domenico, Eugenio Barone, Marzia Perluigi, D. Allan Butterfield

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Free radical-mediated damage to macromolecules and the resulting oxidative modification of different cellular components are a common feature of aging, and this process becomes much more pronounced in age-associated pathologies, including Alzheimer disease (AD). In particular, proteins are particularly sensitive to oxidative stress-induced damage and these irreversible modifications lead to the alteration of protein structure and function. In order to maintain cell homeostasis, these oxidized/damaged proteins have to be removed in order to prevent their toxic accumulation. It is generally accepted that the age-related accumulation of “aberrant” proteins results from both the increased occurrence of damage and the decreased ...


A Conserved Three-Nucleotide Core Motif Defines Musashi Rna Binding Specificity, Nancy Zearfoss, Laura Deveau, Carina Clingman, Eric Schmidt, Emily Johnson, Francesca Massi, Sean Ryder Sep 2015

A Conserved Three-Nucleotide Core Motif Defines Musashi Rna Binding Specificity, Nancy Zearfoss, Laura Deveau, Carina Clingman, Eric Schmidt, Emily Johnson, Francesca Massi, Sean Ryder

Sean P. Ryder

Musashi (MSI) family proteins control cell proliferation and differentiation in many biological systems. They are overexpressed in tumors of several origins, and their expression level correlates with poor prognosis. MSI proteins control gene expression by binding RNA and regulating its translation. They contain two RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains, which recognize a defined sequence element. The relative contribution of each nucleotide to the binding affinity and specificity is unknown. We analyzed the binding specificity of three MSI family RRM domains using a quantitative fluorescence anisotropy assay. We found that the core element driving recognition is the sequence UAG. Nucleotides outside ...


Hnrnp A1 And Secondary Structure Coordinate Alternative Splicing Of Mag, Nancy Zearfoss, Emily Johnson, Sean Ryder May 2015

Hnrnp A1 And Secondary Structure Coordinate Alternative Splicing Of Mag, Nancy Zearfoss, Emily Johnson, Sean Ryder

Sean P. Ryder

Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is a major component of myelin in the vertebrate central nervous system. MAG is present in the periaxonal region of the myelin structure, where it interacts with neuronal proteins to inhibit axon outgrowth and protect neurons from degeneration. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of Mag mRNA have been identified. The mRNA encoding the shorter isoform, known as S-MAG, contains a termination codon in exon 12, while the mRNA encoding the longer isoform, known as L-MAG, skips exon 12 and produces a protein with a longer C-terminal region. L-MAG is required in the central nervous system. How inclusion of ...


A Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Dna-Binding Protein For A Class Ii Gene In B Cells Is Distinct From Nf-Kappa B, Ellen M. Gravallese, Mark R. Boothby, Cynthia M. Smas, Laurie H. Glimcher Apr 2015

A Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Dna-Binding Protein For A Class Ii Gene In B Cells Is Distinct From Nf-Kappa B, Ellen M. Gravallese, Mark R. Boothby, Cynthia M. Smas, Laurie H. Glimcher

Ellen M. Gravallese

Class II (Ia) major histocompatibility complex molecules are cell surface proteins normally expressed by a limited subset of cells of the immune system. These molecules regulate the activation of T cells and are required for the presentation of antigens and the initiation of immune responses. The expression of Ia in B cells is determined by both the developmental stage of the B cell and by certain external stimuli. It has been demonstrated previously that treatment of B cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in increased surface expression of Ia protein. However, we have confirmed that LPS treatment results in a significant ...


Evolution Of The Influenza A Virus Genome During Development Of Oseltamivir Resistance In Vitro, Nicholas Renzette, Daniel Caffrey, Konstantin Zeldovich, Ping Liu, Glen Gallagher, Daniel Aiello, Alyssa Porter, Evelyn Kurt-Jones, Daniel Bolon, Yu-Ping Poh, Jeffrey Jensen, Celia Schiffer, Timothy Kowalik, Robert Finberg, Jennifer Wang Mar 2015

Evolution Of The Influenza A Virus Genome During Development Of Oseltamivir Resistance In Vitro, Nicholas Renzette, Daniel Caffrey, Konstantin Zeldovich, Ping Liu, Glen Gallagher, Daniel Aiello, Alyssa Porter, Evelyn Kurt-Jones, Daniel Bolon, Yu-Ping Poh, Jeffrey Jensen, Celia Schiffer, Timothy Kowalik, Robert Finberg, Jennifer Wang

Glen R. Gallagher

Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Current antiviral therapies include oseltamivir, a neuraminidase inhibitor that prevents the release of nascent viral particles from infected cells. However, the IAV genome can evolve rapidly, and oseltamivir resistance mutations have been detected in numerous clinical samples. Using an in vitro evolution platform and whole-genome population sequencing, we investigated the population genomics of IAV during the development of oseltamivir resistance. Strain A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1) was grown in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells with or without escalating concentrations of oseltamivir over serial passages. Following drug ...


Evolution Of The Influenza A Virus Genome During Development Of Oseltamivir Resistance In Vitro, Nicholas Renzette, Daniel R. Caffrey, Konstantin B. Zeldovich, Ping Liu, Glen R. Gallagher, Daniel Aiello, Alyssa J. Porter, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Daniel N. Bolon, Yu-Ping Poh, Jeffrey D. Jensen, Celia A. Schiffer, Timothy F. Kowalik, Robert W. Finberg, Jennifer P. Wang Jan 2015

Evolution Of The Influenza A Virus Genome During Development Of Oseltamivir Resistance In Vitro, Nicholas Renzette, Daniel R. Caffrey, Konstantin B. Zeldovich, Ping Liu, Glen R. Gallagher, Daniel Aiello, Alyssa J. Porter, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Daniel N. Bolon, Yu-Ping Poh, Jeffrey D. Jensen, Celia A. Schiffer, Timothy F. Kowalik, Robert W. Finberg, Jennifer P. Wang

Celia A. Schiffer

Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Current antiviral therapies include oseltamivir, a neuraminidase inhibitor that prevents the release of nascent viral particles from infected cells. However, the IAV genome can evolve rapidly, and oseltamivir resistance mutations have been detected in numerous clinical samples. Using an in vitro evolution platform and whole-genome population sequencing, we investigated the population genomics of IAV during the development of oseltamivir resistance. Strain A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1) was grown in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells with or without escalating concentrations of oseltamivir over serial passages. Following drug ...


Atrial Fibrillation: Biophysics, Molecular Mechanisms, And Novel Therapies., Alexey V. Glukhov, Leonid V. Rosenshtraukh, Anamika Bhargava, Michele Miragoli, Bas J. D. Boukens Jan 2015

Atrial Fibrillation: Biophysics, Molecular Mechanisms, And Novel Therapies., Alexey V. Glukhov, Leonid V. Rosenshtraukh, Anamika Bhargava, Michele Miragoli, Bas J. D. Boukens

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Nuclear Pore Component Nup98 Is A Potential Tumor Suppressor And Regulates Posttranscriptional Expression Of Select P53 Target Genes, Stephan Singer, Ruiying Zhao, Anthony M. Barsotti, Anette Ouwehand, Mina Fazollahi, Elias Coutavas, Kai Breuhahn, Olaf Neumann, Thomas Longerich, Tobias Pusterla, Maureen A. Powers, Keith M. Giles, Peter J. Leedman, Jochen Hess, David Grunwald, Harmen J. Bussemaker, Robert H. Singer, Peter Schirmacher, Carol Prives Nov 2014

Nuclear Pore Component Nup98 Is A Potential Tumor Suppressor And Regulates Posttranscriptional Expression Of Select P53 Target Genes, Stephan Singer, Ruiying Zhao, Anthony M. Barsotti, Anette Ouwehand, Mina Fazollahi, Elias Coutavas, Kai Breuhahn, Olaf Neumann, Thomas Longerich, Tobias Pusterla, Maureen A. Powers, Keith M. Giles, Peter J. Leedman, Jochen Hess, David Grunwald, Harmen J. Bussemaker, Robert H. Singer, Peter Schirmacher, Carol Prives

David Grünwald

The p53 tumor suppressor utilizes multiple mechanisms to selectively regulate its myriad target genes, which in turn mediate diverse cellular processes. Here, using conventional and single-molecule mRNA analyses, we demonstrate that the nucleoporin Nup98 is required for full expression of p21, a key effector of the p53 pathway, but not several other p53 target genes. Nup98 regulates p21 mRNA levels by a posttranscriptional mechanism in which a complex containing Nup98 and the p21 mRNA 3'UTR protects p21 mRNA from degradation by the exosome. An in silico approach revealed another p53 target (14-3-3sigma) to be similarly regulated by Nup98. The ...


Kynurenine Aminotransferase Iii And Glutamine Transaminase L Are Identical Enzymes That Have Cysteine S-Conjugate Beta-Lyase Activity And Can Transaminate L-Selenomethionine, John T. Pinto, Boris F. Krasnikov, Steven Alcutt, Melanie E. Jones, Thambi Dorai, Arthur J L Cooper Nov 2014

Kynurenine Aminotransferase Iii And Glutamine Transaminase L Are Identical Enzymes That Have Cysteine S-Conjugate Beta-Lyase Activity And Can Transaminate L-Selenomethionine, John T. Pinto, Boris F. Krasnikov, Steven Alcutt, Melanie E. Jones, Thambi Dorai, Arthur J L Cooper

NYMC Faculty Publications

Three of the four kynurenine aminotransferases (KAT I, II, and IV) that synthesize kynurenic acid, a neuromodulator, are identical to glutamine transaminase K (GTK), α-aminoadipate aminotransferase, and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, respectively. GTK/KAT I and aspartate aminotransferase/KAT IV possess cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity. The gene for the former enzyme, GTK/KAT I, is listed in mammalian genome data banks as CCBL1 (cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 1). Also listed, despite the fact that no β-lyase activity has been assigned to the encoded protein in the genome data bank, is a CCBL2 (synonym KAT III). We show that human KAT III/CCBL2 ...


Id2 Complexes With The Snag Domain Of Snai1 Inhibiting Snai1-Mediated Repression Of Integrin Beta4, Cheng Chang, Xiaofang Yang, Bryan Pursell, Arthur M. Mercurio Nov 2014

Id2 Complexes With The Snag Domain Of Snai1 Inhibiting Snai1-Mediated Repression Of Integrin Beta4, Cheng Chang, Xiaofang Yang, Bryan Pursell, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental process that underlies development and cancer. Although the EMT involves alterations in the expression of specific integrins that mediate stable adhesion to the basement membrane, such as alpha6beta4, the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here, we report that Snai1 inhibits beta4 transcription by increasing repressive histone modification (trimethylation of histone H3 at K27 [H3K27Me3]). Surprisingly, Snai1 is expressed and localized in the nucleus in epithelial cells, but it does not repress beta4. We resolved this paradox by discovering that Id2 complexes with the SNAG domain of Snai1 on the beta4 promoter and constrains ...


Large-Scale Identification Of Chemically Induced Mutations In Drosophila Melanogaster., Nele A Haelterman, Lichun Jiang, Yumei Li, Vafa Bayat, Hector Sandoval, Berrak Ugur, Kai Li Tan, Ke Zhang, Danqing Bei, Bo Xiong, Wu-Lin Charng, Theodore Busby, Adeel Jawaid, Gabriela David, Manish Jaiswal, Koen J T Venken, Shinya Yamamoto, Rui Chen, Hugo J Bellen Oct 2014

Large-Scale Identification Of Chemically Induced Mutations In Drosophila Melanogaster., Nele A Haelterman, Lichun Jiang, Yumei Li, Vafa Bayat, Hector Sandoval, Berrak Ugur, Kai Li Tan, Ke Zhang, Danqing Bei, Bo Xiong, Wu-Lin Charng, Theodore Busby, Adeel Jawaid, Gabriela David, Manish Jaiswal, Koen J T Venken, Shinya Yamamoto, Rui Chen, Hugo J Bellen

Baylor Faculty Publications

Forward genetic screens using chemical mutagens have been successful in defining the function of thousands of genes in eukaryotic model organisms. The main drawback of this strategy is the time-consuming identification of the molecular lesions causative of the phenotypes of interest. With whole-genome sequencing (WGS), it is now possible to sequence hundreds of strains, but determining which mutations are causative among thousands of polymorphisms remains challenging. We have sequenced 394 mutant strains, generated in a chemical mutagenesis screen, for essential genes on the Drosophila X chromosome and describe strategies to reduce the number of candidate mutations from an average of ...


Thiosulfoxide (Sulfane) Sulfur: New Chemistry And New Regulatory Roles In Biology, John I. Toohey, Arthur J L Cooper Aug 2014

Thiosulfoxide (Sulfane) Sulfur: New Chemistry And New Regulatory Roles In Biology, John I. Toohey, Arthur J L Cooper

NYMC Faculty Publications

The understanding of sulfur bonding is undergoing change. Old theories on hypervalency of sulfur and the nature of the chalcogen-chalcogen bond are now questioned. At the same time, there is a rapidly expanding literature on the effects of sulfur in regulating biological systems. The two fields are inter-related because the new understanding of the thiosulfoxide bond helps to explain the newfound roles of sulfur in biology. This review examines the nature of thiosulfoxide (sulfane, S0) sulfur, the history of its regulatory role, its generation in biological systems, and its functions in cells. The functions include synthesis of cofactors (molybdenum cofactor ...


Tlr4 Signaling Is Involved In Brain Vascular Toxicity Of Pcb153 Bound To Nanoparticles, Bei Zhang, Jeong June Choi, Sung Yong Eum, Sylvia Daunert, Michal Toborek May 2013

Tlr4 Signaling Is Involved In Brain Vascular Toxicity Of Pcb153 Bound To Nanoparticles, Bei Zhang, Jeong June Choi, Sung Yong Eum, Sylvia Daunert, Michal Toborek

Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

PCBs bind to environmental particles; however, potential toxicity exhibited by such complexes is not well understood. The aim of the present study is to study the hypothesis that assembling onto nanoparticles can influence the PCB153-induced brain endothelial toxicity via interaction with the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). To address this hypothesis, TLR4-deficient and wild type control mice (males, 10 week old) were exposed to PCB153 (5 ng/g body weight) bound to chemically inert silica nanoparticles (PCB153-NPs), PCB153 alone, silica nanoparticles (NPs; diameter, 20 nm), or vehicle. Selected animals were also subjected to 40 min ischemia, followed by a 24 h ...


Dual Recognition Of The Ribosome And The Signal Recognition Particle By The Srp Receptor During Protein Targeting To The Endoplasmic Reticulum, Elisabet C. Mandon, Ying Jiang, Reid Gilmore Feb 2012

Dual Recognition Of The Ribosome And The Signal Recognition Particle By The Srp Receptor During Protein Targeting To The Endoplasmic Reticulum, Elisabet C. Mandon, Ying Jiang, Reid Gilmore

Elisabet Mandon

We have analyzed the interactions between the signal recognition particle (SRP), the SRP receptor (SR), and the ribosome using GTPase assays, biosensor experiments, and ribosome binding assays. Possible mechanisms that could contribute to an enhanced affinity between the SR and the SRP-ribosome nascent chain complex to promote protein translocation under physiological ionic strength conditions have been explored. Ribosomes or 60S large ribosomal subunits activate the GTPase cycle of SRP54 and SRalpha by providing a platform for assembly of the SRP-SR complex. Biosensor experiments revealed high-affinity, saturable binding of ribosomes or large ribosomal subunits to the SR. Remarkably, the SR has ...


Methamphetamine Administration Targets Multiple Immune Subsets And Induces Phenotypic Alterations Suggestive Of Immunosuppression., Robert Z. Harms, Brenda M. Morsey, Craig W. Boyer, Howard S. Fox, Nora E. Sarvetnick Jan 2012

Methamphetamine Administration Targets Multiple Immune Subsets And Induces Phenotypic Alterations Suggestive Of Immunosuppression., Robert Z. Harms, Brenda M. Morsey, Craig W. Boyer, Howard S. Fox, Nora E. Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

Methamphetamine (Meth) is a widely abused stimulant and its users are at increased risk for multiple infectious diseases. To determine the impact of meth on the immune system, we utilized a murine model that simulates the process of meth consumption in a typical addict. Our phenotypic analysis of leukocytes from this dose escalation model revealed that meth affected key immune subsets. Meth administration led to a decrease in abundance of natural killer (NK) cells and the remaining NK cells possessed a phenotype suggesting reduced responsiveness. Dendritic cells (DCs) and Gr-1(high) monocytes/macrophages were also decreased in abundance while Gr-1 ...


Differential Il-21 Signaling In Apcs Leads To Disparate Th17 Differentiation In Diabetes-Susceptible Nod And Diabetes-Resistant Nod.Idd3 Mice., Sue M. Liu, David H. Lee, Jenna M. Sullivan, Denise Chung, Anneli Jäger, Bennett O V. Shum, Nora E. Sarvetnick, Ana C. Anderson, Vijay K. Kuchroo Nov 2011

Differential Il-21 Signaling In Apcs Leads To Disparate Th17 Differentiation In Diabetes-Susceptible Nod And Diabetes-Resistant Nod.Idd3 Mice., Sue M. Liu, David H. Lee, Jenna M. Sullivan, Denise Chung, Anneli Jäger, Bennett O V. Shum, Nora E. Sarvetnick, Ana C. Anderson, Vijay K. Kuchroo

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that shows familial aggregation in humans and likely has genetic determinants. Disease linkage studies have revealed many susceptibility loci for T1D in mice and humans. The mouse T1D susceptibility locus insulin-dependent diabetes susceptibility 3 (Idd3), which has a homologous genetic interval in humans, encodes cytokine genes Il2 and Il21 and regulates diabetes and other autoimmune diseases; however, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of this regulation are still being elucidated. Here we show that T cells from NOD mice produce more Il21 and less Il2 and exhibit enhanced Th17 cell generation compared with ...


The Incidence Of Type-1 Diabetes In Nod Mice Is Modulated By Restricted Flora Not Germ-Free Conditions., Cecile King, Nora Sarvetnick Jan 2011

The Incidence Of Type-1 Diabetes In Nod Mice Is Modulated By Restricted Flora Not Germ-Free Conditions., Cecile King, Nora Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

In the NOD mouse, the incidence of type-1 diabetes is thought to be influenced by the degree of cleanliness of the mouse colony. Studies collectively demonstrate that exposure to bacterial antigen or infection in the neonatal period prevents diabetes [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], supporting the notion that immunostimulation can benefit the maturation of the postnatal immune system [11]. A widely accepted extrapolation from this data has been the notion that NOD mice maintained under germ-free conditions have an increased incidence of diabetes. However, evidence supporting this influential concept is surprisingly limited [12]. In this ...


Molecular Characterisation Of Canine Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug-Activated Gene (Nag-1), K Yamaguchi, Nichelle Whitlock, Jason Liggett, Alfred Legendre, Michael Fry, Seung Baek Dec 2010

Molecular Characterisation Of Canine Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug-Activated Gene (Nag-1), K Yamaguchi, Nichelle Whitlock, Jason Liggett, Alfred Legendre, Michael Fry, Seung Baek

Alfred M Legendre DVM, MS, DACVIM

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-activated gene (NAG-1), a divergent member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, was previously identified as a gene induced by several anti-tumorigenic compounds, including NSAIDs and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) ligands in humans. In this study, canine NAG-1 was characterised from a canine genomic database. Gene induction by some NSAIDs and PPARgamma ligands was demonstrated in canine osteosarcoma cell lines. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that canine NAG-1 is more homologous with the corresponding mouse and rat genes than with human NAG-1. Expression of canine NAG-1 was increased by treatment with piroxicam and SC-560 (NSAIDs) and ...


Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Ligand Mcc-555 Suppresses Intestinal Polyps In Apcmin/+ Mice Via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase And Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Dependent Pathways, K Yamaguchi, Maria Cekanova, Michael Mcentee, J Yoon, S Fischer, I Renes, I Van Seungnigen, Seung Baek Oct 2010

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Ligand Mcc-555 Suppresses Intestinal Polyps In Apcmin/+ Mice Via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase And Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Dependent Pathways, K Yamaguchi, Maria Cekanova, Michael Mcentee, J Yoon, S Fischer, I Renes, I Van Seungnigen, Seung Baek

Maria Cekanova MS, RNDr, PhD

A large body of studies has suggested that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) ligands, such as thiazolidinedione, are potent candidates for chemopreventive agents. MCC-555 is a PPARgamma/alpha dual agonist and has been shown previously to induce apoptosis in vitro; however, the molecular mechanisms by which MCC-555 affects antitumorigenesis in vivo are poorly understood. In this study, we explored the antitumorigenic effects of MCC-555 both in cell culture and in Apc-deficient mice, an animal model for human familial adenomatous polyposis. MCC-555 increased MUC2 expression in colorectal and lung cancer cells, and treatment with the PPARgamma antagonist GW9662 revealed that MUC2 ...


The Mir-15/107 Group Of Microrna Genes: Evolutionary Biology, Cellular Functions, And Roles In Human Diseases, John R. Finnerty, Wang-Xia Wang, Sébastien S. Hébert, Bernard R. Wilfred, Guogen Mao, Peter T. Nelson Sep 2010

The Mir-15/107 Group Of Microrna Genes: Evolutionary Biology, Cellular Functions, And Roles In Human Diseases, John R. Finnerty, Wang-Xia Wang, Sébastien S. Hébert, Bernard R. Wilfred, Guogen Mao, Peter T. Nelson

Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Faculty Publications

The miR-15/107 group of microRNA (miRNA) gene is increasingly appreciated to serve key functions in humans. These miRNAs regulate gene expression involved in cell division, metabolism, stress response, and angiogenesis in vertebrate species. The miR-15/107 group has also been implicated in human cancers, cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative disease, including Alzheimer's disease. Here we provide an overview of the following: (1) the evolution of miR-15/107 group member genes; (2) the expression levels of miRNAs in mammalian tissues; (3) evidence for overlapping gene-regulatory functions by different miRNAs; (4) the normal biochemical pathways regulated by miR-15/107 group miRNAs ...


Mimosa: A System For Minimotif Annotation, Jay Vyas, Ronald J. Nowling, Thomas Meusburger, David P. Sargeant, Krishna Kadaveru, Michael R. Gryk, Vamsi Kundeti, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Martin Schiller May 2010

Mimosa: A System For Minimotif Annotation, Jay Vyas, Ronald J. Nowling, Thomas Meusburger, David P. Sargeant, Krishna Kadaveru, Michael R. Gryk, Vamsi Kundeti, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Martin Schiller

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND:

Minimotifs are short peptide sequences within one protein, which are recognized by other proteins or molecules. While there are now several minimotif databases, they are incomplete. There are reports of many minimotifs in the primary literature, which have yet to be annotated, while entirely novel minimotifs continue to be published on a weekly basis. Our recently proposed function and sequence syntax for minimotifs enables us to build a general tool that will facilitate structured annotation and management of minimotif data from the biomedical literature.

RESULTS:

We have built the MimoSA application for minimotif annotation. The application supports management of ...


Partitioning Of Minimotifs Based On Function With Improved Prediction Accuracy, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Tian Mi, Jerlin Camilus Merlin, Aaron Oommen, Patrick R. Gradie, Martin R. Schiller Apr 2010

Partitioning Of Minimotifs Based On Function With Improved Prediction Accuracy, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Tian Mi, Jerlin Camilus Merlin, Aaron Oommen, Patrick R. Gradie, Martin R. Schiller

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Background

Minimotifs are short contiguous peptide sequences in proteins that are known to have a function in at least one other protein. One of the principal limitations in minimotif prediction is that false positives limit the usefulness of this approach. As a step toward resolving this problem we have built, implemented, and tested a new data-driven algorithm that reduces false-positive predictions.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Certain domains and minimotifs are known to be strongly associated with a known cellular process or molecular function. Therefore, we hypothesized that by restricting minimotif predictions to those where the minimotif containing protein and target protein ...


Electroporation-Mediated Delivery Of A Naked Dna Plasmid Expressing Vegf To The Porcine Heart Enhances Protein Expression, W. G. Marshall Jr., B. A. Boone, J. D. Burgos, S. I. Gografe, M. K. Baldwin, M. L. Danielson, M. J. Larson, D. R. Caretto, Y. Cruz, B. Ferraro, L. C. Heller, K. E. Ugen, M. J. Jaroszeski, R. Heller Jan 2010

Electroporation-Mediated Delivery Of A Naked Dna Plasmid Expressing Vegf To The Porcine Heart Enhances Protein Expression, W. G. Marshall Jr., B. A. Boone, J. D. Burgos, S. I. Gografe, M. K. Baldwin, M. L. Danielson, M. J. Larson, D. R. Caretto, Y. Cruz, B. Ferraro, L. C. Heller, K. E. Ugen, M. J. Jaroszeski, R. Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

Gene therapy is an attractive method for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, using current strategies, induction of gene expression at therapeutic levels is often inefficient. In this study, we show a novel electroporation (EP) method to enhance the delivery of a plasmid expressing an angiogenic growth factor (vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF), which is a molecule previously documented to stimulate revascularization in coronary artery disease. DNA expression plasmids were delivered in vivo to the porcine heart with or without coadministered EP to determine the potential effect of electrically mediated delivery. The results showed that plasmid delivery through EP significantly ...