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Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Investigating The Roles Of Fucosylation And Calcium Signaling In Melanoma Invasion, Tyler S. Keeley Nov 2018

Investigating The Roles Of Fucosylation And Calcium Signaling In Melanoma Invasion, Tyler S. Keeley

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer. Prognosis for early stage melanoma patients is excellent, and surgery is often curative for these patients. However, once patients have presented with invasive disease, the average 5-year survival rate drops significantly from over 90% to between 10 and 15%. Several therapies have been developed to target a commonly mutated oncogene BRAF, or its downstream effectors. Unfortunately, while these treatments show robust initial response, most patients relapse within a year. Moreover, therapy-resistant tumors are often more invasive and metastatic. Therefore, it is important to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying melanoma invasion and metastasis ...


Investigating The Role Of The Rna Binding Protein Lin28 In The Human Placenta: Implications For Preeclampsia, John Canfield Nov 2018

Investigating The Role Of The Rna Binding Protein Lin28 In The Human Placenta: Implications For Preeclampsia, John Canfield

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

An essential event during early pregnancy is the invasion of trophoblasts into the maternal decidua, which is necessary for proper implantation and establishment of maternal-fetal interface and ultimately allows for proper nutrient exchange and immunological tolerance of the growing fetus. For this invasion to occur, cells originating from the trophectoderm undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition to become invasive extravillous trophoblasts and begin invading the uterine decidual tissue. Through the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases and through interactions with many cytokines and cell-adhesion molecules, this well-orchestrated process of trophoblast invasion results in extensive remodeling of the maternal spiral vasculature by the ...


The Role Of Phosphohistidine Phosphatase 1 In Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury, Daniel Richard Martin Apr 2018

The Role Of Phosphohistidine Phosphatase 1 In Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury, Daniel Richard Martin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Chronic liver diseases, which includes alcoholic liver disease (ALD), are consistently among the top 15 leading causes of death in the United States. ALD is characterized by progression from a normal liver to fatty liver disease (hepatic steatosis), which can lead to cirrhosis, alcoholic hepatitis, and liver failure. We have identified a novel role of phosphohistidine signaling, mediated through phosphohistidine phosphatase 1 (PHPT1), in the onset of hepatic steatosis. We have identified PHPT1 as a target of selective oxidation following acute ethanol exposure as well as being downregulated following chronic ethanol exposure. We mapped the oxidative modification site and developed ...


Investigation Of Alcohol-Induced Changes In Hepatic Histone Modifications Using Mass Spectrometry Based Proteomics, Crystina Leah Kriss Apr 2018

Investigation Of Alcohol-Induced Changes In Hepatic Histone Modifications Using Mass Spectrometry Based Proteomics, Crystina Leah Kriss

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Alcohol liver disease (ALD) is a major health concern throughout the world. Currently, in the United States, 17 million people suffer from alcoholism, of which 1.4 million people are receiving treatment [1, 2]. The link between ethanol metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and liver injury in ALD has been well characterized over the last couple decades [3-10]. Ethanol metabolism relies on the availability of the cofactor NAD+ for the oxidation of ethanol into acetate, consequently causing alterations in redox potential. Redox dysfunction within the mitochondria can affect multiple pathways important in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Chapter 1 provides an introduction ...


Elastin-Like Polypeptide Fusion Tag As A Protein-Dependent Solubility Enhancer Of Cysteine-Knot Growth Factors, Tamina L. Johnson Apr 2018

Elastin-Like Polypeptide Fusion Tag As A Protein-Dependent Solubility Enhancer Of Cysteine-Knot Growth Factors, Tamina L. Johnson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Elastin-like peptide (ELP) fusions promote therapeutic delivery and efficacy. Recombinant proteins, like neurotrophins, lack bioavailability, have short in vivo half-lives, and require high manufacturing costs. Fusing recombinant proteins with genetically encodable ELPs will increase bioavailability, enhance in vivo solubilization, as well as provide a cost-effective method for purification without the need for chromatography. During expression of neurotrophin-ELP (N-ELP) fusions, dense water-insoluble aggregates known as inclusion bodies (IBs) are formed. Inclusion bodies are partially and misfolded proteins that usually require denaturants like Urea for solubilization. Strong denaturants arrest ELPs stimuli-responsive property and increase unwanted aggregation, making purification difficult, yet possible. The ...


Molecular Mechanisms Governing Plant Parasitic Nematode Signaling And Host Parasitism, Stacey Nicola Barnes Jan 2018

Molecular Mechanisms Governing Plant Parasitic Nematode Signaling And Host Parasitism, Stacey Nicola Barnes

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Pathogen infection of crops causes large-scale annual yield losses for farmers worldwide and hinders global efforts to provide adequate amounts of nutrition for the ever-growing human population. Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) are among some of the most devastating pathogens due to their ability to parasitize an expansive variety of agriculturally important crops. In order to identify ways to attenuate PPN infection and limit yield losses it is vital that we increase our understanding of host-PPN interactions. Here we investigate the molecular mechanisms that are occurring both within PPN and at the interface between PPN and their host plants.

Research into PPN-derived ...


Comparison And Evaluation Of Two Rapid Diagnostic Assays For The Identification Of Mycoplasma Species, Aric James Mcdaniel Jan 2018

Comparison And Evaluation Of Two Rapid Diagnostic Assays For The Identification Of Mycoplasma Species, Aric James Mcdaniel

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Members of the class Mollicutes are unique among bacteria in that they are unable to synthesize a cell wall. These organisms are also difficult to culture and very slow-growing with some species requiring up to 40 days to culture. Many of these bacteria are also significant pathogens in humans and animals, so rapid identification of isolates is a necessary diagnostic step. Many different tests are used for identification of pathogenic Mollicutes (primarily Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species), however most tests are not cost or time efficient. Two relatively recent diagnostic tools are matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and ...


Investigating The Interplay Of Physiological And Molecular Mechanisms Underpinning Programmable Aspects Of Heat Stress In Pigs, Jacob Seibert Jan 2018

Investigating The Interplay Of Physiological And Molecular Mechanisms Underpinning Programmable Aspects Of Heat Stress In Pigs, Jacob Seibert

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Heat stress (HS) undermines production efficiency in all animal agriculture, culminating in major economic losses annually. The effects of HS in pigs is realized through depressed growth, altered body composition, and impaired reproductive performance. Pigs, unlike other mammals, do not possess functional sweat glands, making them rely on other mechanisms to thermoregulate during a heat challenge. Continual investigation of hyperthermia in pigs is crucial for developing new strategies and/or technologies that mitigate the effects of HS imposed on the pork industry. The studies conducted in this dissertation investigate the complex interplay of whole-animal physiology as well as cellular and ...


Characterization Of A Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I And Galnac Transferase Deficiency Double Knockout Mouse, Karan Gera Jan 2018

Characterization Of A Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I And Galnac Transferase Deficiency Double Knockout Mouse, Karan Gera

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are a group of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) which are characterized by the aberrant primary storage of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in lysosomes of multiple organ and tissue systems. The most commonly diagnosed is MPS Type I (MPS I), caused by mutations in the gene which codes for α-L-iduronidase (IDUA). Biochemically, MPS I is characterized by the aberrant primary lysosomal storage of incompletely degraded dermatan and heparan sulfates, along with a secondary accumulation of gangliosides and other compounds in lysosomes. Its clinical manifestation in severe form leads to early death, characterized by progressive central nervous system disease (with behavioral ...


Using Genomic And Gene Expression Methods To Understand The Phenotypic Response Of Soybean To Sudden Death Syndrome Caused By Fusarium Virguliforme, Alexander Stephen Luckew Jan 2018

Using Genomic And Gene Expression Methods To Understand The Phenotypic Response Of Soybean To Sudden Death Syndrome Caused By Fusarium Virguliforme, Alexander Stephen Luckew

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) is one of the most important soybean diseases in the Midwestern United States, leading to average losses of $396 million per year from 1996 to 2015. The causal agent of SDS, soilborne fungus Fusarium virguliforme (Fv), causes root rot symptoms and releases phytotoxins taken up by the plant to produce chlorosis and necrosis in the leaves. The main management practice used to reduce the impact of SDS is planting resistant soybean cultivars. Resistance to SDS is known to be quantitative with 88 known quantitative trait loci (QTL) based on Soybase.org. Many of these QTL ...


Impact Of Acute Heat Treatment On Autophagy And Insulin Signaling In C2c12 Myotubes, Corey Michael Summers Jan 2018

Impact Of Acute Heat Treatment On Autophagy And Insulin Signaling In C2c12 Myotubes, Corey Michael Summers

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes is reduced skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. It is known that exercise and caloric restriction can improve skeletal muscle insulin resistance, but the mechanism by which this occurs is not completely elucidated. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), is thought to be a major contributor to the metabolic benefits observed after exercise training and caloric restriction. Activation of AMPK in skeletal muscle can have a wide range of effects, one of which is the initiation of macroautophagy (herein referred to as autophagy). Autophagy is the bulk degradation system of the cell ...