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Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

New Open Conformation Of Smyd3 Implicates Conformational Selection And Allostery, Nicholas Spellmon, Xiaonan Sun, Wen Xue, Joshua Holcomb, Srinivas Chakravarthy, Weifeng Shang, Brian Fp Edwards, Nualpun Sirinupong, Chunying Li, Zhe Yang Dec 2016

New Open Conformation Of Smyd3 Implicates Conformational Selection And Allostery, Nicholas Spellmon, Xiaonan Sun, Wen Xue, Joshua Holcomb, Srinivas Chakravarthy, Weifeng Shang, Brian Fp Edwards, Nualpun Sirinupong, Chunying Li, Zhe Yang

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

SMYD3 plays a key role in cancer cell viability, adhesion, migration and invasion. SMYD3 promotes formation of inducible regulatory T cells and is involved in reducing autoimmunity. However, the nearly “closed” substrate-binding site and poor in vitro H3K4 methyltransferase activity have obscured further understanding of this oncogenically related protein. Here we reveal that SMYD3 can adopt an “open” conformation using molecular dynamics simulation and small-angle X-ray scattering. This ligand-binding-capable open state is related to the crystal structure-like closed state by a striking clamshell-like inter-lobe dynamics. The two states are characterized by many distinct structural and dynamical differences and the conformational ...


Epigenetic Characterization Of Human Retina Cells, Nicholas R. Dunham May 2016

Epigenetic Characterization Of Human Retina Cells, Nicholas R. Dunham

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

DNA methylation is an epigenetic modifier that modulates gene expression in plant and vertebrate genomes. The aim of this study was to characterize the role of DNA methylation in the human retina, particularly within rod and cone photoreceptor retinal neurons. Previous studies investigating DNA methylation in murine retinal cells and retina-derived human retinoblastoma immortalized cell culture lines demonstrate an inverse relationship between DNA methylation and transcriptional activity. Here, we used gene-specific bisulfite pyrosequencing analysis to measure DNA methylation in the genomes of human ocular cells in an effort to characterize the role of this important epigenetic modifier. These results can ...


Preeclampsia: The Roles Of Acute Inflammation And Intrauterine Stress, Nicholas Parchim May 2016

Preeclampsia: The Roles Of Acute Inflammation And Intrauterine Stress, Nicholas Parchim

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Preeclampsia (PE) is a severe, acute disease of pregnancy affecting approximately 8% of pregnant women after week 20 of gestation. PE is characterized by hypertension and renal damage reflected by proteinuria and has significant morbidity to both mother and fetus. Maternal symptoms range from headaches, nausea, edema, to visual changes, but once maternal symptoms present, damage to the fetus has begun. Mothers who progress untreated through the disease can also experience a condition called eclampsia characterized by seizure, coma, and, ultimately, death. PE-affected newborns experience features similar to prematurity—abnormal lung and renal development, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and, possibly ...


Epigenetic Regulation Of Gene Expression During Spermatogenesis, Karishma Nayak May 2016

Epigenetic Regulation Of Gene Expression During Spermatogenesis, Karishma Nayak

Senior Honors Projects

In the US livestock production industry, improving reproductive efficiency will improve animal welfare and maintain reasonable costs of meat and milk for consumers. In recent research, abnormalities in epigenetic markers in sperm during spermatogenesis, has been linked to male subfertility in many species. Epigenetics is the study of changes in organisms caused by modifications of gene expression, including DNA methylation, rather than alteration of the genetic code itself. When this process is disturbed, it can negatively impact semen therefore decreasing its fertility. Through further research on how DNA methylation influences gene expression during spermatogenesis and its impact on sperm quality ...


An Analysis Of The Interaction Between Sin3 And Methionine Metabolism In Drosophila, Mengying Liu Jan 2016

An Analysis Of The Interaction Between Sin3 And Methionine Metabolism In Drosophila, Mengying Liu

Wayne State University Dissertations

Chromatin modification and cellular metabolism are tightly connected. The mechanism for this cross-talk, however, remains incompletely understood. SIN3 controls histone acetylation through association with the histone deacetylase RPD3. In this study, my major goal is to explore the mechanism of how SIN3 regulates cellular metabolism.

Methionine metabolism generates the major methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) for histone methylation. In collaboration with others, I report that reduced levels of some enzymes involved in methionine metabolism and histone demethylases lead to lethality, as well as wing development and cell proliferation defects in Drosophila melanogaster. Additionally, disruption of methionine metabolism can directly affect histone ...


The Mitotic Genome: Accessibility And Transcriptional Control, Chris Hsiung Jan 2016

The Mitotic Genome: Accessibility And Transcriptional Control, Chris Hsiung

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Mitosis entails dramatic global alterations to genome structure and regulation, including

chromosome condensation, dissociation of the transcriptional machinery from chromosomes, and transcriptional silencing. Here I report studies that address the macromolecular accessibility of the mitotic genome and the control of transcriptional reactivation upon mitotic exit in a mammalian cell line. The results obtained from measuring the sensitivity of chromatin to DNase I cleavage by sequencing (DNase-seq) in pure mitotic cell populations demonstrate that macromolecular accessibility of the mitotic genome is widely preserved. Thus, steric hindrance from chromatin condensation is insufficient for explaining the eviction of transcription factors from mitotic chromatin ...


Interplay Between P53 And Epigenetic Pathways In Cancer, Jiajun Zhu Jan 2016

Interplay Between P53 And Epigenetic Pathways In Cancer, Jiajun Zhu

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The human TP53 gene encodes the most potent tumor suppressor protein p53. More than half of all human cancers contain mutations in the TP53 gene, while the majority of the remaining cases involve other mechanisms to inactivate wild-type p53 function. In the first part of my dissertation research, I have explored the mechanism of suppressed wild-type p53 activity in teratocarcinoma. In the teratocarcinoma cell line NTera2, we show that wild-type p53 is mono-methylated at Lysine 370 and Lysine 382. These post-translational modifications contribute to the compromised tumor suppressive activity of p53 despite a high level of wild-type protein in NTera2 ...


Epigenetic Regulation Of The Dlk1-Meg3 Imprinted Locus In Human Islets, Vasumathi Kameswaran Jan 2016

Epigenetic Regulation Of The Dlk1-Meg3 Imprinted Locus In Human Islets, Vasumathi Kameswaran

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex metabolic disease characterized by inadequate insulin secretion by the pancreatic β-cell in response to increased blood glucose levels. Despite compelling evidence that T2DM has a high rate of familial aggregation, known genetic risk variants account for less than 10% of the observed heritability. Consequently, post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, including microRNAs and other noncoding RNAs, have been implicated in the etiology of T2DM, in part due to their ability to simultaneously regulate the expression of hundreds of targets.

To determine if microRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of human T2DM, I sequenced ...


Deciphering The Tetrad Of Epigenetic Cytosine Modifications, Monica Yun Liu Jan 2016

Deciphering The Tetrad Of Epigenetic Cytosine Modifications, Monica Yun Liu

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

A tetrad of epigenetic cytosine modifications imbues the DNA code with complex, dynamic meaning. DNA methyltransferase enzymes deposit methyl marks on the 5-carbon of cytosine, forming 5-methylcytosine (mC), which generally mediates long-term, locus-specific transcriptional repression during development and reprogramming. Ten-eleven translocation (TET) family enzymes oxidize the methyl group in three steps, forming predominantly 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC) but also low levels of 5-formylcytosine (fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (caC). These additional bases likely provide pathways for erasing methylation, but they may also harbor epigenetic functions in their own right. Questions regarding how each base forms and functions drive at the fundamental biology of the ...


Linking Acetyl-Coa Metabolism And Histone Acetylation To Dynamic Gene Regulation In Yeast And Mouse Hippocampus, Philipp Mews Jan 2016

Linking Acetyl-Coa Metabolism And Histone Acetylation To Dynamic Gene Regulation In Yeast And Mouse Hippocampus, Philipp Mews

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

A compelling body of evidence suggests an intimate relationship between metabolic state and chromatin regulation. This link is manifested in key metabolites that participate in biochemical pathways as intermediates, and function as cofactors to regulate chromatin modifying enzymes. Of particular interest is the metabolite acetyl-CoA, given its central role as an intermediate of cellular energy metabolism and key determinant of all histone acetylation. How nuclear acetyl-CoA levels are regulated to, in turn, control histone acetylation is under intense investigation, and holds promise for increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms adapting gene expression to internal and external stimuli. We studied the ...