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2014

Cell Biology

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Articles 1 - 30 of 72

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Understanding Ten-Eleven Translocation-2 In Hematological And Nervous Systems, Feng Pan Dec 2014

Understanding Ten-Eleven Translocation-2 In Hematological And Nervous Systems, Feng Pan

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

I proposed the study of two distinct aspects of Ten-Eleven Translocation 2 (TET2) protein for understanding specific functions in different body systems.

In Part I, I characterized the molecular mechanisms of Tet2 in the hematological system. As the second member of Ten-Eleven Translocation protein family, TET2 is frequently mutated in leukemic patients. Previous studies have shown that the TET2 mutations frequently occur in 20% myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN), 10% T-cell lymphoma leukemia and 2% B-cell lymphoma leukemia. Genetic mouse models also display distinct phenotypes of various types of hematological malignancies. I performed 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq ...


The Role Of Nag-1 In Tumorigenesis, Kyung-Won Min Dec 2014

The Role Of Nag-1 In Tumorigenesis, Kyung-Won Min

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation explores the nature of a divergent member of the Transforming Growth Factor-β [beta] superfamily, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs activated gene (NAG-1), as it relates to its regulation and biological activity in cancer context. Our lab has extensively studied on the molecular mechanism by which phytochemicals and NSAIDs induce apoptosis correlation with NAG-1 expression in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Significant data from in vitro studies suggest that NAG-1 has an anti-tumorigenic activity which elicits apoptosis in a cyclooxygenase (COX)-independent manner in CRC cells. Indeed, NAG-1 transgenic mice developed less aberrant polyp foci (APC) compared to those of ...


Investigation Of Nuclear And Cytoplasmic Functions Of The Dlipin Protein Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Qiuyu Chen Dec 2014

Investigation Of Nuclear And Cytoplasmic Functions Of The Dlipin Protein Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Qiuyu Chen

Theses and Dissertations

Lipin family proteins are highly conserved proteins present in species ranging from mammals to yeast. Lipin 1, the first Lipin gene identified in fatty liver dystrophy (fld) mutant mice, encodes the bifunctional protein Lipin 1, which can serve as an Mg2+-dependent phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) and transcriptional co-regulator. dLipin, the single Lipin ortholog of Drosophila melanogaster, is required in triglyceride synthesis and fat body development. To study the transcriptional co-regulator activity of dLipin, nuclear receptors were screened to find receptors that interact with dLipin. The genetic interaction data indicated that Drosophila hepatic nuclear receptor 4 (HNF4) was a promising ...


Novel Posttranslational Modification In Lkb1 Activation And Function, Szu-Wei Lee Dec 2014

Novel Posttranslational Modification In Lkb1 Activation And Function, Szu-Wei Lee

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cancer cells display dramatic alterations in cellular metabolism to meet their needs of increased growth and proliferation. In the last decade, cancer research has brought these pathways into focus, and one emerging issue that has come to attention is that many oncogenes and tumor-suppressors are intimately linked to metabolic regulation (Jones and Thompson, 2009). One of the key tumor-suppressors involved in metabolism is Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1). LKB1 is the major upstream kinase of the evolutionarily conserved metabolic sensor—AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Activation of the LKB1/AMPK pathway provides a survival advantage for cells under energy stress. LKB1 forms ...


Nuclear Transport Of Single Molecules: Dwell Times At The Nuclear Pore Complex, Ulrich Kubitscheck, David Grunwald, Andreas Hoekstra, Daniel Rohleder, Thorsten Kues, Jan Peter Siebrasse, Reiner Peters Nov 2014

Nuclear Transport Of Single Molecules: Dwell Times At The Nuclear Pore Complex, Ulrich Kubitscheck, David Grunwald, Andreas Hoekstra, Daniel Rohleder, Thorsten Kues, Jan Peter Siebrasse, Reiner Peters

David Grünwald

The mechanism by which macromolecules are selectively translocated through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is still essentially unresolved. Single molecule methods can provide unique information on topographic properties and kinetic processes of asynchronous supramolecular assemblies with excellent spatial and time resolution. Here, single-molecule far-field fluorescence microscopy was applied to the NPC of permeabilized cells. The nucleoporin Nup358 could be localized at a distance of 70 nm from POM121-GFP along the NPC axis. Binding sites of NTF2, the transport receptor of RanGDP, were observed in cytoplasmic filaments and central framework, but not nucleoplasmic filaments of the NPC. The dwell times of ...


Intranuclear Binding Kinetics And Mobility Of Single Native U1 Snrnp Particles In Living Cells, David Grunwald, Beatrice Spottke, Volker Buschmann, Ulrich Kubitscheck Nov 2014

Intranuclear Binding Kinetics And Mobility Of Single Native U1 Snrnp Particles In Living Cells, David Grunwald, Beatrice Spottke, Volker Buschmann, Ulrich Kubitscheck

David Grünwald

Uridine-rich small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (U snRNPs) are splicing factors, which are diffusely distributed in the nucleoplasm and also concentrated in nuclear speckles. Fluorescently labeled, native U1 snRNPs were microinjected into the cytoplasm of living HeLa cells. After nuclear import single U1 snRNPs could be visualized and tracked at a spatial precision of 30 nm at a frame rate of 200 Hz employing a custom-built microscope with single-molecule sensitivity. The single-particle tracks revealed that most U1 snRNPs were bound to specific intranuclear sites, many of those presumably representing pre-mRNA splicing sites. The dissociation kinetics from these sites showed a multiexponential decay ...


Autonomy And Robustness Of Translocation Through The Nuclear Pore Complex: A Single-Molecule Study, Thomas Dange, David Grunwald, Antje Grunwald, Reiner Peters, Ulrich Kubitscheck Nov 2014

Autonomy And Robustness Of Translocation Through The Nuclear Pore Complex: A Single-Molecule Study, Thomas Dange, David Grunwald, Antje Grunwald, Reiner Peters, Ulrich Kubitscheck

David Grünwald

All molecular traffic between nucleus and cytoplasm occurs via the nuclear pore complex (NPC) within the nuclear envelope. In this study we analyzed the interactions of the nuclear transport receptors kapalpha2, kapbeta1, kapbeta1DeltaN44, and kapbeta2, and the model transport substrate, BSA-NLS, with NPCs to determine binding sites and kinetics using single-molecule microscopy in living cells. Recombinant transport receptors and BSA-NLS were fluorescently labeled by AlexaFluor 488, and microinjected into the cytoplasm of living HeLa cells expressing POM121-GFP as a nuclear pore marker. After bleaching the dominant GFP fluorescence the interactions of the microinjected molecules could be studied using video microscopy ...


Nuclear Pore Component Nup98 Is A Potential Tumor Suppressor And Regulates Posttranscriptional Expression Of Select P53 Target Genes, Stephan Singer, Ruiying Zhao, Anthony M. Barsotti, Anette Ouwehand, Mina Fazollahi, Elias Coutavas, Kai Breuhahn, Olaf Neumann, Thomas Longerich, Tobias Pusterla, Maureen A. Powers, Keith M. Giles, Peter J. Leedman, Jochen Hess, David Grunwald, Harmen J. Bussemaker, Robert H. Singer, Peter Schirmacher, Carol Prives Nov 2014

Nuclear Pore Component Nup98 Is A Potential Tumor Suppressor And Regulates Posttranscriptional Expression Of Select P53 Target Genes, Stephan Singer, Ruiying Zhao, Anthony M. Barsotti, Anette Ouwehand, Mina Fazollahi, Elias Coutavas, Kai Breuhahn, Olaf Neumann, Thomas Longerich, Tobias Pusterla, Maureen A. Powers, Keith M. Giles, Peter J. Leedman, Jochen Hess, David Grunwald, Harmen J. Bussemaker, Robert H. Singer, Peter Schirmacher, Carol Prives

David Grünwald

The p53 tumor suppressor utilizes multiple mechanisms to selectively regulate its myriad target genes, which in turn mediate diverse cellular processes. Here, using conventional and single-molecule mRNA analyses, we demonstrate that the nucleoporin Nup98 is required for full expression of p21, a key effector of the p53 pathway, but not several other p53 target genes. Nup98 regulates p21 mRNA levels by a posttranscriptional mechanism in which a complex containing Nup98 and the p21 mRNA 3'UTR protects p21 mRNA from degradation by the exosome. An in silico approach revealed another p53 target (14-3-3sigma) to be similarly regulated by Nup98. The ...


Quantitative Analysis Of App Axonal Transport In Neurons: Role Of Jip1 In Enhanced App Anterograde Transport, Kyoko Chiba, Masahiko Araseki, Keisuke Nozawa, Keiko Furukori, Yoichi Araki, Takahide Matsushima, Tadashi Nakaya, Saori Hata, Yuhki Saito, Seiichi Uchida, Yasushi Okada, Angus C. Nairn, Roger J. Davis, Tohru Yamamoto, Masataka Kinjo, Hidenori Taru, Toshiharu Suzuki Nov 2014

Quantitative Analysis Of App Axonal Transport In Neurons: Role Of Jip1 In Enhanced App Anterograde Transport, Kyoko Chiba, Masahiko Araseki, Keisuke Nozawa, Keiko Furukori, Yoichi Araki, Takahide Matsushima, Tadashi Nakaya, Saori Hata, Yuhki Saito, Seiichi Uchida, Yasushi Okada, Angus C. Nairn, Roger J. Davis, Tohru Yamamoto, Masataka Kinjo, Hidenori Taru, Toshiharu Suzuki

Davis Lab Publications

Alzheimer's beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) associates with kinesin-1 via JNK-interacting protein 1 (JIP1); however, the role of JIP1 in APP transport by kinesin-1 in neurons remains unclear. We performed a quantitative analysis to understand the role of JIP1 in APP axonal transport. In JIP1-deficient neurons, we find that both the fast velocity ( approximately 2.7 mum/s) and high frequency (66%) of anterograde transport of APP cargo are impaired to a reduced velocity ( approximately 1.83 mum/s) and a lower frequency (45%). We identified two novel elements linked to JIP1 function, located in the central region of JIP1b ...


Id2 Complexes With The Snag Domain Of Snai1 Inhibiting Snai1-Mediated Repression Of Integrin Beta4, Cheng Chang, Xiaofang Yang, Bryan Pursell, Arthur M. Mercurio Nov 2014

Id2 Complexes With The Snag Domain Of Snai1 Inhibiting Snai1-Mediated Repression Of Integrin Beta4, Cheng Chang, Xiaofang Yang, Bryan Pursell, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental process that underlies development and cancer. Although the EMT involves alterations in the expression of specific integrins that mediate stable adhesion to the basement membrane, such as alpha6beta4, the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here, we report that Snai1 inhibits beta4 transcription by increasing repressive histone modification (trimethylation of histone H3 at K27 [H3K27Me3]). Surprisingly, Snai1 is expressed and localized in the nucleus in epithelial cells, but it does not repress beta4. We resolved this paradox by discovering that Id2 complexes with the SNAG domain of Snai1 on the beta4 promoter and constrains ...


Differential Muscle Hypertrophy Is Associated With Satellite Cell Numbers And Akt Pathway Activation Following Activin Type Iib Receptor Inhibition In Mtm1 P.R69c Mice, Michael Lawlor, Marissa Viola, Hui Meng, Rachel Edelstein, Fujun Liu, Ke Yan, Elizabeth Luna, Alexandra Lerch-Gaggl, Raymond Hoffmann, Christopher Pierson, Anna Buj-Bello, Jennifer Lachey, Scott Pearsall, Lin Yang, Cecilia Hillard, Alan Beggs Oct 2014

Differential Muscle Hypertrophy Is Associated With Satellite Cell Numbers And Akt Pathway Activation Following Activin Type Iib Receptor Inhibition In Mtm1 P.R69c Mice, Michael Lawlor, Marissa Viola, Hui Meng, Rachel Edelstein, Fujun Liu, Ke Yan, Elizabeth Luna, Alexandra Lerch-Gaggl, Raymond Hoffmann, Christopher Pierson, Anna Buj-Bello, Jennifer Lachey, Scott Pearsall, Lin Yang, Cecilia Hillard, Alan Beggs

Elizabeth J. Luna

X-linked myotubular myopathy is a congenital myopathy caused by deficiency of myotubularin. Patients often present with severe perinatal weakness, requiring mechanical ventilation to prevent death from respiratory failure. We recently reported that an activin receptor type IIB inhibitor produced hypertrophy of type 2b myofibers and modest increases of strength and life span in the severely myopathic Mtm1δ4 mouse model of X-linked myotubular myopathy. We have now performed a similar study in the less severely symptomatic Mtm1 p.R69C mouse in hopes of finding greater treatment efficacy. Activin receptor type IIB inhibitor treatment of Mtm1 p.R69C animals produced behavioral and ...


Reassessment Of The Role Of Tsc, Mtorc1 And Micrornas In Amino Acids-Meditated Translational Control Of Top Mrnas, Ilona Patursky-Polischuk, Judith Kasir, Rachel Miloslavski, Zvi Hayouka, Mirit Hausner-Hanochi, Miri Stolovich-Rain, Pinchas Tsukerman, Moshe Biton, Rajini R. Mudhasani, Stephen N. Jones, Oded Meyuhas Oct 2014

Reassessment Of The Role Of Tsc, Mtorc1 And Micrornas In Amino Acids-Meditated Translational Control Of Top Mrnas, Ilona Patursky-Polischuk, Judith Kasir, Rachel Miloslavski, Zvi Hayouka, Mirit Hausner-Hanochi, Miri Stolovich-Rain, Pinchas Tsukerman, Moshe Biton, Rajini R. Mudhasani, Stephen N. Jones, Oded Meyuhas

Open Access Articles

TOP mRNAs encode components of the translational apparatus, and repression of their translation comprises one mechanism, by which cells encountering amino acid deprivation downregulate the biosynthesis of the protein synthesis machinery. This mode of regulation involves TSC as knockout of TSC1 or TSC2 rescued TOP mRNAs translation in amino acid-starved cells. The involvement of mTOR in translational control of TOP mRNAs is demonstrated by the ability of constitutively active mTOR to relieve the translational repression of TOP mRNA upon amino acid deprivation. Consistently, knockdown of this kinase as well as its inhibition by pharmacological means blocked amino acid-induced translational activation ...


Regulation Of Cdk1 Activity During The G1/S Transition In S. Cerevisiae Through Specific Cyclin-Substrate Docking: A Dissertation, Samyabrata Bhaduri Oct 2014

Regulation Of Cdk1 Activity During The G1/S Transition In S. Cerevisiae Through Specific Cyclin-Substrate Docking: A Dissertation, Samyabrata Bhaduri

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Several cell cycle events require specific forms of the cyclin-CDK complexes. It has been known for some time that cyclins not only contribute by activating the CDK but also by choosing substrates and/or specifying the location of the CDK holoenzyme. There are several examples of B-type cyclins identifying certain peptide motifs in their specific substrates through a conserved region in their structure. Such interactions were not known for the G1 class of cyclins, which are instrumental in helping the cell decide whether or not to commit to a new cell cycle, a function that is non-redundant with B-type cylins ...


Associated Behavioral, Genetic, And Gene Expression Variation With Alternative Life History Tactics In Salmonid Fishes, Ashley Chin-Baarstad Oct 2014

Associated Behavioral, Genetic, And Gene Expression Variation With Alternative Life History Tactics In Salmonid Fishes, Ashley Chin-Baarstad

Open Access Dissertations

Individual differences in behavior can have potential fitness consequences and often reflect underlying genetic variation. My research focuses on three objectives related to individual level variation: 1) evaluating the innate behavioral variation within and between individuals, families, and progeny of different life-history types across time; 2) testing for differences in gene expression within the brain associated with this behavioral variation; and 3) using genetic polymorphisms to test for associations with ecotype, as well as population structure, in polymorphic populations. First, we evaluated the variation in a suite of ecologically relevant behaviors across time in juvenile progeny produced from crosses within ...


Small Rnas And Argonautes Provide A Paternal Epigenetic Memory Of Germline Gene Expression To Promote Thermotolerant Male Fertility: A Dissertation, Colin C. Conine Sep 2014

Small Rnas And Argonautes Provide A Paternal Epigenetic Memory Of Germline Gene Expression To Promote Thermotolerant Male Fertility: A Dissertation, Colin C. Conine

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

During each life cycle, gametes must preserve and pass on both genetic and epigenetic information, making the germline both immortal and totipotent. In the male germline the dramatic morphological transformation of a germ cell through meiosis, into a sperm competent for fertilization, while retaining this information is an incredible example of cellular differentiation. This process of spermatogenesis is inherently thermosensitive in numerous metazoa ranging from worms to man. Here, I describe the role of two redundant AGO-class paralogs, ALG-3/4, and their small RNA cofactors, in promoting thermotolerant male fertility in Caenorhabditis elegans. alg-3/4 double mutants exhibit temperature dependent ...


Role And Regulation Of Snon/Skil And Plscr1 Located At 3q26.2 And 3q23, Respectively, In Ovarian Cancer Pathophysiology, Madhav Karthik Kodigepalli Sep 2014

Role And Regulation Of Snon/Skil And Plscr1 Located At 3q26.2 And 3q23, Respectively, In Ovarian Cancer Pathophysiology, Madhav Karthik Kodigepalli

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ovarian cancer is one of the most common causes of gynecological cancer related deaths in women. In 2014, the estimated number of deaths due to ovarian cancer is 14,270 with occurrence of over 22, 240 new cases (National Cancer Institute, http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/ovary.html). Despite improvement in treatment strategies, the 5-year survival rate is still below 50% mainly due to chemoresistance and relapse. Amplification of chromosomal region 3q26 is a common characteristic in various epithelial cancers including ovarian cancer. This region harbors various oncogenes including the TGFβ signaling mediators EVI1 and SnoN/SkiL, PKCι and ...


A Separable Domain Of The P150 Subunit Of Human Chromatin Assembly Factor-1 Promotes Protein And Chromosome Associations With Nucleoli, Corey L. Smith, Timothy D. Matheson, Daniel J. Trombly, Xiaoming Sun, Eric Campeau, Xuemei Han, John R. Yates Iii, Paul D. Kaufman Sep 2014

A Separable Domain Of The P150 Subunit Of Human Chromatin Assembly Factor-1 Promotes Protein And Chromosome Associations With Nucleoli, Corey L. Smith, Timothy D. Matheson, Daniel J. Trombly, Xiaoming Sun, Eric Campeau, Xuemei Han, John R. Yates Iii, Paul D. Kaufman

Program in Gene Function and Expression Publications and Presentations

Chromatin Assembly Factor-1 (CAF-1) is a three-subunit protein complex conserved throughout eukaryotes that deposits histones during DNA synthesis. Here, we present a novel role for the human p150 subunit in regulating nucleolar macromolecular interactions. Acute depletion of p150 causes redistribution of multiple nucleolar proteins and reduces nucleolar association with several repetitive element-containing loci. Notably, a point mutation in a SUMO-interacting motif (SIM) within p150 abolishes nucleolar associations, whereas PCNA or HP1 interaction sites within p150 are not required for these interactions. Additionally, acute depletion of SUMO-2 or the SUMO E2 ligase Ubc9 reduces alpha-satellite DNA association with nucleoli. The nucleolar ...


Transcriptional Regulation Of Sinorhizobium Meliloti Cell Cycle-Related Genes In The Δcbra Mutant And Root Nodules Of Medicago Sativa, Corey S. Hazekamp Aug 2014

Transcriptional Regulation Of Sinorhizobium Meliloti Cell Cycle-Related Genes In The Δcbra Mutant And Root Nodules Of Medicago Sativa, Corey S. Hazekamp

Graduate Masters Theses

Sinorhizobium meliloti is a Gram-negative alphaproteobacterium and nitrogen-fixing symbiont, which undergoes a novel cell cycle modification during its' host-microbe interaction. I intend to monitor the transcriptional regulation of cell cycle-related genes during free-loving growth, in addition to monitoring their expression during symbiosis. Using genes known to be regulated by CtrA in C. crescentus or predicted to be regulated by CtrA in S. meliloti, I aim to show how certain cell cycle genes are regulated in S. meliloti. In C. crescentus, CtrA acts as a transcription factor that is active when phosphorylated and inactive when not phosphorylated. In S. meliloti, CbrA ...


Elucidating The Signalling Pathway Of Mer Tyrosine Kinase Receptor In Efferocytosis, Ekenedelichukwu Azu Aug 2014

Elucidating The Signalling Pathway Of Mer Tyrosine Kinase Receptor In Efferocytosis, Ekenedelichukwu Azu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Efferocytosis is the clearance of apoptotic cells and is necessary for homeostasis. Mer Tyrosine Kinase (MerTK) is a crucial efferocytic receptor whose loss is associated with chronic inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity. While previous studies have shown that MerTK mediates efferocytosis through a unique mechanism that requires integrins, MerTK signalling pathway remains unknown. Given this unusual internalization mechanism, I hypothesized that MerTK signals and engages integrins through a novel signalling pathway different from that used by other phagocytic receptors. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the signalling pathways activated by MerTK, utilizing conventional cell biology and pharmacological approaches.

I found that ...


Development Of Peripheral Innervation In The Frog Xenopus Laevis, Mitali A. Gandhi Aug 2014

Development Of Peripheral Innervation In The Frog Xenopus Laevis, Mitali A. Gandhi

Theses and Dissertations

The skin in Xenopus laevis is innervated by two different sets of mechanosensory neurons at different times during development. Rohon Beard (RB) neurons start differentiating during gastrulation, innervate the embryonic skin and mediate sensory function during hatching. Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) neurons start differentiating after neural crest migration, innervate adult epidermal targets and mediate mechanosensory function during larval and adult stages and eventually replace RB neurons. The change in sensory neurons occurs during the transformation of skin, sensory structures, and behavior from their embryonic to their larval forms. We hypothesized that developmental changes in either the sensory end organs or ...


Roles For B-Raf Kinase In The Specific Regulation Of Α4Β1 Integrin In T Cells, Wells S. Brown Aug 2014

Roles For B-Raf Kinase In The Specific Regulation Of Α4Β1 Integrin In T Cells, Wells S. Brown

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The regulation of integrin-mediated adhesion is of vital importance to adaptive and innate immunity. Integrins are versatile proteins and mediate T cell migration and trafficking by binding to ECM or other cells, as well as initiating intracellular signaling cascades promoting survival or activation. The mitogen activated-protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is known to be downstream from integrins and regulate survival, differentiation, and motility. However, secondary roles for canonical MAPK pathway members are being discovered. We show chemical inhibition of RAF by Sorafenib or shRNA-mediated knockdown of B-Raf reduces T cell resistance to shear stress to α4β1 integrin ligands vascular cell adhesion ...


Egfr Modulates Microrna Maturation In Response To Hypoxia Through Phosphorylation Of Argonaute2, Jia Shen Aug 2014

Egfr Modulates Microrna Maturation In Response To Hypoxia Through Phosphorylation Of Argonaute2, Jia Shen

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are generated by two-step processing to yield small RNAs that negatively regulate target gene expression at posttranscriptional level. Deregulation of miRNAs has been linked to diverse pathological processes, including cancer. Recent studies have also implicated miRNAs in regulatory roles to cope with a spectrum of stresses, such as hypoxia, which is frequently encountered in the poorly angiogenic core of a solid tumor. However, the upstream regulators of miRNA biogenesis machineries remain obscure, raising the question of how tumor cells efficiently coordinate and impose specificity on miRNA expression and function in response to stresses. Here, we show that EGFR ...


Energy Stress Causes Chaperones To Assemble Into Cytoplasmic Complexes, Kimberly J. Cope Aug 2014

Energy Stress Causes Chaperones To Assemble Into Cytoplasmic Complexes, Kimberly J. Cope

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The majority of proteins require molecular chaperones to assist their folding into tertiary and quaternary structures. Certain stresses can compromise the weak hydrophobic forces responsible for these structures and lead to protein unfolding, misfolding, and aggregation. Aggregates of proteins are hallmarks of devastating diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s diseases. Fortunately, bacteria, plants, and fungi have a potent disaggregase, named Hsp104 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recently, heat-induced aggregates, termed Q-bodies, were found to contain three molecular chaperones: Hsp70, Hsp104, and Hsp42. Their coalescence from small puncta into larger inclusions required Hsp104. During glucose deprivation, a stress that ...


Antiviral Responses In Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells: Differential Development Of Cellular Mechanisms In Type I Interferon Production And Response, Ruoxing Wang Aug 2014

Antiviral Responses In Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells: Differential Development Of Cellular Mechanisms In Type I Interferon Production And Response, Ruoxing Wang

Dissertations

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have been recognized as a promising cell source for regenerative medicine. Intensive research over the past decade has led to the possibility that ESC-derived cells will be used for the treatment of human diseases. However, increasing evidence indicates that ESC-derived cells generated by the current differentiation methods are not fully functional. It is recently recognized that ESC-derived cells lack innate immunity to a wide range of infectious agents and inflammatory cytokines. When used in patients, ESC-derived cells would be placed in wounded sites that are exposed to various pathogens and inflammatory cytokines; therefore, their viability and ...


Key Residues Of Human Cytoplasmic Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase-A And -B For Substrate Binding And Specificity, Byunghyun Park Jul 2014

Key Residues Of Human Cytoplasmic Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase-A And -B For Substrate Binding And Specificity, Byunghyun Park

Open Access Theses

Reversible tyrosine phosphorylation plays an important role in signaling pathways that are essential for regulating cellular growth, differentiation and metabolism. Moreover, several human diseases such as diabetes, obesity and cancers are associated with the deregulation of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Several studies provide evidence that PTPs not only contribute to cellular differentiation, but over-expression of these molecules also leads to transformation of non-transfomed cells as well. Based on these results, designing specific PTP inhibitors may ultimately function as potential therapeutic agents to treat various diseases including cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. EphA2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase which is hypo-phosphorylated ...


Signaling Functions Of Beta-Arrestin Kurtz In Drosophila Development, Marla Tipping Jun 2014

Signaling Functions Of Beta-Arrestin Kurtz In Drosophila Development, Marla Tipping

Marla Tipping, Ph.D.

The development of an organism is orchestrated by a small number of signaling pathways. In order to achieve tissue specificity, their activities are controlled by multiple regulatory molecules that fine-tune pathway output and increase the specificity of signaling. To better understand how these pathways function it is imperative that we strive to elucidate all signaling components. Affinity purification followed by Mass Spectrometry (AP-MS) has proved itself as a suitable technique in achieving this aim. Analysis of the Notch pathway via this method has identified Drosophila β-arrestin Kurtz (Krz) as a negative modulator of the pathway. I have further studied Krz ...


Functional Analysis Of Cytosolic Hsp70 Nucleotide Exchange Factor Networks In Yeast, Jennifer Lynn Abrams May 2014

Functional Analysis Of Cytosolic Hsp70 Nucleotide Exchange Factor Networks In Yeast, Jennifer Lynn Abrams

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The Hsp70 class of molecular chaperones play critical roles in protein homeostasis via an ATP-dependent folding cycle. Cytosolic Hsp70s in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ssa and Ssb, interact with up to three distinct nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) homologous to human counterparts; Sse1/Sse2/HSP110, Fes1/HspBP1, and Snl1/Bag1. In an effort to understand the differential functional contributions of the cytosolic NEFs to protein homeostasis (“proteostasis”), I carried out comparative genetic, biochemical and cell biological analyses. For these studies, I developed protocols to monitor protein disaggregation and reactivation in a near real-time coupled assay that revealed the importance of ...


Characterization Of Ftsa-Ftsn Interaction During Escherichia Coli Cell Division, Kimberly.Busiek@Gmail.Com K. Busiek May 2014

Characterization Of Ftsa-Ftsn Interaction During Escherichia Coli Cell Division, Kimberly.Busiek@Gmail.Com K. Busiek

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Division of a bacterial cell into two equal daughter cells requires precise assembly and constriction of the division machinery, or divisome. The Escherichia coli divisome includes nearly a dozen essential cell division proteins that assemble at midcell between segregating sister chromosomes. FtsZ, a homolog of eukaryotic tubulin, is the first essential cell division protein to localize at midcell where it polymerizes into a ring-shaped scaffold (Z ring). Establishment of the Z ring is required for recruitment of downstream cell division proteins including FtsA, a cytoplasmic protein that tethers the Z ring to the inner membrane. Following localization of FtsA and ...


Molecular Chaperone Tools For Use Against Neurodegenerative Diseases, Matthew Tinkham May 2014

Molecular Chaperone Tools For Use Against Neurodegenerative Diseases, Matthew Tinkham

Senior Honors Projects

A noted characteristic found in several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, Huntington’s Disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy, is the accumulation of amyloid plaques in the brain. Amyloid plaques contain deposits of fibrillar aggregates of misfolded proteins that disrupt normal functionality in neurons. Certain variants of these misfolded proteins are self-replicating; these self-replicating amyloids are termed prions (for infectious protein). We are interested in how protein misfolding contributes to amyloid formation and how molecular chaperone proteins can change the formation of amyloid deposits. Chaperone proteins function by catalyzing the proper folding of other proteins, the refolding ...


Defining The Sites Of Interaction Of The Fancd2, Fance, And Fancl Proteins, Joseph Mcclanaghan May 2014

Defining The Sites Of Interaction Of The Fancd2, Fance, And Fancl Proteins, Joseph Mcclanaghan

Senior Honors Projects

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disease characterized by congenital defects, bone marrow failure and increased cancer susceptibility. FA is caused by mutations in any one of 16 genes. These genes encode for proteins that function in the FA-BRCA pathway to repair damaged DNA. Because of its important r­­­ole in DNA repair, this pathway is considered a major cellular tumor suppressor pathway, i.e. is critical for the prevention of cancer. Underscoring this fact, several of the FA genes - including BRCA2, BRIP1, PALB2, and RAD51C - are bona fide breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes.

My project involves studying ...