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2002

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Articles 1 - 30 of 45

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Ccr4-Bearing T Cells Participate In Autoimmune Diabetes., Soon H. Kim, Mary M. Cleary, Howard S. Fox, Icos Coporation, Nora Sarvetnick Dec 2002

Ccr4-Bearing T Cells Participate In Autoimmune Diabetes., Soon H. Kim, Mary M. Cleary, Howard S. Fox, Icos Coporation, Nora Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

Chemokine receptor expression is exquisitely regulated on T cell subsets during the course of their migration to inflammatory sites. In the present study we demonstrate that CCR4 expression marks a pathogenic population of autoimmune T cells. CCR4 was found exclusively on memory CD4(+) T cells during the progression of disease in NOD mice. Cells expressing the CCR4 ligand TARC (thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine) were detected within infiltrated islets from prediabetic mice. Interestingly, neutralization of macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) with Ab caused a significant reduction of CCR4-positive T cells within the pancreatic infiltrates and inhibited the development of insulitis and diabetes. Furthermore ...


Signal Recognition Particle Rna Localization Within The Nucleolus Differs From The Classical Sites Of Ribosome Synthesis, Joan C. Ritland Politz, Laura B. Lewandowski, Thoru Pederson Nov 2002

Signal Recognition Particle Rna Localization Within The Nucleolus Differs From The Classical Sites Of Ribosome Synthesis, Joan C. Ritland Politz, Laura B. Lewandowski, Thoru Pederson

Open Access Articles

The nucleolus is the site of ribosome biosynthesis, but is now known to have other functions as well. In the present study we have investigated how the distribution of signal recognition particle (SRP) RNA within the nucleolus relates to the known sites of ribosomal RNA synthesis, processing, and nascent ribosome assembly (i.e., the fibrillar centers, the dense fibrillar component (DFC), and the granular component). Very little SRP RNA was detected in fibrillar centers or the DFC of the nucleolus, as defined by the RNA polymerase I-specific upstream binding factor and the protein fibrillarin, respectively. Some SRP RNA was present ...


A Bulged Stem Tethers Est1p To Telomerase Rna In Budding Yeast, Anita G. Seto, April J. Livengood, Yehuda Tzfati, Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Thomas R. Cech Nov 2002

A Bulged Stem Tethers Est1p To Telomerase Rna In Budding Yeast, Anita G. Seto, April J. Livengood, Yehuda Tzfati, Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Thomas R. Cech

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Contributions (1986-2018)

It is well established that the template for telomeric DNA synthesis is provided by the RNA subunit of telomerase; however, the additional functions provided by most of the rest of the RNA (>1000 nucleotides in budding yeast) are largely unknown. By alignment of telomerase RNAs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and sixKluyveromycesspecies followed by mutagenesis of the S. cerevisiae RNA, we found a conserved region that is essential for telomere maintenance. Phylogenetic analysis and computer folding revealed that this region is conserved not only in primary nucleotide sequence but also in secondary structure. A common bulged-stem structure was predicted in ...


Plant Rac-Like Gtpases Are Activated By Auxin And Mediate Auxin-Responsive Gene Expression, L. Z. Tao, Alice Cheung, H. M. Wu Oct 2002

Plant Rac-Like Gtpases Are Activated By Auxin And Mediate Auxin-Responsive Gene Expression, L. Z. Tao, Alice Cheung, H. M. Wu

Alice Cheung

The auxin indole-3-acetic acid is a key plant hormone essential for a broad range of growth and developmental processes. Here, we show that auxin activates Rac-like GTPases (referred to as Rac/Rop GTPases), and they in turn stimulate auxin-responsive gene expression. In particular, we show that overexpressing a wild-type tobacco Rac/Rop GTPase, NtRac1, and its constitutively active mutant form activates auxin-responsive gene expression. On the other hand, overexpressing dominant-negative NtRac1 and Rac-negative regulators, or reducing the endogenous NtRac1 level, suppresses auxin-induced gene expression. Furthermore, overexpression of NtRac1 activity or suppression of its expression in transgenic seedlings induces phenotypes that ...


Electrically Mediated Delivery Of Vector Plasmid Dna Elicits An Antitumor Effect, L. Heller, D. Coppola Oct 2002

Electrically Mediated Delivery Of Vector Plasmid Dna Elicits An Antitumor Effect, L. Heller, D. Coppola

Bioelectrics Publications

In vivo electroporation is an efficient means of increasing plasmid DNA delivery to normal tissues, such as skin and muscle, as well as directly to tumors. In the experiments described here, plasmid DNA was delivered by in vivo electroporation to B16 mouse melanomas using two very different pulsing protocols. Reporter expression increased 21- or 42-fold, respectively with electroporation over injection alone. The growth of experimental melanomas with an approximate diameter of 4 mm on the day of treatment was monitored after electroporation delivery of reporter plasmid DNA. Remarkably, short-term complete regressions using one of these pulsing protocols occurred in up ...


A Comparison Of The Low Mode And Monte Carlo Conformational Search Methods, Carol A. Parish, Rosina Lombardi, Kent Sinclair, Emelyn Smith, Alla Goldberg, Melissa Rappleye, Myrianne Dure Oct 2002

A Comparison Of The Low Mode And Monte Carlo Conformational Search Methods, Carol A. Parish, Rosina Lombardi, Kent Sinclair, Emelyn Smith, Alla Goldberg, Melissa Rappleye, Myrianne Dure

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The Low Mode (LM) and Monte Carlo (MC) conformational search methods were compared on three diverse molecular systems; (4R, 5S, 6S, 7R)-hexahydro-5,6-dihydroxy-1,3,4,7-tetrakis(phenylmethyl)-2H-1,3-diazapin-2-one (1), 2-methoxy-2-phenyl-2-triflouromethyl-N-α-methyl benzyl propanamide (2) and a trimeric 39-membered polyazamacrolide (3). We find that either method, or a combination of the methods, is equally efficient at searching the conformational space of the smaller molecular systems while a 50:50 hybrid of Low Mode and Monte Carlo is most efficient at searching the space of the larger molecular system.


Solution And Micelle-Bound Structures Of Tachyplesin I And Its Active Aromatic Linear Derivatives, Alain Laederach, Amy H. Andreotti, D. Bruce Fulton Sep 2002

Solution And Micelle-Bound Structures Of Tachyplesin I And Its Active Aromatic Linear Derivatives, Alain Laederach, Amy H. Andreotti, D. Bruce Fulton

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Tachyplesin I is a 17-residue peptide isolated from the horseshoe crab, Tachyplesus tridentatus. It has high antimicrobial activity and adopts a β-hairpin conformation in solution stabilized by two cross-strand disulfide bonds. We report an NMR structural investigation of wild-type tachyplesin I and three linear derivatives (denoted TPY4, TPF4, and TPA4 in which the bridging cysteine residues are uniformly replaced with tyrosine, phenylalanine, and alanine, respectively). The three-dimensional aqueous solution structures of the wild type and the active variant TPY4 reveal very similar β-hairpin conformations. In contrast, the inactive variant TPA4 is unstructured in solution. The arrangement of the tyrosine side ...


The Regulation Of Actin Organization By Actin-Depolymerizing Factor In Elongating Pollen Tubes, C. Y. Chen, E. I. Wong, L. Vidali, A. Estavillo, P. K. Hepler, H. M. Wu, Alice Cheung Aug 2002

The Regulation Of Actin Organization By Actin-Depolymerizing Factor In Elongating Pollen Tubes, C. Y. Chen, E. I. Wong, L. Vidali, A. Estavillo, P. K. Hepler, H. M. Wu, Alice Cheung

Alice Cheung

Pollen tube elongation is a polarized cell growth process that transports the male gametes from the stigma to the ovary for fertilization inside the ovules. Actomyosin-driven intracellular trafficking and active actin remodeling in the apical and subapical regions of pollen tubes are both important aspects of this rapid tip growth process. Actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF) and cofilin are actin binding proteins that enhance the depolymerization of microfilaments at their minus, or slow-growing, ends. A pollen-specific ADF from tobacco, NtADF1, was used to dissect the role of ADF in pollen tube growth. Overexpression of NtADF1 resulted in the reduction of fine, axially ...


Jun Dimerization Protein 2 Functions As A Progesterone Receptor N-Terminal Domain Coactivator, James S. Adelman, Suzanne E. Wardell, Viroj Boonyaratanakornkit, Ami Aronheim Aug 2002

Jun Dimerization Protein 2 Functions As A Progesterone Receptor N-Terminal Domain Coactivator, James S. Adelman, Suzanne E. Wardell, Viroj Boonyaratanakornkit, Ami Aronheim

James S. Adelman

The progesterone receptor (PR) contains two transcription activation function (AF) domains, constitutive AF-1 in the N terminus and AF-2 in the C terminus. AF-2 activity is mediated by a hormone-dependent interaction with a family of steroid receptor coactivators (SRCs). SRC-1 can also stimulate AF-1 activity through a secondary domain that interacts simultaneously with the primary AF-2 interaction site. Other protein interactions and mechanisms that mediate AF-1 activity are not well defined. By interaction cloning, we identified an AP-1 family member, Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP-2), as a novel PR-interacting protein. JDP-2 was first defined as a c-Jun interacting protein that ...


Variability Of Placental Expression Of Cyclin E Low Molecular Weight Variants, A Bukovsky, Maria Cekanova, Mr Caudle, J Wimalasena, Js Foster, Ja Keenan, Rf Elder Jul 2002

Variability Of Placental Expression Of Cyclin E Low Molecular Weight Variants, A Bukovsky, Maria Cekanova, Mr Caudle, J Wimalasena, Js Foster, Ja Keenan, Rf Elder

Maria Cekanova MS, RNDr, PhD

Cyclin E, a G(1) cyclin serving to activate cyclin-dependent kinase 2, is the only cyclin gene for which alternative splicing leading to structurally different proteins has been described. Different cyclin E proteins are present in tumor tissues but absent from normal (steady) tissues. Cyclin E contributes to the regulation of cell proliferation and ongoing differentiation and aging. Because trophoblast has invasive properties and differentiates into syncytium and placental aging may develop at term, we examined cyclin E protein variants in human placenta. Placental samples were collected from 27 deliveries between 33 and 41 wk and were compared with ovarian ...


Effect Of Acetazolamide On Hypericin Photocytotoxicity, P Solar, I Cavarga, J Hofmanova, Maria Cekanova, P Miskovsky, P Brezani, G Hrckova, A Kozubik, P Fedorocko Jun 2002

Effect Of Acetazolamide On Hypericin Photocytotoxicity, P Solar, I Cavarga, J Hofmanova, Maria Cekanova, P Miskovsky, P Brezani, G Hrckova, A Kozubik, P Fedorocko

Maria Cekanova MS, RNDr, PhD

The photodynamic action of hypericin (HYP) in vitro was evaluated using human leukemic HL-60 and lung carcinoma A549 cell lines. After illumination HYP (1 x 10 (-5) M) reduced the proliferation and/or survival of HL-60 and A549 cells vs. controls to almost to 0 % and 29 %, respectively. A lower concentration of HYP (1 x 10 (-6) M) decreased the proliferation and/or survival only in HL-60 cells. Non-cytotoxic concentrations of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide (ACTZ) (1 x 10 (-3)-1 x 10 (-6) M) significantly potentiated these effects of HYP (1 x 10 (-6)M) in HL-60, but ...


Characterizing Gene Expression During Lens Formation In Xenopus Laevis: Evaluating The Model For Embryonic Lens Induction, Brian Walter, Jonathan Henry, Maria Carinato, Jonathan Schaefer, Adam Wolfe, Brian Walter, Kimberly Perry, Tricia Elbl May 2002

Characterizing Gene Expression During Lens Formation In Xenopus Laevis: Evaluating The Model For Embryonic Lens Induction, Brian Walter, Jonathan Henry, Maria Carinato, Jonathan Schaefer, Adam Wolfe, Brian Walter, Kimberly Perry, Tricia Elbl

Brian Walter

Few directed searches have been undertaken to identify the genes involved in vertebrate lens formation. In the frog Xenopus, the larval cornea can undergo a process of transdifferentiation to form a new lens once the original lens is removed. Based on preliminary evidence, we have shown that this process shares many elements of a common molecular/genetic pathway to that involved in embryonic lens development. A subtracted cDNA library, enriched for genes expressed during cornea-lens transdifferentiation, was prepared. The similarities/identities of specific clones isolated from the subtracted cDNA library define an expression profile of cells undergoing cornea-lens transdifferentiation ("lens ...


Hybrid Tetramers Of Porcine Liver Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase Reveal Multiple Pathways Of Allosteric Inhibition, Scott W. Nelson, Richard B. Honzatko, Herbert J. Fromm May 2002

Hybrid Tetramers Of Porcine Liver Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase Reveal Multiple Pathways Of Allosteric Inhibition, Scott W. Nelson, Richard B. Honzatko, Herbert J. Fromm

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase is a square planar tetramer of identical subunits, which exhibits cooperative allosteric inhibition of catalysis by AMP. Protocols for in vitrosubunit exchange provide three of five possible hybrid tetramers of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in high purity. The two hybrid types with different subunits in the top and bottom halves of the tetramer co-purify. Hybrid tetramers, formed from subunits unable to bind AMP and subunits with wild-type properties, differ from the wild-type enzyme only in regard to their properties of AMP inhibition. Hybrid tetramers exhibit cooperative, potent, and complete (100%) AMP inhibition if at least one functional AMP binding ...


Functional Interactions Between Heterologously Expressed Starch-Branching Enzymes Of Maize And The Glycogen Synthases Of Brewer’S Yeast, Beom-Seok Seo, Seungtaek Kim, Marvin Paul Scott, George W. Singletary, Kit-Sum Wong, Martha G. James, Alan M. Myers Apr 2002

Functional Interactions Between Heterologously Expressed Starch-Branching Enzymes Of Maize And The Glycogen Synthases Of Brewer’S Yeast, Beom-Seok Seo, Seungtaek Kim, Marvin Paul Scott, George W. Singletary, Kit-Sum Wong, Martha G. James, Alan M. Myers

Agronomy Publications

Starch-branching enzymes (SBEs) catalyze the formation of α(1→6) glycoside bonds in glucan polymers, thus, affecting the structure of amylopectin and starch granules. Two distinct classes of SBE are generally conserved in higher plants, although the specific role(s) of each isoform in determination of starch structure is not clearly understood. This study used a heterologous in vivo system to isolate the function of each of the three known SBE isoforms of maize (Zea mays) away from the other plant enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis. The ascomycete Brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was employed as the host species. All ...


Analysis Of Candidate Proteins Interacting With Eyal, Ryan Schwanke Apr 2002

Analysis Of Candidate Proteins Interacting With Eyal, Ryan Schwanke

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The Eyal gene is important for mammalian organogenesis, and mutations in the human EYA1 results in Branchio-Oto-Renal (BOR) syndrome. This syndrome is autosomal dominant and causes combinations of branchial, otic, and renal anomalies. All Eya gene products contain an extremely conserved 271 amino acid C-terminus that is essential in protein-protein interaction. Recently, it was found that during mouse development, the expression of certain Six genes relied on the function of Eyal, and that Eyal interacts with relevant Six proteins through its C-terminal domain. These results provided insight into the molecular and developmental basis for organ defects occurring in BOR syndrome ...


Weedy Adaptation In Setaria Spp. V. Effects Of Gaseous Environment On Giant Foxtail (Setaria Faberii) (Poaceae) Seed Germination, Jack H. Dekker, Mark S. Hargrove Mar 2002

Weedy Adaptation In Setaria Spp. V. Effects Of Gaseous Environment On Giant Foxtail (Setaria Faberii) (Poaceae) Seed Germination, Jack H. Dekker, Mark S. Hargrove

Agronomy Publications

The effects that naturally occurring gases (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide) may cause in dormant giant foxtail (Setaria faberii) seed germination under favorable temperature and moisture conditions were investigated. The germination responses to gas mixtures supported the hypothesis that S. faberii germination behavior is regulated by the amount of oxygen taken into hydrated seed over time. Setaria faberii seed germination was markedly affected by O2 concentration (in N2) above and below that of air (20% O2): the largest increase in germination (from 37 to 60%) occurred between 20–25% O2; between 0–10% O2, germination increased ...


Uv Resonance Raman And Circular Dichroism Studies Of A Dna Duplex Containing An A3t3 Tract: Evidence For A Premelting Transition And Three-Centered H-Bonds, Ishita Mukerji Jan 2002

Uv Resonance Raman And Circular Dichroism Studies Of A Dna Duplex Containing An A3t3 Tract: Evidence For A Premelting Transition And Three-Centered H-Bonds, Ishita Mukerji

Division III Faculty Publications

The presence of A(n) and A(n)T(n) tracts in double-helical sequences perturbs the structural properties of DNA molecules, resulting in the formation of an alternate conformation to standard B-DNA known as B'-DNA. Evidence for a transition occurring prior to duplex melting in molecules containing A(n) tracts was previously detected by circular dichroism (CD) and calorimetric studies. This premelting transition was attributed to a conformational change from B'- to B-DNA. Structural features of A(n) and A(n)T(n) tracts revealed by X-ray crystallography include a large degree of propeller twisting of adenine bases, narrowed ...


Trp-Dependent Auxin Biosynthesis In Arabidopsis: Involvement Of Cytochrome P450s Cyp79b2 And Cyp79b3, Yunde Zhao, Anna Hull, Neeru Gupta, Kendrick Goss, José Alonso, Joseph Ecker, Jennifer Normanly, Joanne Chory, John Celenza Jan 2002

Trp-Dependent Auxin Biosynthesis In Arabidopsis: Involvement Of Cytochrome P450s Cyp79b2 And Cyp79b3, Yunde Zhao, Anna Hull, Neeru Gupta, Kendrick Goss, José Alonso, Joseph Ecker, Jennifer Normanly, Joanne Chory, John Celenza

Jennifer Normanly

The plant hormone auxin regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. Although several auxin biosynthetic pathways have been proposed, none of these pathways has been precisely defined at the molecular level. Here we provide in planta evidence that the two Arabidopsis cytochrome P450s, CYP79B2 and CYP79B3, which convert tryptophan (Trp) to indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx) in vitro, are critical enzymes in auxin biosynthesis in vivo. IAOx is thus implicated as an important intermediate in auxin biosynthesis. Plants overexpressing CYP79B2 contain elevated levels of free auxin and display auxin overproduction phenotypes. Conversely, cyp79B2 cyp79B3 double mutants have reduced levels of IAA and ...


Flexibility Of Biv Tar-Tat: Models Of Peptide Binding, M Hsieh, E D. Collins, T Blomquist, Brooke Lustig Jan 2002

Flexibility Of Biv Tar-Tat: Models Of Peptide Binding, M Hsieh, E D. Collins, T Blomquist, Brooke Lustig

Brooke S. Lustig

No abstract provided.


Variability Of Placental Expression Of Cyclin E Low Molecular Weight Variants, A Bukovsky, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, Mr Caudle, J Wimalasena, Js Foster, Ja Keenan, Rf Elder Jan 2002

Variability Of Placental Expression Of Cyclin E Low Molecular Weight Variants, A Bukovsky, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, Mr Caudle, J Wimalasena, Js Foster, Ja Keenan, Rf Elder

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology

No abstract provided.


Presented Antigen From Damaged Pancreatic Beta Cells Activates Autoreactive T Cells In Virus-Mediated Autoimmune Diabetes., Marc S. Horwitz, Alex Ilic, Cody Fine, Enrique Rodriguez, Nora Sarvetnick Jan 2002

Presented Antigen From Damaged Pancreatic Beta Cells Activates Autoreactive T Cells In Virus-Mediated Autoimmune Diabetes., Marc S. Horwitz, Alex Ilic, Cody Fine, Enrique Rodriguez, Nora Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

The induction of autoimmunity by viruses has been attributed to numerous mechanisms. In mice, coxsackievirus B4 (CB4) induces insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) resembling the final step of disease progression in humans. The immune response following the viral insult clearly precipitates IDDM. However, the molecular pathway between viral infection and the subsequent activation of T cells specific for islet antigen has not been elucidated. These T cells could become activated through exposure to sequestered antigens released by damaged beta cells, or they could have responded to factors secreted by the inflammatory response itself. To distinguish between these possibilities, we treated mice ...


Flexibility Of Biv Tar-Tat: Models Of Peptide Binding, M Hsieh, E D. Collins, T Blomquist, Brooke Lustig Jan 2002

Flexibility Of Biv Tar-Tat: Models Of Peptide Binding, M Hsieh, E D. Collins, T Blomquist, Brooke Lustig

Faculty Publications, Chemistry

No abstract provided.


Actin Dynamics Regulate Myosin Assembly In Muscle Cells, John Dylan Cook Jan 2002

Actin Dynamics Regulate Myosin Assembly In Muscle Cells, John Dylan Cook

Inquiry: The University of Arkansas Undergraduate Research Journal

During muscle cell (i.e. myocyte )development, organization of actin and myosin into the contractile unit (i.e. sarcomere) is required for proper muscle contraction. By disrupting the processes of muscle cell development, I am able to see which steps play important roles in proper maturation of myocytes. Elucidation of the key pathways in muscle development could lead to a better understanding of human cardiac hypertrophies and muscle myopathies. Since actin filament formation precedes myosin organization, I am using actin assembly inhibitors to determine if actin filaments are a necessary prerequisite for myosin organization. It is hypothesized that disruption of ...


Repeated Intravenous Doses Of All-Trans-Retinoyl Β-D-Glucuronide Is Not Effective In The Treatment Of Bacterial Bronchopneumonia In Lambs But Is Devoid Of Gross And Acute Toxicity, Jack M. Gallup, Branka Grubor, Arun B. Barua, Gholamreza Mohammadi, Kim A. Brogden, James A. Olson, Mark R. Ackermann Jan 2002

Repeated Intravenous Doses Of All-Trans-Retinoyl Β-D-Glucuronide Is Not Effective In The Treatment Of Bacterial Bronchopneumonia In Lambs But Is Devoid Of Gross And Acute Toxicity, Jack M. Gallup, Branka Grubor, Arun B. Barua, Gholamreza Mohammadi, Kim A. Brogden, James A. Olson, Mark R. Ackermann

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

Background
All-trans-retinoyl β-D-glucuronide, a water-soluble glucuronic acid conjugate of all-transretinoic acid, has demonstrated high biological activity and low toxicity in most in vitro and in vivo models. Since the reparative effects of retinoids on epithelium are well-known, our aim was to study the effect(s) of intravenously-administered all-trans-retinoyl β-D-glucuronide in lambs with chronic bacterial bronchopneumonia.

Material/Methods
Two groups of lambs were inoculated intrabronchially with either pyrogen-free saline or Mannheimia haemolytica. Thirty-three days later, lambs were injected four times at five-day intervals with 2 mL of 116 mM all-trans-retinoyl β-D-glucuronide (6.0–9.3 µmol/kg or 2.86–4 ...


Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization On Sperm Using Alkaline Denaturation, L. J. Aridgides, M. Stacey, L. Brihn, D. Scott, C. Osgood Jan 2002

Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization On Sperm Using Alkaline Denaturation, L. J. Aridgides, M. Stacey, L. Brihn, D. Scott, C. Osgood

Bioelectrics Publications

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) permits the detection of unique DNA sequences of target DNA within single cells. FISH allows the identifica­tion of DNA sequences within individ­ual cells and readily identifies genetic changes within a mixed population of cells. However, problems arise in main­taining nuclear morphology, particular­ly following harsh denaturation proce­dures where cells are heated to 80°C, causing the nuclear boundary to be­come blurred or the cell to completely burst. In an attempt to preserve cellular morphology and high hybridization ef­ficiency, particularly in fresh tissue samples, we evaluated a FISH protocol using ...


Characterization Of An Acyl-Coa Thioesterase That Functions As A Major Regulator Of Peroxisomal Lipid Metabolism, Mary Hunt, Karianne Solaas, Bengt F. Kase, Stefan E H Alexson Jan 2002

Characterization Of An Acyl-Coa Thioesterase That Functions As A Major Regulator Of Peroxisomal Lipid Metabolism, Mary Hunt, Karianne Solaas, Bengt F. Kase, Stefan E H Alexson

Articles

Peroxisomes function in b-oxidation of very long- and long-chain fatty acids, dicarboxylic fatty acids, bile acid intermediates, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes, pristanic acid and xenobiotic carboxylic acids. These lipids are mainly chain-shortened for excretion as the carboxylic acids or transported to mitochondria for further metabolism. Several of these carboxylic acids are slowly oxidized and may therefore sequester coenzyme A (CoASH). To prevent CoASH sequestration and to facilitate excretion of chain-shortened carboxylic acids, acyl-CoA thioesterases, which catalyze the hydrolysis of acyl-CoAs to the free acid and CoASH, may play important roles. We have here cloned and characterized a peroxisomal acyl-CoA thioesterase from ...


A Candidate Gene Analysis For Response To Salmonella Enteritidis Challenge Or Vaccination In Young Chicks , Wei Liu Jan 2002

A Candidate Gene Analysis For Response To Salmonella Enteritidis Challenge Or Vaccination In Young Chicks , Wei Liu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Salmonella enteritidis (SE) contamination of poultry products is a major cause of food-borne disease worldwide. The candidate gene approach for identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for chicken response to Salmonella enteritidis (SE) was applied in the current study. The Iowa Salmonella Response Resource Population (ISRRP), formed by crossing outbred broiler sires with three diverse, highly inbred dam lines (two major histocompatibility complex-congenic Leghorn lines G-B1 and G-B2 and one Fayoumi line) was studied. The F1 generation was evaluated as young chicks for either bacterial load in spleen and cecum after pathogenic SE inoculation, or antibody level after SE vaccination ...


Backcross Introgression And Two-Stage Testing For Conversion Of Improved Tropical Germplasm To Temperate Environments , Freeman Callaway Whitehead Jan 2002

Backcross Introgression And Two-Stage Testing For Conversion Of Improved Tropical Germplasm To Temperate Environments , Freeman Callaway Whitehead

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The use of exotic maize (Zea mays L.) germplasm, particularly of tropical and subtropical adaptation, has been suggested to increase genetic variability and grain yield of maize breeding material in temperate environments. Lack of adaptation to temperate areas and photoperiod sensitivity may mask desirable traits and reduce breeding progress. The objectives of this study included two-stage evaluation and selection of segregating families in the central U.S. Corn Belt derived from the backcross introgression of previously improved tropical CIMMYT germplasm into adapted, elite U.S. Corn Belt germplasm. The U.S. Corn Belt heterotic patterns of Stiff Stalk and non-Stiff ...


Characterization Of The Ftsyex Operon Of Escherichia Coli , Becky Graham Jan 2002

Characterization Of The Ftsyex Operon Of Escherichia Coli , Becky Graham

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The ftsYEX operon of Escherichia coli historically has been described as a cluster of essential cell division genes. Filamentation temperature-sensitive (fts) designates a class of mutants that displays normal cell morphology at the permissive temperature of 30°C, but filaments and dies at the restrictive temperature of 42°C. The first gene, ftsY, is known to encode an essential component of a protein localization system first described in eukaryotes, the signal recognition particle (SRP) pathway. The function of the following genes, ftsE and ftsX, are much less understood. It has been shown that FtsE and FtsX comprise a two-component ATP-binding ...


Molecular Marker Analysis Of Seed Size In Soybean , Joseph Andrew Hoeck Jan 2002

Molecular Marker Analysis Of Seed Size In Soybean , Joseph Andrew Hoeck

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Seed size is an important attribute of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] for some food uses. The objectives of this study were to identify markers associated with quantitative trait loci for seed size (SSQTL), determine the influence of the environment on expression of the marker-SSQTL associations, and compare the efficiency of phenotypic selection and marker-assisted selection for the trait. Three small-seeded lines were crossed to a line or cultivar with normal seed size to form three two-parent populations. The parents of the populations were screened with 178 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to identify polymorphism. Population 1 (Pop 1) had ...