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Biochemistry

Articles 1 - 12 of 12

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Molecular Interactions Of Talin And Actin: A Study On The Specific Domains Of Talin Involved In The Interactions , Ho-Sup Lee Jan 2002

Molecular Interactions Of Talin And Actin: A Study On The Specific Domains Of Talin Involved In The Interactions , Ho-Sup Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Talin is an essential cytoskeletal protein present in cell-matrix type adherens junctions where it helps in attachment of the actin cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane. The nature of the interaction between talin and actin was examined in this dissertation by investigating three actin binding sites (ABS1--3), with ABS1 located in the 47 kDa N-terminal head and ABS2 and ABS3 present in the 190 kDa C-terminal tail of the talin molecule. Cosedimentation of expressed GST-fusion deletion constructs from the talin head with F-actin showed that actin binding activity of the talin head is contained within residues 271--320. Talin constructs containing the ...


Roles Of The Mitogen-Induced Proteins, Mitogen Regulated Protein/Proliferin And 24p3/Uterocalin, During Mouse Development , Pierig Jean-Marie Lepont Jan 2002

Roles Of The Mitogen-Induced Proteins, Mitogen Regulated Protein/Proliferin And 24p3/Uterocalin, During Mouse Development , Pierig Jean-Marie Lepont

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Mitogens, serum and growth factors, induce the secretion of several proteins in cell cultures. Mitogen regulated protein/proliferin (MRP/PLF) is one such protein secreted from 3T3 cells 20 hours after the addition of fibroblast growth factor (FGF). 24p3/uterocalin is another protein induced 10 hours after FGF addition. When combined with cycloheximide, 24p3/uterocalin secretion is increased by 5 fold.;MRP/PLFs are glycoproteins, belonging to the prolactin-growth hormone family, expressed at high concentration during mid-gestation in the mouse placenta. MRP/PLFs are thought to stimulate angiogenesis in the placenta and the uterus, and stimulate uterine cell growth during ...


Mechanisms Of Negative Regulation Of Protein Prenylation: Investigation Of Murine Guanylate-Binding Protein 1 , John Thomas Stickney Jan 2000

Mechanisms Of Negative Regulation Of Protein Prenylation: Investigation Of Murine Guanylate-Binding Protein 1 , John Thomas Stickney

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Covalent attachment of isoprenoid lipids to proteins is a post-translational modification that occurs on approximately 2% of all cellular proteins. Proteins that contain a CaaX motif as their final four amino acids are presumed to be targets for the addition of C15 or C20 isoprenoids by farnesyl transferase (FTase) or geranylgeranyl transferase I (GGTase I) respectively. This modification is generally believed to occur stoichiometrically, and irreversibly, in vivo. Thus, if prenylation is to be regulated, this control must occur prior to lipid addition. At the moment, there is little evidence that the enzymatic activity of prenyl transferases can be modulated ...


The Glycogen Phosphorylase/ Phosphorylase Kinase Interaction: Effects Of Mutations In The Amino-Terminal Region Of Glycogen Phosphorylase , Alyssa Christine Biorn Jan 1999

The Glycogen Phosphorylase/ Phosphorylase Kinase Interaction: Effects Of Mutations In The Amino-Terminal Region Of Glycogen Phosphorylase , Alyssa Christine Biorn

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Glycogen phosphorylase is an important enzyme for carbohydrate metabolism in muscle. It uses inorganic phosphate to remove glucose from glycogen, producing glucose-1-phosphate, which can be used for the production of ATP. Inactive glycogen phosphorylase (phosphorylase h) is activated either by the allosteric binding of 5'-AMP, or by phosphorylation by phosphorylase kinase (PhK). Phosphorylation produces phosphorylase a, which is active in the absence of AMP. PhK is the only kinase that can phosphorylate phosphorylase b, which in turn is the only substrate for PhK. This dissertation research has attempted to determine the reasons for this specificity and how these two ...


Genetic And Biochemical Analysis Of Aspergillus Awamori Glucoamylase Thermostability , Martin John Allen Jan 1997

Genetic And Biochemical Analysis Of Aspergillus Awamori Glucoamylase Thermostability , Martin John Allen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Aspergillus awamori glucoamylase (GA) is an enzyme involved in industrial corn starch processing. Genetic and biochemical approaches were used to study the mechanisms governing GA thermostability. Three proline substitution (Xaa → Pro) mutations were constructed that were predicted to increase the enzyme's stability by decreasing its conformational entropy of unfolding. When expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ser30 → Pro increased, Asp345 → Pro did not alter and Glu408 → Pro greatly decreased GA stability as measured by resistance to irreversible thermoinactivation relative to the wild-type enzyme. The Ser30 → Pro mutation was combined with other previously identified stabilizing mutations to examine whether combining such mutations ...


Elm1p, A Protein Kinase That Regulates Cell Morphology In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae , Carla Marie Koehler Jan 1995

Elm1p, A Protein Kinase That Regulates Cell Morphology In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae , Carla Marie Koehler

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a pleimorphic ascomycete, capable of growing in the yeast form or the pseudohyphal form. The pseudohyphal form is characterized by elongated cells that possess a unipolar budding pattern and grow in chains away from the center of the colony. This change in morphology is induced by nitrogen starvation in the presence of carbon. A collection of 14 elm (elongated morphology) mutants previously have been isolated that grow as pseudohyphae constitutively. Of these mutants, the product of the ELM1 gene was identified and coded for a novel protein kinase. From genetic analyses, ELM1 seemingly functioned downstream of STE7 ...


G-Wires: The Growth And Characterization Of A G4-Dna Nanostructure , Thomas Cosgrove Marsh Jan 1994

G-Wires: The Growth And Characterization Of A G4-Dna Nanostructure , Thomas Cosgrove Marsh

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Guanine-rich sequences are vital components in the genomes of many organisms. For example, G-rich sequences are found in telomeres, fragile X locus, promoters, IgG switch regions, recombinational hot spots and the HIV RNA dimerization domain. The functions of these G-rich sequences rely in part on guanine self-recognition. G-rich sequences can adopt a quadruple helical conformation in the presence of specific monovalent and divalent metal cations which are also required for maintaining the quadruplex stability. The structural basis of the quadruplex is a cyclic Hoogsteen hydrogen bonded guanine tetrad known as the G-quartet. Sequences capable of forming G-quartets are classified as ...


In Vitro Analysis Of The Self-Cleaving Satellite Rna Of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus , Stanley Livingstone Silver Jan 1993

In Vitro Analysis Of The Self-Cleaving Satellite Rna Of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus , Stanley Livingstone Silver

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The goals of this research are to begin to define key biological elements involved in the propagation of the satellite RNA associated with barley yellow dwarf virus, serotype RPV (sBYDV) and to design target-specific ribozymes against BYDV genomic RNA. sBYDV RNA is 322 nucleotides long, contains no significant open reading frames, requires BYDV for replication, encapsidation and spread and self-cleaves in the presence of Mg[superscript]2+ and neutral pH. Sequence comparison of several self-cleaving RNAs revealed the presence of a hammerhead-shaped structure spanning the cleavage site. The hammerhead is composed of 11 highly conserved, predominately single-stranded nucleotides and 3 ...


Genetic And Biochemical Characterization Of The P21[Superscript Ras]-Related Protein Rho1p In The Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae , Joni Marie Seeling Johnson Jan 1992

Genetic And Biochemical Characterization Of The P21[Superscript Ras]-Related Protein Rho1p In The Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae , Joni Marie Seeling Johnson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Rho1p is a guanine nucleotide binding protein coded for by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene RHO1, which is homologous to p21[superscript] ras and other members of the ras superfamily of small molecular weight GTP binding proteins. This protein family is highly conserved in evolution and in some instances is known to be involved in control of cell proliferation. The precise physiological functions of most p21[superscript] ras-related proteins, however, are not known. In order to gain further insight into the physiological function of rho proteins, this research addressed the genetic and biochemical characterization of Rho1p, as well as the subcellular ...


Cloning And Characterization Of Mink Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 (Pai-1) Cdna And The Regulation Of Mink Pai-1 Expression At Mrna Level , Tsung-Hsien Chuang Jan 1992

Cloning And Characterization Of Mink Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 (Pai-1) Cdna And The Regulation Of Mink Pai-1 Expression At Mrna Level , Tsung-Hsien Chuang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Mink plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is a glycoprotein with molecular weight about 50 kD and is highly regulated in cultured cells. In mink lung CCL64 epithelial cells, epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-[beta] (TGF-[beta]), and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) increase the synthesis of PAI-1. Epidermal growth factor and TGF-[beta] synergistically stimulate the synthesis of PAI-1. The synergistic effect and factors which govern the PAI-1 expression in mink lung CCL64 cells were studied by using a mink PAI-1 cDNA as a probe to detect PAI-1 mRNA;The mink PAI-1 cDNA was cloned from a cDNA library ...


Studies On The Role Of Expression Of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Gene In The Development Of Bovine Lactation Ketosis , Sowmya Moorthi Jan 1992

Studies On The Role Of Expression Of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Gene In The Development Of Bovine Lactation Ketosis , Sowmya Moorthi

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Changes in expression of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene, which codes for a key regulatory enzyme of gluconeogenesis, were studied in bovine liver tissue. Induction of ketosis was attempted in cows by a protocol of restricting feed intake (FR) and supplementing with 1,3-butanediol (BD), a ketogenic precursor, beginning at 15 d postpartum (FRBD protocol). Twenty Holstein cows were distributed in equal numbers among four treatments: normal control, obese control, normal cows given FRBD, and obese cows given FRBD. Liver biopsies were obtained at nine different times during early lactation: 10 d prepartum, 5 and 14 d postpartum (just before ...


Regulation Of Protein Expression By Transforming Growth Factor Beta And Other Growth Modulators , Frederic William Thalacker Jan 1990

Regulation Of Protein Expression By Transforming Growth Factor Beta And Other Growth Modulators , Frederic William Thalacker

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The main goal of this project was to understand the signal transduction pathways through which growth modulators such as TGF-[beta], PMA and retinoic acid mediate protein expression and DNA synthesis. Transforming growth factor [beta] (TGF-[beta]) induces synthesis and secretion of a 48,000 M r protein that we have found to be type I plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1). TGF-[beta] induces PAI-1 in every cell line that we have studied including near term mink lung epithelial CCL64 cells, mouse embryo fibroblast AKR-2B 84A cells, African green monkey kidney epithelial BSC-1 cells, and normal rat kidney fibroblast NRK 49F ...