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Theses/Dissertations

2014

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Articles 1 - 30 of 204

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Mechanisms Of Translational Repression Of The Sperm Mitochondria Associated-Cysteine Rich Protein (Smcp) Mrna In Round Spermatids, Danielle L. Cullinane Dec 2014

Mechanisms Of Translational Repression Of The Sperm Mitochondria Associated-Cysteine Rich Protein (Smcp) Mrna In Round Spermatids, Danielle L. Cullinane

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

The sperm-mitochondria-associated cysteine-rich protein (SMCP) is a male germ cell-specific protein that localizes to the outer membranes of sperm mitochondria and increases sperm motility. The Smcp mRNA is transcribed in early spermatids, and stored in a translationally repressed state for ~7 days before translation is activated in late spermatids. Identifying the cis-elements and trans-factors that repress the Smcp mRNA in early spermatids is important because these factors and elements coordinate the translational activity of hundreds of mRNAs.

A mutation was studied in transgenic mice in which the 16 nucleotides downstream of the first poly(A) signal in the ...


Novel Mechanisms In The Sorting Of Proglucagon To The Secretory Granules Of The Regulated Secretory Pathway, Leonard M. Guizzetti Dec 2014

Novel Mechanisms In The Sorting Of Proglucagon To The Secretory Granules Of The Regulated Secretory Pathway, Leonard M. Guizzetti

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The prohormone proglucagon encodes for multiple peptide hormones, including glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and GLP-2, produced through tissue-specific processing by prohormone convertase (PC) 1/3 and PC2. In alpha cells, PC2 yields glucagon, the major counter-regulatory hormone to insulin, which together, control glucose homeostasis. In contrast, GLP-1 and GLP2 are mainly produced in intestinal L-cells by PC1/3. GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion following a meal, and therefore has opposing function to glucagon regulating glucose homeostasis; in contrast, GLP-2 enhances gut nutrient absorption. Efficient sorting of proglucagon to secretory granules is required for nutrient-regulated secretion. The aim of this thesis is ...


Novel Protein Secretion And Chitin Utilization Machinery Of Flavobacterium Johnsoniae, Sampada Suresh Kharade Dec 2014

Novel Protein Secretion And Chitin Utilization Machinery Of Flavobacterium Johnsoniae, Sampada Suresh Kharade

Theses and Dissertations

Flavobacterium johnsoniae, a member of phylum Bacteroidetes, is a gliding bacterium that digests insoluble chitin. A novel protein secretion system, the Type IX secretion system (T9SS), secretes the motility adhesins SprB and RemA and is also required for chitin utilization. In order to understand F. johnsoniae chitin utilization and the role of the T9SS, Fjoh_4555 (chiA) was targeted for analysis. Disruption of chiA resulted in cells that failed to digest chitin and complementation restored this ability. Antisera raised against ChiA were used to characterize its secretion. ChiA was secreted in soluble form by wild-type cells but remained cell-associated in T9SS ...


Interaction Of Rhizobium Sp. Strain Irbg74 With A Legume (Sesbania Cannabina) And A Cereal (Oryza Sativa), Shubhajit Mitra Dec 2014

Interaction Of Rhizobium Sp. Strain Irbg74 With A Legume (Sesbania Cannabina) And A Cereal (Oryza Sativa), Shubhajit Mitra

Theses and Dissertations

Rhizobium sp. IRBG74 (IRBG74) develops a classical nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with the legume Sesbania cannabina and also promotes the growth of rice (Oryza sativa), but not much is known about the rhizobial determinants important for these interactions. We hypothesize that Rhizobium sp. IRBG74 utilizes similar mechanisms to endophytically colonize both legume and cereal hosts. In this study, we analyzed the colonization of rice and S. cannabina using a strain of IRBG74 marked with β-glucuronidase (GUS) and Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). IRBG74 infected both of the host plants through crack entry under submerged conditions, but showed root hair mediated infection under aerobic ...


Gene Regulatory Pathways Driving Central Nervous System Regeneration In Zebrafish, Ishwariya Venkatesh Dec 2014

Gene Regulatory Pathways Driving Central Nervous System Regeneration In Zebrafish, Ishwariya Venkatesh

Theses and Dissertations

Damage to the central nervous system (CNS) circuitry of adult mammals results in permanent disability. In contrast, the ability to regenerate damaged CNS nerves and achieve functional recovery occurs naturally in fish. The ability of fish to successfully regrow damaged CNS nerves is in part a consequence of their ability to re-express key neuronal growth-associated genes/proteins in response to CNS injury. On such protein is Growth-Associated Protein-43 (Gap43), a protein which is highly enriched in axonal growth cones during CNS development and regeneration. Experiments conducted in mammals have demonstrated that ectopic expression of GAP-43 improves axonal re-growth after injury ...


Comparative Genomics Of Microbial Chemoreceptor Sequence, Structure, And Function, Aaron Daniel Fleetwood Dec 2014

Comparative Genomics Of Microbial Chemoreceptor Sequence, Structure, And Function, Aaron Daniel Fleetwood

Doctoral Dissertations

Microbial chemotaxis receptors (chemoreceptors) are complex proteins that sense the external environment and signal for flagella-mediated motility, serving as the GPS of the cell. In order to sense a myriad of physicochemical signals and adapt to diverse environmental niches, sensory regions of chemoreceptors are frenetically duplicated, mutated, or lost. Conversely, the chemoreceptor signaling region is a highly conserved protein domain. Extreme conservation of this domain is necessary because it determines very specific helical secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of the protein while simultaneously choreographing a network of interactions with the adaptor protein CheW and the histidine kinase CheA. This dichotomous ...


Pore Selectivity And Gating Of Arabidopsis Nodulin 26 Intrinsic Proteins And Roles In Boric Acid Transport In Reproductive Growth, Tian Li Dec 2014

Pore Selectivity And Gating Of Arabidopsis Nodulin 26 Intrinsic Proteins And Roles In Boric Acid Transport In Reproductive Growth, Tian Li

Doctoral Dissertations

Plant nodulin-26 intrinsic proteins (NIPs) are members of the aquaporin superfamily that serve as multifunctional channels of uncharged metabolites and water. They share the same canonical hourglass fold as the aquaporin family. The aromatic arginine (ar/R) selectivity filter controls transport selectivity based on size, hydrophobicity, and hydrogen bonding with substrates. In Arabidopsis thaliana, NIP II subclass proteins contain a conserved ar/R “pore signature” that is composed of Alanine at the helix 2 position (H2), Valine/Isoleucine at the helix 5 position (H5), and an Alanine (LE1) and an invariant Arginine (LE2) at the two loop E positions. In ...


The Role Of Nag-1 In Tumorigenesis, Kyung-Won Min Dec 2014

The Role Of Nag-1 In Tumorigenesis, Kyung-Won Min

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation explores the nature of a divergent member of the Transforming Growth Factor-β [beta] superfamily, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs activated gene (NAG-1), as it relates to its regulation and biological activity in cancer context. Our lab has extensively studied on the molecular mechanism by which phytochemicals and NSAIDs induce apoptosis correlation with NAG-1 expression in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Significant data from in vitro studies suggest that NAG-1 has an anti-tumorigenic activity which elicits apoptosis in a cyclooxygenase (COX)-independent manner in CRC cells. Indeed, NAG-1 transgenic mice developed less aberrant polyp foci (APC) compared to those of ...


Allosteric Regulation Of Bacterial And Fungal Xylulose 5-Phosphate/ Fructose 6-Phosphate Phosphoketolases (Xfps), Katie Glenn Dec 2014

Allosteric Regulation Of Bacterial And Fungal Xylulose 5-Phosphate/ Fructose 6-Phosphate Phosphoketolases (Xfps), Katie Glenn

All Dissertations

Acetate is excreted as a metabolic end product in many microbes. Acetate production has primarily been studied in bacteria and archaea but is known to occur in eukaryotic organisms as well. For example, acetate is one of the most abundant metabolites excreted by the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans during cryptococcosis suggesting that acetate production may be important during pathogenesis. One possible pathway for acetate production in C. neoformans involves the enzymes xylulose 5-phosphate/ fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase (Xfp), which can generate acetyl phosphate from either fructose 6-phosphate (F6P) or xylulose 5-phosphate (X5P), and acetate kinase (Ack), which can then convert acetyl ...


Novel Posttranslational Modification In Lkb1 Activation And Function, Szu-Wei Lee Dec 2014

Novel Posttranslational Modification In Lkb1 Activation And Function, Szu-Wei Lee

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cancer cells display dramatic alterations in cellular metabolism to meet their needs of increased growth and proliferation. In the last decade, cancer research has brought these pathways into focus, and one emerging issue that has come to attention is that many oncogenes and tumor-suppressors are intimately linked to metabolic regulation (Jones and Thompson, 2009). One of the key tumor-suppressors involved in metabolism is Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1). LKB1 is the major upstream kinase of the evolutionarily conserved metabolic sensor—AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Activation of the LKB1/AMPK pathway provides a survival advantage for cells under energy stress. LKB1 forms ...


Jab1 Negatively Regulates Pten And Promotes Resistance To Trastuzumab In Her2-Positive Breast Cancer, Thuy T. Vu Dec 2014

Jab1 Negatively Regulates Pten And Promotes Resistance To Trastuzumab In Her2-Positive Breast Cancer, Thuy T. Vu

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

HER2-positive breast cancer, which is characterized by the over-expression of the HER2 onco-protein, accounts for approximately 20% of all breast cancer cases. Trastuzumab (Herceptin), the first targeted therapy approved for HER2-positive disease, potently prevents the activation of signaling pathways downstream of HER2 and significantly improves patients’ outcomes. However, resistance to trastuzumab is inevitable; such resistance can occur through reduced expression of PTEN protein.

Jab1 is over-expressed in 50% of primary cancers and 90% of metastatic tumors. Our lab previously showed that depletion of Jab1 in combination with trastuzumab treatment up-regulated PTEN in mouse xenografts refractory to trastuzumab. PTEN was not ...


Swarna Ramaswamy_Thesis, Swarna S. Ramaswamy Dec 2014

Swarna Ramaswamy_Thesis, Swarna S. Ramaswamy

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

STRUCTURAL INVESTIGATIONS OF LIGAND GATED ION CHANNELS

Swarna Ramaswamy, B.S

Advisor: Vasanthi Jayaraman, Ph.D.

Ion channels form an integral part of membrane proteins. In the nervous system including the central and the peripheral nervous system, ligand gated ion channels form a very important part of intercellular communications. They receive chemical signals and convert them to electrical signal, mainly by allowing ion passage across the cell membrane. Ion passage also translates into downstream signaling events. Faithful translation of these signals and transmittance is crucial for several physiological functions, implying that irregular ion channel function could lead to serious consequences ...


The Mechanism Of Lhcp Insertion Into Thylakoid Membranes, Larae Brown Dec 2014

The Mechanism Of Lhcp Insertion Into Thylakoid Membranes, Larae Brown

Theses and Dissertations

The light harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins (LHCPs) are the most abundant membrane proteins. LHCP is a nuclear encoded protein which is targeted to the thylakoid membranes by chloroplast signal recognition particles (cpSRP). Insertion into thylakoid membranes is facilitated by the cpSRP receptor cpFtsY and the Alb3 translocase. Work here focused on understanding the molecular events of LHCP insertion into the thylakoid membranes. Specifically, we sought to develop a tool to detect the insertion of the lumen-localized loop of LHCP into thylakoid membranes, which relies on cleavage of the loop by a thylakoid lumen processing protease. We also sought to ...


Investigation Of Nuclear And Cytoplasmic Functions Of The Dlipin Protein Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Qiuyu Chen Dec 2014

Investigation Of Nuclear And Cytoplasmic Functions Of The Dlipin Protein Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Qiuyu Chen

Theses and Dissertations

Lipin family proteins are highly conserved proteins present in species ranging from mammals to yeast. Lipin 1, the first Lipin gene identified in fatty liver dystrophy (fld) mutant mice, encodes the bifunctional protein Lipin 1, which can serve as an Mg2+-dependent phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) and transcriptional co-regulator. dLipin, the single Lipin ortholog of Drosophila melanogaster, is required in triglyceride synthesis and fat body development. To study the transcriptional co-regulator activity of dLipin, nuclear receptors were screened to find receptors that interact with dLipin. The genetic interaction data indicated that Drosophila hepatic nuclear receptor 4 (HNF4) was a promising ...


Functional Characterization Of The Arginine Vasotocin 4 Receptor (Vt4r) In Sensory Circumventricular Organs Of The Chicken Gallus Gallus, Nguiessan Alphonse Aman Dec 2014

Functional Characterization Of The Arginine Vasotocin 4 Receptor (Vt4r) In Sensory Circumventricular Organs Of The Chicken Gallus Gallus, Nguiessan Alphonse Aman

Theses and Dissertations

Past studies have shown that the avian vasotocin 4 receptor (VT4R), homologous to the mammalian arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (V1aR/AVPR1A) is involved in immobilization stress. It was not known, however, whether the receptor is also associated with osmotic stress, and if so, what brain regions may be involved. Four treatment groups of chicks were used for the study. One group was subjected to 1h immobilization stress and two groups were administered intraperitoneal injection of 3 M NaCl or 0.15 M NaCl. One additional group served as controls. After 1 h, blood samples were taken for the determination of ...


Localization Of Chemoreceptors In Azospirillum Brasilense., Anastasia Aksenova Dec 2014

Localization Of Chemoreceptors In Azospirillum Brasilense., Anastasia Aksenova

Masters Theses

In order to ensure their survival, bacteria must sense and adapt to a variety of environmental signals. Motile bacteria are able to orient their movement in a chemical gradient by chemotaxis. During chemotaxis, environmental signals are detected by chemotaxis receptors and are propagated via a signal transduction cascade to affect bacterial motility. In a model organism Escherichia coli, chemotaxis receptors, also called MCPs (for methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins) sense changes in concentration gradients by making temporal comparisons about the chemical composition of their surroundings. Decreased attractant concentration or increased repellant concentration results in conformational changes in the MCPs that culminate in ...


A Step Towards Understanding Of The Molecular Basis Of Ligand Promiscuity In The Aminoglycoside Modifying Enzymes, Sherin R. Raval Dec 2014

A Step Towards Understanding Of The Molecular Basis Of Ligand Promiscuity In The Aminoglycoside Modifying Enzymes, Sherin R. Raval

Masters Theses

Aminoglycosides have proven very useful in the treatment of infections; lately their effectiveness has been greatly reduced due to increasing resistance. Among many known mechanisms of resistance to aminoglycosides, enzymatic modification is the most prevailing. More than 14 aminoglycoside -N3-acetyltransferases- a class of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes, are known today. This study focuses on a pair of acetyl transferases: The aminoglycoside-N3- acetyltransferase IIIb (AAC-IIIb) and the aminoglycoside-N3- acetyltransferase IIa (AAC-IIa). AAC-IIa and AAC-IIIb are very similar in their amino acid sequence and structure – yet they have a strong difference in their substrate selectivity, kinetic and thermodynamic properties. This ...


Redesign Of Trans-Splicing Molecules For The Correction Of Dystrophia Myotonica Type 1 Toxic Rna Transcripts, Eleanor G. Harrison Dec 2014

Redesign Of Trans-Splicing Molecules For The Correction Of Dystrophia Myotonica Type 1 Toxic Rna Transcripts, Eleanor G. Harrison

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Dystrophia myotonica (DM1), one of the most common forms of muscular dystrophy, is caused by a repeated trinucleotide expansion in the DMPK gene. This mutation results in the accumulation of toxic cellular RNA transcripts. Spliceosome-mediated RNA trans-splicing (SMaRT) technology is a form of gene therapy that possesses the potential to correct these toxic RNA transcripts and thus cure the disease. Despite its promise, prior research applications of SMaRT technology to DM1 have been hampered by poor efficiency and have not been validated in a relevant model of the disease. In order to improve the efficiency of trans-splicing, this study examined ...


Characterization And Role Of Msaabcr In Biofilm Development And Virulence In Staphylococcus Aureus, Gyan Sundar Sahukhal Dec 2014

Characterization And Role Of Msaabcr In Biofilm Development And Virulence In Staphylococcus Aureus, Gyan Sundar Sahukhal

Dissertations

Community-acquired, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains often cause localized infections in immune-compromised hosts, but some strains show enhanced virulence leading to severe infections even among healthy individuals with no predisposing risk factors. The genetic basis for this enhanced virulence has yet to be determined. S. aureus possesses a wide variety of virulence factors, the expression of which is carefully coordinated by a variety of regulators. Several virulence regulators have been well characterized, but others have yet to be thoroughly investigated. Previously, the msa gene as a regulator of several virulence genes, biofilm development, and antibiotic ...


Specificity And Catalytic Mechanism Of Dna Glycosylases In Udg Superfamily, Bo Xia Dec 2014

Specificity And Catalytic Mechanism Of Dna Glycosylases In Udg Superfamily, Bo Xia

All Dissertations

DNA can be damaged by several kinds of endogenous and exogenous reactive nitrogen species. Under nitosative stress, uracil (U), hypoxanthine (I), xanthine (X) and oxanine (O) are four major deaminated DNA bases derived from cytosine (C), adenine (A) and guanine (G) respectively. To repair this type of DNA damage, several different repair pathways are involved.

My dissertation work mainly focused on the uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) superfamily, which includes several groups of enzymes that recognize the damaged DNA bases and initiate the base excision repair (BER) pathway, one of the most important repair pathways to deal with deaminated DNA bases. Chapter ...


Using The Yeast Two-Hybrid System To Determine The Function Of Parkin E3 Ubiquitin Ligase, Vanessa Nguyen Dec 2014

Using The Yeast Two-Hybrid System To Determine The Function Of Parkin E3 Ubiquitin Ligase, Vanessa Nguyen

HIM 1990-2015

Parkin is a cytosolic E3 ubiquitin ligase that is recruited to the mitochondria during cellular stress and has been suggested to be involved in a variety of biological processes such as mitophagy. The recruitment of Parkin (PARK2) to the mitochondria is dependent upon the kinase activity and the accumulation of PINK1 on damaged mitochondria. Mutations in either PINK1 or Parkin genes disrupt this protective pathway and lead to the accumulation of damaged mitochondria. From a clinical standpoint, mutations in the PARK2 gene have been associated with the progression and onset of autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism. Without the presence of a ...


Melatonin And Neurogenesis: A Comparative Study Of The Efficacy Of Melatonin, Its Precursors, And L-Dopa On Neural Stem Cell Metabolism In Human Adult Neurospheres, Omar Heriba Dec 2014

Melatonin And Neurogenesis: A Comparative Study Of The Efficacy Of Melatonin, Its Precursors, And L-Dopa On Neural Stem Cell Metabolism In Human Adult Neurospheres, Omar Heriba

HIM 1990-2015

Human neurosphere stem cells offer promising potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Their well characterized multi-potency of differentiating into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes when exposed to the optimum exogenous growth factors make them an exciting area of study (38). Finding novel endogenous methods of modulating stem cell metabolism will allow for the safer treatment of various brain disorders (34). In this experiment, melatonin, N-acetylserotonin, L-tryptophan, and L-DOPA are added in three different concentrations to neurospheres suspended in HNSC/GBM media with less than optimal concentrations of exogenous epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). The alamarBlue assay ...


A Comprehensive Study Of The Effects Of Neurotoxins On Noradrenergic Phenotypes, Neuronal Responses And Potential Intervention By Antidepressants In Noradrenergic Cells, Yan Wang Dec 2014

A Comprehensive Study Of The Effects Of Neurotoxins On Noradrenergic Phenotypes, Neuronal Responses And Potential Intervention By Antidepressants In Noradrenergic Cells, Yan Wang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

It has been reported that locus coeruleus (LC) degeneration precedes the degeneration of other neurons in the brain in some neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the precise mechanisms of neurodegeneration remain to be elucidated. N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4) has been widely used as a noradrenergic neurotoxin in the development of AD and PD animal models for specific LC degeneration. However, the precise mechanism of action of DSP4 remains unclear. An increased systemic DNA damage caused by neurotoxin or oxidative stress has been found to be related to the pathogenic development of neurodegeneration ...


Characterization Of A Putative Phospholipase D ´ Like Gene As A Lipid Signaling Modulator And Its Role In Salicylic Acid Mediated Defense Pathway In Nicotiana Tabacum, Phillip T. Dean Dec 2014

Characterization Of A Putative Phospholipase D ´ Like Gene As A Lipid Signaling Modulator And Its Role In Salicylic Acid Mediated Defense Pathway In Nicotiana Tabacum, Phillip T. Dean

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Plants are in a perpetual evolutionary arms race with a wide range of pathogens. Their sessile nature has led plants to evolve defense mechanisms that can quickly recognize a unique stressor and deploy a resistance tailored for a specific attack. The salicylic acid (SA) mediated defense pathway has been shown to be one of the major defense tactics plants can initiate to defend themselves against microbial pathogens. Following a pathogen attack high levels of methyl salicylate (MeSA) are produced that can be converted to SA by the enzyme salicylic acid binding protein 2 (SABP2). A yeast two-hybrid screening was performed ...


Regulation Of C-Reactive Protein Gene Expression And Function, Avinash N. Thirumalai Dec 2014

Regulation Of C-Reactive Protein Gene Expression And Function, Avinash N. Thirumalai

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Human C-reactive protein (CRP) is the prototypic acute phase protein whose serum concentration increases rapidly during inflammation. CRP is also associated with atherosclerosis; it is deposited at lesion sites where it may interact with modified lipoproteins. There are 2 major questions regarding CRP: 1. How is the serum concentration of CRP regulated? 2. What are the functions of CRP in atherosclerosis?

Our first aim was to determine the role of the constitutively expressed transcription factor Oct-1 in regulating CRP gene expression. We found that Oct-1 overexpression inhibited (IL-6+IL-1β)- induced CRP gene expression; maximal inhibition required the binding of Oct-1 ...


The Role Of The Ku70 Vwa Domain In The Response To Dna Double Strand Breaks, Victoria L. Fell Nov 2014

The Role Of The Ku70 Vwa Domain In The Response To Dna Double Strand Breaks, Victoria L. Fell

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Ku is an abundant, highly conserved DNA binding protein found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes that plays essential roles in the maintenance of genome integrity. In eukaryotes, Ku is a heterodimer comprised of two subunits, Ku70 and Ku80, and is best characterized for its central role as the initial DNA end binding factor in the “classical” non-homologous end joining (C-NHEJ) pathway, the main DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway in mammals. At the break, Ku directly and indirectly interacts with several C-NHEJ factors and processing enzymes, serving as the scaffold for the entire DNA repair complex. In this work we ...


Analyzing The Interactions Between Xenopus Tropicalis Mc2r, Mc5r, And The Mraps: Modeling The Regulation Of Frog Interrenal Cells, Yesenia Garcia Nov 2014

Analyzing The Interactions Between Xenopus Tropicalis Mc2r, Mc5r, And The Mraps: Modeling The Regulation Of Frog Interrenal Cells, Yesenia Garcia

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The role of Melanocortin 2 Receptor (MC2R) in adrenal/interrenal glucocorticoid secretion has been well documented in many organisms. Studies in mammals have shown that in the adrenal gland two melanocortin receptors and two melanocortin receptor accessory proteins are expressed: MC2R, MC5R, MRAP, and MRAP2. The MRAPs have an opposite effect on the cell surface expression of MC2R and MC5R. In mammals, MRAP aids MC2R but inhibits MC5R cell surface expression. This thesis aims to explore the functional relationship between MC2R, MC5R, MRAP, and MRAP2 in Xenopus tropicalis to determine if the MRAPs have a similar effect on amphibian MC2R ...


Regulation Of Cdk1 Activity During The G1/S Transition In S. Cerevisiae Through Specific Cyclin-Substrate Docking: A Dissertation, Samyabrata Bhaduri Oct 2014

Regulation Of Cdk1 Activity During The G1/S Transition In S. Cerevisiae Through Specific Cyclin-Substrate Docking: A Dissertation, Samyabrata Bhaduri

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Several cell cycle events require specific forms of the cyclin-CDK complexes. It has been known for some time that cyclins not only contribute by activating the CDK but also by choosing substrates and/or specifying the location of the CDK holoenzyme. There are several examples of B-type cyclins identifying certain peptide motifs in their specific substrates through a conserved region in their structure. Such interactions were not known for the G1 class of cyclins, which are instrumental in helping the cell decide whether or not to commit to a new cell cycle, a function that is non-redundant with B-type cylins ...


New Strategies To Reveal Protein Candidates In Protein-Protein Interactome Study, Meng-Chieh Chen Oct 2014

New Strategies To Reveal Protein Candidates In Protein-Protein Interactome Study, Meng-Chieh Chen

Open Access Theses

Comprehensive protein-protein interaction network analysis can help reveal protein functions in a system-wide manner. A reliable knowledgebase of interaction networks is not only important for selecting the candidates for drug therapies, but also for evaluating the disease risk. In current interaction databases, 322579 interactions comprised of 56460 proteins have been reported (statistical analysis from APID: Agile Protein Interaction DataAnalyzer; http://bioinfow.dep.usal.es/apid/index.htm). The huge datasets are contributed mainly by yeast -two -hybrid (Y2H) screening and affinity-purification followed by mass spectrometry (AP-MS). High false positive rates and failing to cover certain interaction categories are the limitations ...


Dietary Carbohydrates Influence The Structure And Function Of The Intestinal Alpha-Glucosidases, Mohammad Chegeni Oct 2014

Dietary Carbohydrates Influence The Structure And Function Of The Intestinal Alpha-Glucosidases, Mohammad Chegeni

Open Access Dissertations

As the primary products of starch digestion by pancreatic α-amylase, maltooligosaccharides (including maltose) are the main substrates for the α-glucosidases at the intestinal brush border. Here, maltose was shown to induce the formation of a higher molecular weight (HMW) sucrase-isomaltase (SI) species in Caco-2 cells that sorts more quickly to the enterocyte surface to act as a digestive enzyme. As this finding suggested a maltose sensing ability of small intestinal enterocytes, molecular mechanisms associated with the maturation and trafficking of HMW SI were further investigated. A pulse-chase experiment using [ 35S]-methionine revealed a higher rate of early trafficking and ...