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Theses/Dissertations

2011

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Articles 1 - 30 of 129

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Evolution Of Molecular Function In Mammalian Neurons, Chantal Francis Dec 2011

Evolution Of Molecular Function In Mammalian Neurons, Chantal Francis

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

A common question in neuroscience is what forms the neurological basis of the variety of behaviors in mammals. While many studies have compared mammalian anatomy and evolution, few have investigated the physiologic functions of individual neurons in a comparative manner. Neurons’ ability to modify their features in response to stimuli, known as synaptic plasticity, is fundamental for learning and memory. A key feature of synaptic plasticity involves delivering mRNA to distinct domains where they are locally translated. Regulatory coordination of these events is critical for synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity as defects in these processes can lead to neurological diseases. In ...


Living With Emerging Contaminants: Proteomics Of 4-Nonylphenol Exposed Arrow Goby (Clevelandia Ios), Sarah Emily Johnson Dec 2011

Living With Emerging Contaminants: Proteomics Of 4-Nonylphenol Exposed Arrow Goby (Clevelandia Ios), Sarah Emily Johnson

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEs) are widely used in industrial and household products as surfactants. APEs degrade into more toxic ethoxylates, such as 4-nonylphenol (NP), which has been shown to be an endocrine disruptor and enhance the growth of tumor cells. Nonylphenol is wider spread in Pacific estuaries than originally thought. Organisms in Morro Bay, California contain some of the highest concentrations of NP reported, while containing few other contaminants. As a benthic mud-dwelling fish, the arrow goby (Clevelandia ios) may be exposed to high levels of NP due to high contaminant sequestration rates in anaerobic mud. While ecotoxicology suggests that nonylphenol ...


The Role Of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Axl In Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma And Its Regulation By Hematopoietic Progenitor Kinase 1, Xianzhou Song Dec 2011

The Role Of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Axl In Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma And Its Regulation By Hematopoietic Progenitor Kinase 1, Xianzhou Song

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is one of the most aggressive malignancies with less than 5% of five year survival rate. New molecular markers and new therapeutic targets are urgently needed for patients with PDA. Oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase Axl has been reported to be overexpressed in many types of human malignancies, including diffuse glioma, melanoma, osteosarcoma, and carcinomas of lung, colon, prostate, breast, ovary, esophagus, stomach, and kidney. However, the expression and functions of Axl in PDA are unclear. We hypothesized that Axl contributes to the development and progression of PDA. We examined Axl expression in 54 human PDA samples ...


Definition Of The Landscape Of Chromatin Structure At The Frataxin Gene In Friedreich’S Ataxia, Eunah Kim Dec 2011

Definition Of The Landscape Of Chromatin Structure At The Frataxin Gene In Friedreich’S Ataxia, Eunah Kim

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA) is caused by the transcriptional silencing of the frataxin (FXN) gene. FRDA patients have expansion of GAA repeats in intron 1 of the FXN gene in both alleles. A number of studies demonstrated that specific histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) affect either histone modifications at the FXN gene or FXN expression in FRDA cells, indicating that the hyperexpanded GAA repeat may facilitate heterochromatin formation. However, the correlation between chromatin structure and transcription at the FXN gene is currently limited due to a lack of more detailed analysis. Therefore, I analyzed the effects of the hyperexpanded GAA repeats ...


Conformational Changes In The Extracellular Domain Of Glutamate Receptors, Anu Rambhadran Dec 2011

Conformational Changes In The Extracellular Domain Of Glutamate Receptors, Anu Rambhadran

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The family of membrane protein called glutamate receptors play an important role in the central nervous system in mediating signaling between neurons. Glutamate receptors are involved in the elaborate game that nerve cells play with each other in order to control movement, memory, and learning.

Neurons achieve this communication by rapidly converting electrical signals into chemical signals and then converting them back into electrical signals. To propagate an electrical impulse, neurons in the brain launch bursts of neurotransmitter molecules like glutamate at the junction between neurons, called the synapse. Glutamate receptors are found lodged in the membranes of the post-synaptic ...


Gene Expression And Physiological Analyses To Study Metabolic Shifts In Medicago Truncatula Subjected To Biotic Stresses, Michelle Ryan Martin Dec 2011

Gene Expression And Physiological Analyses To Study Metabolic Shifts In Medicago Truncatula Subjected To Biotic Stresses, Michelle Ryan Martin

Theses and Dissertations

Plants are frequently under attack from pests and deploy various defense mechanisms to fight off predators. Many plant defenses are induced following herbivory or pathogen infection. An investment in defense could potentially lead to a diversion of metabolic resources away from primary metabolism, including reduction in plant commitment to photosynthesis. In this thesis, changes in expression levels of representative genes for primary and secondary metabolism were studied using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in Medicago truncatula Gaertner subjected to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua H¨¹bner) damage or Phoma medicaginis Malbr. & Roum. infection. Photosynthetic yield was also measured using chlorophyll fluorescence ...


In Vitro Selection Of Aptamers Against Avian Influenza Virus H5n1, Jingjing Zhao Dec 2011

In Vitro Selection Of Aptamers Against Avian Influenza Virus H5n1, Jingjing Zhao

Theses and Dissertations

Over $10 billion losses in the poultry industry were caused by avian influenza (AI) so far. Rapid and specific detection of avian influenza virus is urgently needed with the concerns over the outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus and cases of animal and human infection. Aptamers are oligonucleic acid or peptide molecules that bind a specific target molecule with good affinity. They show better thermal stability than antibodies. The goal of this research was to select DNA-aptamers as the specific recognition element of AI H5N1virus to be used in detection assays specific for field application. In this study, Systematic ...


Proteome Based Development Of Novel Affinity Tail For Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography And Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography, Neha Tiwari Dec 2011

Proteome Based Development Of Novel Affinity Tail For Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography And Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography, Neha Tiwari

Theses and Dissertations

At industrial scale, reducing the step in purification and recovery is desired; this not only decreases the cost but also increases the yield. Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography (HIC) and Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography (IMAC) both are not harsh on biological structure or activity of proteins; also both the techniques are economical and therefore a suitable choice at industrial level. This dissertation comprises of three parts. Purpose for the Part I was to identify and characterize Escherichia coli proteins which display affinity towards both IMAC and Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography (HIC). Co (II) IMAC was chosen as the primary capture step, followed by ...


Host-Virus Interactions Of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus Infection In Cultured Cells, Jeong Yoon Lee Dec 2011

Host-Virus Interactions Of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus Infection In Cultured Cells, Jeong Yoon Lee

Theses and Dissertations

Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV; Gallid herpesvirus 1) causes upper respiratory diseases in mainly chickens and exhibits 90-100% of high morbidity and up to 70% of mortality, resulting in huge economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide.

To study host-ILTV interactions, the changes in genome-wide gene expressions in response to wild-type and vaccine ILTV infections in primary chicken embryo lung cells were investigated using microarray analysis. Results provide crucial insights into host cell pathogenic and immunogenic responses against wild-type and vaccine ILTV infections. Using microarray method and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) bioinformatics tool, 273 and 306 differentially expressed genes were identified ...


Suppression Of Chronically Induced Breast Carcinogenesis And Role Of Mesenchymal Stem-Like Cells, Kusum Rathore Dec 2011

Suppression Of Chronically Induced Breast Carcinogenesis And Role Of Mesenchymal Stem-Like Cells, Kusum Rathore

Doctoral Dissertations

Sporadic breast cancers are mainly attributable to long-term exposure to environmental factors, via a multi-year, multi-step, and multi-path process of tumorigenesis involving cumulative genetic and epigenetic alterations in the chronic carcinogenesis of breast cells from a non-cancerous stage to precancerous and cancerous stages. Epidemiologic and experimental studies have suggested that various dietary compounds like green tea and grape seed may be used as preventive agents for breast cancer control. In this research, I have developed a cellular model that mimics breast cell carcinogenesis chronically induced by cumulative exposures to low doses of environmental carcinogens. I used the chronic carcinogenesis model ...


A Polymerase Chain Reaction Method For The Detection Of Selenomonas Noxia, Arthuro Mehretu Dec 2011

A Polymerase Chain Reaction Method For The Detection Of Selenomonas Noxia, Arthuro Mehretu

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

In recent studies, periodontal health has been linked to being overweight and/or obese. Among common oral bacteria, Selenomonas noxia has been implicated in converting periodontal health to disease. Selenomonas spp. have also been found in gastric ulcers, and were misdiagnosed as Helicobacter -like organisms, but no further studies were conducted. The increasing clinical and epidemiological importance of S. noxia necessitates the development of a rapid detection method. In this study, a TaqMan 16S rRNA based real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method was developed, optimized and evaluated for the rapid and specific detection of S. noxia . The 16S PCR assay ...


Global And Specific Controls Of Protein Synthesis In Hibernators, Peipei Pan Dec 2011

Global And Specific Controls Of Protein Synthesis In Hibernators, Peipei Pan

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Mammalian hibernation is a highly dynamic physiological process that is composed of a series of torpor bouts, wherein hibernators oscillate between periods of torpor and interbout arousal. Although normally vital to homeostasis, many energetically consumptive processes such as translation or protein synthesis are virtually ceased during hibernation. Earlier studies indicated that protein synthesis had fallen to almost negligible levels. Cap-dependent initiation of translation is well regulated by eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and its binding partner eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) when hibernators cycle in and out the torpor state. Herein, I investigated well-characterized regulatory mechanisms of global and specific ...


Mitochondrial Dna Analysis By Denaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography For The Characterization And Separation Of Mixtures In Forensic Samples, Richard Kristinsson Nov 2011

Mitochondrial Dna Analysis By Denaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography For The Characterization And Separation Of Mixtures In Forensic Samples, Richard Kristinsson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A mixture of different mtDNA molecules in a single sample is a significant obstacle to the successful use of standard methods of mtDNA analysis (i.e., dideoxy dye-terminator sequencing). Forensic analysts often encounter either naturally occurring mixtures (e.g., heteroplasmy) or situational mixtures typically arising from a combination of body fluids from separate individuals. The ability to accurately resolve and interpret these types of samples in a timely and cost efficient manner would substantially increase the power of mtDNA analysis and potentially provide valuable investigative information by allowing its use in cases where the current approach is limited or fails ...


Investigating The Roles Of Ndj1 And Tid1 In Crossover Assurance In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Rianna Knowles Nov 2011

Investigating The Roles Of Ndj1 And Tid1 In Crossover Assurance In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Rianna Knowles

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Meiosis is the specialized process of cell division utilized during gametogenesis in all sexually reproducing eukaryotes, which consists of one round of DNA replication followed by two rounds of chromosome segregation and results in four haploid cells. Crossovers between homologous chromosomes promote proper alignment and segregation of chromosomes during meiosis.

Crossover interference is a genetic phenomenon in which crossovers are non-randomly placed along chromosomes. Crossover assurance ensures that every homologous chromosome pair obtains at least one crossover during Prophase I. Crossovers physically connect homologous pairs, allowing spindle fibers to attach and separate homologs properly. However, some organisms have shown an ...


Investigating Trna Release From The Bacterial Ribosome, Ian S. Farrell Aug 2011

Investigating Trna Release From The Bacterial Ribosome, Ian S. Farrell

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Translation of mRNA into proteins is integral in all living organisms, and takes place on the ribosome. In recent years, the X-ray crystal structures of biologically relevant ribosome complexes came into light, and the advance of kinetic studies was soon to follow, leading to a better understanding of the general ribosomal mechanism. However, there still remains some ambiguity in certain ribosome functions.

Ribosomal protein L1 initially became relevant in the early 1980s when it was determined that ribosomes lacking L1 showed a decreased capacity for in vitro protein synthesis. Later, it was shown that the L1-stalk is a highly mobile ...


Role And Regulation Of Myosin Iia In Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity, Keri Sanborn Aug 2011

Role And Regulation Of Myosin Iia In Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity, Keri Sanborn

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that provide defense by directing their cytotoxic activity against virally infected and tumorigenic cells. Target cell lysis requires directed secretion of lytic granule contents, including pore-forming perforin and apoptosis-inducing granzymes, at the contact site. During the formation of a mature immunological synapse (IS) with a target cell, an NK cell polymerizes filamentous actin (F-actin) at the contact site, which may serve as a barrier to secretion of lytic granules for cytotoxicity. An actin-based motor protein, nonmuscle myosin IIA, has been demonstrated to be required for NK cell cytotoxic activity ...


Mechanism Of Cyclin D1-Dependent Genomic Instability And Neoplastic Transformation, Laura Pontano Vaites Aug 2011

Mechanism Of Cyclin D1-Dependent Genomic Instability And Neoplastic Transformation, Laura Pontano Vaites

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Regulation of cyclin D1-dependent kinase activity is essential for cell cycle progression and DNA replication fidelity. Critically, impaired cyclin D1 phosphorylation and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis following the G1/S transition drives neoplastic growth, suggesting that posttranslational regulation is required for cell homeostasis. Elucidation of mechanisms facilitating S-phase cyclin D1 accumulation and novel functions of nuclear cyclin D1/CDK4 kinase is critical for understanding the role of cyclin D1 in tumorigenesis. The work presented herein demonstrates that accelerated, Fbx4-dependent cyclin D1 degradation following S-phase DNA damage is essential to maintain genome stability. Furthermore, Fbx4 functions as a bona fide tumor suppressor, as ...


Changes In Expression Of Akt Pathway Proteins Following Treatment With Rg3 In Vitro, Kathryn Schalkoff Aug 2011

Changes In Expression Of Akt Pathway Proteins Following Treatment With Rg3 In Vitro, Kathryn Schalkoff

All Theses

To assess changes in AKT pathway signaling, a recombinant protein of the G3 domain of rat laminin-5 (rG3) that specifically binds the alpha subunit of integrins α6β1 and α6β4 expressed on cancer cells (e.g., MDA-MB-231) was produced. This recombinant protein is believed to interrupt the intracellular signaling events of the AKT pathway, causing a decrease in proliferation and survival of cells after treatment. Viability assays confirmed an apoptotic effect of rG3 on cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, data from gene expression studies of Caspase-9, GRB10, and CDKNIB proved non-conclusive that rG3 is acting upon gene expression, leading to ...


Developmental Deregulation And Tumorigenesis Inhibition In 14-3-3zeta Knockout Mouse, Jun Yang Aug 2011

Developmental Deregulation And Tumorigenesis Inhibition In 14-3-3zeta Knockout Mouse, Jun Yang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cancer is second leading cause of death in the United States. Improving cancer care through patient care, research, education and prevention not only saves lives, but reduces health care cost as well. Breast cancer is the most leading cause of cancer incidence and cancer related death in women of the United States. 14-3-3s are a family of conserved proteins ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic organisms. They form complexes with hundreds of proteins by binding to specific phospho-serine/threonine containing motifs. In this way they regulate a variety of cellular processes and are involved in many human diseases especially cancer to ...


Mechanisms Of Adenovirus-Mediated Autophagy, Erin White Aug 2011

Mechanisms Of Adenovirus-Mediated Autophagy, Erin White

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

A patient diagnosed with a glioma, generally, has an average of 14 months year to live after implementation of conventional therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Glioblastomas are highly lethal because of their aggressive nature and resistance to conventional therapies and apoptosis. Thus other avenues of cell death urgently need to be explored. Autophagy, which is also known as programmed cell death type II, has recently been identified as an alternative mechanism to kill apoptosis- resistant cancer cells. Traditionally, researchers have studied how cells undergo autophagy during viral infection as an immune response mechanism, but recently researchers have discovered ...


Significance Of Increased Tissue Transglutaminase In Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer, Amy L. Han Aug 2011

Significance Of Increased Tissue Transglutaminase In Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer, Amy L. Han

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The progression of hormone responsive to hormone refractory prostate cancer poses a major clinical challenge in the successful treatment of prostate cancer. The hormone refractory prostate cancer cells exhibit resistance not only to castrate levels of testosterone, but also to other therapeutic modalities and hence become lethal. Currently, there is no effective treatment available for managing this cancer. These observations underscore the urgency to investigate mechanism(s) that contribute to the progression of hormone-responsive to hormone-refractory prostate cancer and to target them for improved clinical outcomes.

Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a multifunctional pro-inflammatory protein involved in diverse physiological processes such ...


Downregulation Of Pax2 Suppresses Ovarian Cancer Cell Growth, Huijuan Song Aug 2011

Downregulation Of Pax2 Suppresses Ovarian Cancer Cell Growth, Huijuan Song

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

PAX2 is one of nine PAX genes regulating tissue development and cellular differentiation in embryos. PAX2 promotes cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, cell-lineage specification, migration, and survival. Unattenuated PAX2 has been found in several cancer types. We therefore sought to elucidate the role of PAX2 in ovarian carcinomas. We found that PAX2 was expressed in low-grade serous, clear cell, endometrioid and mucinous cell ovarian carcinomas, which are relatively chemoresistant compared to high grade serous ovarian carcinomas. Four ovarian cancer cell lines, RMUGL (mucinous), TOV21G (clear cell), MDAH-2774 (endometrioid) and IGROV1 (endometrioid), which express high-levels of PAX2, were used to study the ...


Dissecting The Interaction Between P53 And Trim24, Aundrietta D. Duncan Aug 2011

Dissecting The Interaction Between P53 And Trim24, Aundrietta D. Duncan

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Dissecting the Interaction of p53 and TRIM24

Aundrietta DeVan Duncan

Supervisory Professor, Michelle Barton, Ph.D.

p53, the “guardian of the genome”, plays an important role in multiple biological processes including cell cycle, angiogenesis, DNA repair and apoptosis. Because it is mutated in over 50% of cancers, p53 has been widely studied in established cancer cell lines. However, little is known about the function of p53 in a normal cell. We focused on characterizing p53 in normal cells and during differentiation. Our lab recently identified a novel binding partner of p53, Tripartite Motif 24 protein (TRIM24). TRIM24 is a member ...


Mechanism Of Transcriptional Suppression Of A Phytochrome A Epiallele In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Gulab D. Rangani Aug 2011

Mechanism Of Transcriptional Suppression Of A Phytochrome A Epiallele In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Gulab D. Rangani

Theses and Dissertations

Cytosine methylation in DNA is an integral part of epigenetically controlled regulatory networks in eukaryotes. Both plants and vertebrates display DNA methylation in the gene coding region; however, its role in gene expression is not well understood. Gene promoter, on the other hand, remains largely unmethylated. Acquisition of methylation in promoter results in transcriptional suppression of the gene. The goal of this research is to study the effect of coding region methylation in gene expression using a unique gene model, phyA'. phyA' is a transcriptionally suppressed epiallele of the Arabidopsis thaliana Phytochrome A gene, which contains methylation in CG sites ...


The Role Of The Androgen Receptor Cofactor P44/Wdr77 In Astrocyte Activation, Bryce H. Vincent Aug 2011

The Role Of The Androgen Receptor Cofactor P44/Wdr77 In Astrocyte Activation, Bryce H. Vincent

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Astrogliosis is induced by neuronal damage and is also a pathological feature of the major aging-related neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanisms that control the cascade of astrogliosis have not been well established. In a previous study, we identified a novel androgen receptor (AR)-interacting protein (p44/WDR77) and found that it plays a critical role in the control of proliferation and differentiation of prostate epithelial cells. In the present study, we found that deletion of the p44 gene in the mouse brain caused accelerated aging with dramatic astrogliosis. The p44/WDR77 is expressed in astrocytes and loss of p44/WDR77 expression ...


The Role Of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts In Lung Tumorigenesis, Jonathon D. Roybal Aug 2011

The Role Of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts In Lung Tumorigenesis, Jonathon D. Roybal

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The extracellular milieu is rich in growth factors that drive tumor progression,but the mechanisms that govern tumor cell sensitivity to those ligands have notbeen fully defined. In this study, we address this question in mice that developmetastatic lung adenocarcinomas through the suppression of the microRNA-200 (miR-200) family. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) enhance tumorgrowth and invasion by secreting VEGF-A that binds to VEGFR1, a processrequired for tumor growth and metastasis in mice and correlated with a poorprognosis in lung adenocarcinoma patients. In this study, we discovered thatmiR-200 blocked CAF-induced tumor cell invasion by directly targetingVEGFR1 in tumor cells. In the context ...


Stimulator Of Neurotropic Effects Determining The Mechanism Of Action Of The Ms-818 Compound Through Protein Identification By Affinity Chromatography And Sds-Page, Charlene Seraphina Dass Aug 2011

Stimulator Of Neurotropic Effects Determining The Mechanism Of Action Of The Ms-818 Compound Through Protein Identification By Affinity Chromatography And Sds-Page, Charlene Seraphina Dass

HIM 1990-2015

The MS-818 compound is used in the proliferation process of neuronal cells and many biological activities that accompany this process such as astrocyte differentiation, inhibition of neuronal apoptosis, and fraction repairs. We do know the effects of this compound, but the mechanism of action remained uncertain until now. To determine the pathway of this compound, NT2 cells were cultured and lysed to isolate the proteins. Affinity Chromatography was performed in order to immobilize the MS-818 compound to a Hi-Trap NHS column. The NT2 protein sample was injected through the column and eluted with a MS-818 concentrated, high salt content elution ...


A Time-And-Space Parallelized Algorithm For The Cable Equation, Chuan Li Aug 2011

A Time-And-Space Parallelized Algorithm For The Cable Equation, Chuan Li

Doctoral Dissertations

Electrical propagation in excitable tissue, such as nerve fibers and heart muscle, is described by a nonlinear diffusion-reaction parabolic partial differential equation for the transmembrane voltage $V(x,t)$, known as the cable equation. This equation involves a highly nonlinear source term, representing the total ionic current across the membrane, governed by a Hodgkin-Huxley type ionic model, and requires the solution of a system of ordinary differential equations. Thus, the model consists of a PDE (in 1-, 2- or 3-dimensions) coupled to a system of ODEs, and it is very expensive to solve, especially in 2 and 3 dimensions.

In ...


Examining The Roles Of Pstoc75 Potra Domains In Chloroplast Protein Import, Richard Franklin Simmerman Aug 2011

Examining The Roles Of Pstoc75 Potra Domains In Chloroplast Protein Import, Richard Franklin Simmerman

Masters Theses

During chloroplast formation via endosymbiosis most of the plastid genome was transferred to the host nuclear genome. Genomic and proteomic analysis suggests that >95% of the original plastid proteome is now encoded in the nucleus, and these now cytosolically fabricated proteins require a post-translational transport pathway back into the organelle. This process is not well understood, yet it has been shown to involve translocons at the outer and inner envelope of the chloroplast membranes (TOC & TIC). These translocons interact with a cleavable N-terminal extension of between 20 and 100 residues on chloroplast-bound precursor proteins known as the transit-peptide. Precursor proteins ...


Regulation Of G Protein Signaling By Goloco Motif Containing Proteins, Peishen Zhao Jul 2011

Regulation Of G Protein Signaling By Goloco Motif Containing Proteins, Peishen Zhao

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Signal transduction via heterotrimeric G proteins in response to transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors plays a central aspect in how cells integrate extracellular stimuli and produce biological responses. In addition to receptor-mediated activation of heterotrimeric G proteins, during the last few decades, accessory proteins have been found to regulate G protein activity via different mechanisms. Several proteins have been identified that contain multiple G protein regulatory domains. Using various molecular and biochemical approaches, we have characterized the effects of two such proteins, G18 and RGS14, on G protein activity. Both proteins contain a second G protein binding domain in addition to ...