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Theses/Dissertations

1999

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Articles 1 - 30 of 32

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Tissue-Specific Expression And Steroid Hormone Regulation Of Human Gonadotropin -Releasing Hormone (Hgnrh) Gene In Placental Cells (Jeg -3 Cells), Zhengguang Chen Jul 1999

Tissue-Specific Expression And Steroid Hormone Regulation Of Human Gonadotropin -Releasing Hormone (Hgnrh) Gene In Placental Cells (Jeg -3 Cells), Zhengguang Chen

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Using JEG-3 cells as an in vitro model, I investigated the mechanisms behind the tissue-specific expression and steroid hormone regulation of the hGnRH gene in the human placenta. The hGnRH upstream promoter was found to be functionally active in JEG-3 cells. The DNA sequence responsible for functioning of the upstream promoter in JEG-3 cells is narrowed to a region between –1048 bp and –730 bp. This DNA fragment contains four elements, which can bind with nuclear extract from JEG-3 cells (but not from GT1-7 cells).

Estradiol (E2) represses the hGnRH upstream promoter activity in JEG-3 cells. This inhibition is receptor-mediated ...


Production Of Copper-Complexing Ligands In Response To Elevated Concentrations Of Copper In Marine Synechococcus Spp., Arunsri Chatkaeomorakot Brown Apr 1999

Production Of Copper-Complexing Ligands In Response To Elevated Concentrations Of Copper In Marine Synechococcus Spp., Arunsri Chatkaeomorakot Brown

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Synechococcus spp. (marine cyanobacteria) are extremely sensitive to copper toxicity and can produce high-affinity ligands of unknown structure which form complexes with free cupric ion. These ligands may contribute to the biological control of the levels of free cupric ions in surface seawater. Synechococcus spp. are known to produce metallothioneins (MT) in response to cadmium and zinc stress. In the present study the hypothesis that marine Synechococcus produce MT in response to copper was tested. Three marine Synechococcus spp. i.e., PCC 7001, PCC 73109, and PCC 7003, were exposed to different concentrations of CUSO 4 for various time periods ...


Secondary Metabolites From Montana Isolates Of Penicillium, Jennifer Hill Apr 1999

Secondary Metabolites From Montana Isolates Of Penicillium, Jennifer Hill

Chemistry and Physics Undergraduate Theses

Extracellular and intracellular secondary metabolites were extracted from w different cultures of Penicillium, isolated mostly from rust galls on lodgepole and ponderosa pine in Montana. Extracts containing the fungal metabolites were applied to silica-gel thin layer chromatography strips by blotting agar plugs from mycelial cultures. Chromatograms were developed with appropriate solvents in chromatography chambers. The chromatograms were then viewed under normal light and ultraviolet light at wavelengths of 254 nm and 366 nm. Standard literature was used to identify the metabolites. Results show that new metabolites as well as some previously reported metabolites are produced by these Montana Penicillium isolates.


Studies Of Mosaicism For Chromosomal Aneuploidy In Fetal Loss Using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization On Several Tissue Types, Aaron Knox Apr 1999

Studies Of Mosaicism For Chromosomal Aneuploidy In Fetal Loss Using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization On Several Tissue Types, Aaron Knox

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The main objective ofthis study was to determine the presence and level of mosaicism for chromosomal aneuploidy in several cases of fetal demise that had previous indications of chromosome aberrations. The presence of aneuploidy was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes. Techniques that were utilized in attempts to prepare several tissue types for FISH are described. The analyses made with FISH provided useful data on the chromosomal makeup oftwo of the cases studied. In one case FISH results showed that the product of conception (POC) did not contain the trisomy 18 that is present at low levels in ...


Development Of A Novel Assay For The Detection Of Viral Stability In Lyophilized Vaccines, Jeffrey Thomas Blue Jan 1999

Development Of A Novel Assay For The Detection Of Viral Stability In Lyophilized Vaccines, Jeffrey Thomas Blue

Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Studies To Identify Factors Involved In Processing Of 28s Rrna In The Gap Region, Lynn Roginsky Jan 1999

Studies To Identify Factors Involved In Processing Of 28s Rrna In The Gap Region, Lynn Roginsky

Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Identification Of Tissue Specific Expression And Polymorphic Differences In Neuropeptide Y Receptors Y1 And Y5, Avery R. Soderman Jan 1999

Identification Of Tissue Specific Expression And Polymorphic Differences In Neuropeptide Y Receptors Y1 And Y5, Avery R. Soderman

Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Primary Photoprocesses Of Light-Activated Antiviral And Antitumor Agents, Hypericin And Hypocrellin , Alexandre V. Smirnov Jan 1999

Primary Photoprocesses Of Light-Activated Antiviral And Antitumor Agents, Hypericin And Hypocrellin , Alexandre V. Smirnov

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The dissertation focuses on the ultrafast primary photoprocesses of the title anti-viral and anti-cancer agents, whose activity depends on light which is also accompanied by photoacidification in vesicles and living cells;By complementing the techniques of time-resolved absorption spectroscopy with those of fluorescence upconversion and applying them to hypericin, hypocrellin A and B, and their methylated analogs that are unable to execute proton transfer, it was demonstrated that intramolecular excited-state hydrogen atom transfer is a dominant primary nonradiative process;For hypocrellin A in viscous solvents such as octanol and ethylene glycol, an absorption transient of ∼10-ps duration, similar to the ...


Biochemical Characterization And Positional Cloning Of The Var2 Variegation Mutant Of Arabidopsis Thaliana , Meng Chen Jan 1999

Biochemical Characterization And Positional Cloning Of The Var2 Variegation Mutant Of Arabidopsis Thaliana , Meng Chen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Chloroplasts differentiation and development are highly coordinated with their host cells. To better elucidate the mechanisms involved in nuclear-chloroplast interactions, we characterized a nuclear encoded leaf variegation mutation called var2. While cotyledons appear normal, true leaves of var2 emerge as yellow, then turn into green-white sectors. The green sectors contain cells with normal chloroplasts, whereas the white sectors contain cells with abnormal plastid lacking of internal membrane structures. The phenotypes suggested that VAR2 might be involved in thylakoid biogenesis in early chloroplast differentiation. We cloned the VAR2 gene by a map-based method. Five original and two potential alleles were sequenced ...


Oxidizing Side Of The Photosystem I , Jun Sun Jan 1999

Oxidizing Side Of The Photosystem I , Jun Sun

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Photosynthesis converts solar energy into the biological sources of energy for the life on our planet. Photosystem I (PSI) is one of the two reaction centers of oxygenic photosynthesis. PSI is a multiheteromeric membrane-protein complex that catalyzes light-driven electron transfer from plastocyanin or cytochrome c6 to ferredoxin. The PsaA and PsaB subunits form the heterodimeric core that harbors the primary electron donor P700. On the oxidizing side of the PSI complex, plastocyanin or cytochrome c6 donates electrons to the P700 reaction center. The objective of this dissertation is to identify elements of molecular recognition on the oxidizing side of PSI ...


Genome Reorganization And Non-Linear Transposition In Maize , Jianbo Zhang Jan 1999

Genome Reorganization And Non-Linear Transposition In Maize , Jianbo Zhang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Transposable elements have long been considered as potential agents of large-scale genome reorganization by virtue of their ability to induce chromosomal rearrangements such as deletions, duplications, inversions, and reciprocal translocations. Previous researchers have shown that particular configurations of transposon termini can induce chromosome rearrangements at high frequencies. By analyzing two derivatives of an unstable allele of the maize P1 (pericarp color) gene carrying both a full-length Ac (Activator) transposable element and a Ac terminal fragment termed fAc (fractured Ac) that were recovered from a classical maize ear twinned sector, it were found that the twinned alleles are a large inverted ...


Genetic Mobility And Instability Of Retroviral Vector In Vector Producer Cells For Gene Therapy, Won-Bin Young Jan 1999

Genetic Mobility And Instability Of Retroviral Vector In Vector Producer Cells For Gene Therapy, Won-Bin Young

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A primary biosafety issue of retroviral vector-mediated gene therapy is the genetic instability of retroviral vectors. Reverse transcription of vector RNA genome is initiated by viral reverse transcriptase (RT) in a virion particle after infection of a target cell. During reverse transcription, abnormal template switches between vector and occasionally co-packaged helper virus in a virion particle can therefore enable helper virus to regain replication elements from the vector and revert to replication-competent retrovirus (RCR). This research was undertaken to study the origins of RT enzyme activities and test the hypothesis that RT enzyme activities are contributed by both exogenous RT ...


The Glycogen Phosphorylase/ Phosphorylase Kinase Interaction: Effects Of Mutations In The Amino-Terminal Region Of Glycogen Phosphorylase , Alyssa Christine Biorn Jan 1999

The Glycogen Phosphorylase/ Phosphorylase Kinase Interaction: Effects Of Mutations In The Amino-Terminal Region Of Glycogen Phosphorylase , Alyssa Christine Biorn

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Glycogen phosphorylase is an important enzyme for carbohydrate metabolism in muscle. It uses inorganic phosphate to remove glucose from glycogen, producing glucose-1-phosphate, which can be used for the production of ATP. Inactive glycogen phosphorylase (phosphorylase h) is activated either by the allosteric binding of 5'-AMP, or by phosphorylation by phosphorylase kinase (PhK). Phosphorylation produces phosphorylase a, which is active in the absence of AMP. PhK is the only kinase that can phosphorylate phosphorylase b, which in turn is the only substrate for PhK. This dissertation research has attempted to determine the reasons for this specificity and how these two ...


Selection For Soybean Seed Yield With Molecular Markers , Joseph Richard Byrum Jan 1999

Selection For Soybean Seed Yield With Molecular Markers , Joseph Richard Byrum

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Molecular markers may facilitate the identification of and selection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control economically important traits. The objective of the study was to compare the efficiency of selection among soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] lines for seed yield based on single replication progeny-row-yield tests (PRYT), molecular marker loci selected by pedigree analysis, and a combination of PRYT and molecular marker data. A total of 380 random F3-derived lines from three populations were evaluated in the PRYT at Ames, IA, in 1997 and were genotyped for simple sequence repeats (SSRs) that had been chosen by pedigree analysis for ...


Evaluation Of Recurrent Selection In Leaming And Midland Maize Populations , Marcelo Javier Carena Jan 1999

Evaluation Of Recurrent Selection In Leaming And Midland Maize Populations , Marcelo Javier Carena

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Rates of maize (Zea mays L.) yield improvement in the United States has been reduced during the 1990's. Double-cycle breeding in a few old inbred lines and limited germplasm evaluation and utilization are possible explanations. Only one heterotic pattern (Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic x Lancaster Sure Crop) is being widely exploited in U.S. dent maize breeding programs. Alternative U.S. heterotic patterns have been suggested, but they received limited attention and improvement. The objectives of this research were to evaluate inbred-progeny recurrent selection in Leaming (originated in Ohio), the oldest known U.S. open-pollinated variety, and Midland Yellow ...


Evaluation Of Mycobacterial Esat-6 As A Type-I Immune Enhancing Adjuvant , Sreekumar Ambalakkat Menon Jan 1999

Evaluation Of Mycobacterial Esat-6 As A Type-I Immune Enhancing Adjuvant , Sreekumar Ambalakkat Menon

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The need for improved adjuvants has continued in spite of new vaccination strategies using recombinant proteins and genetic (DNA vectored) vaccines. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein ESAT-6 has been shown in mice to be involved in the recall of long-lived immunity and protection in mice against tuberculosis. Thus, this protein could potentially act as a molecular adjuvant enhancing antigen-specific Type I immune responses. This study examined the hypothesis that Es could enhance Type I responses against a second antigen in mice when presented as a fusion with that antigen. This was tested using ESAT-6 fusions with two Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae surface antigens ...


Dynamic Changes In The Localization Of Synapse Associated Proteins During Development And Differentiation Of The Mammalian Retina , Mary Heather West Greenlee Jan 1999

Dynamic Changes In The Localization Of Synapse Associated Proteins During Development And Differentiation Of The Mammalian Retina , Mary Heather West Greenlee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

We have examined the developmental distribution and differential localization of presynaptic terminal associated proteins in the mammalian retina. We have used antibodies specific for synaptic vesicle associated proteins Synaptotagmin, Rab 3A, Synaptophysin and Synaptobrevin, and presynaptic terminal membrane associated proteins SNAP-25 and Syntaxin, to characterize their spatio-temporal distribution during retinal differentiation and in the mature retina;The vertebrate retina has a laminar organization consisting of three cellular layers separated by two synaptic layers, the inner piexiform layer and the outer plexiform layer. In general, immunoreactivity for presynaptic terminal associated proteins was first observed in cellular layers, and as differentiation progressed ...


Transposon-Induced Homologous Recombination At The Maize P Locus And In Transgenic Arabidopsis , Yongli Xiao Jan 1999

Transposon-Induced Homologous Recombination At The Maize P Locus And In Transgenic Arabidopsis , Yongli Xiao

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The maize P gene encodes a Myb-homologous regulator of red phlobaphene pigment biosynthesis in the pericarp, cob and other floral tissues. The P locus has a unique structure with two 5.2kb direct repeats flanking the P gene coding region. When the transposon (Ac) inserts into one site between the two direct repeats in the P-ovov-1114 allele, homologous recombination between the two 5.2kb repeats can occur and the whole P gene coding sequence is deleted;To further study this transposon-induced homologous recombination. This study examined six alleles that carry Ac insertions at different sites in the P locus, in ...


Environmental Stress In Hard Coral: Evaluating Lipid As An Indicator Of Sublethal Stress On Short Time Scales, David Harold Niebuhr Jan 1999

Environmental Stress In Hard Coral: Evaluating Lipid As An Indicator Of Sublethal Stress On Short Time Scales, David Harold Niebuhr

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Lipid quality was evaluated in Montastrea spp. under sediment- and heat-stressed conditions to evaluate lipid ratio as an indicator of sub-lethal stress on short time scales. The ratio of storage lipid (wax ester + triacylglyceride) to structural lipid (sterol esters + phospholipid) decreased significantly (0.25 to 0.14, p < 0.01) after experimental sedimentation. FAME analysis of colonies exposed to experimental sedimentation showed a reduction of the algal, 18:3(n-6) and 18:4(n-3), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the polar lipid fraction. This loss of PUFA suggests a loss of algal membrane in sediment-stressed colonies. Lipid quality was similarly measured in M. faveolata over a 10-day period. Mean (n = 20) ratio of storage to structural lipid in M. faveolata dropped from 2.43 to a level of 0.98 immediately following a natural sedimentation event before recovering to levels of 1.4 and 2.9 on post-storm days 2 and 4, respectively. Colonies of M. annularis subject to heat-stress (35??C) exhibited no significant change in storage lipid ratio, while levels of Free Fatty Acids increased significantly from 0.012 (n = 22) to 0.156 mg lipid/g dry tissue (n = 22)(p < 0.05). FAME analysis of tissue lipids extracted from the heat-stressed colonies showed changes in the polar fraction, with significant decreases in the 18:3(n-6), 18:3(n-3), 18:4(n-3), 20:4(n-6) and 20:5(n-3) (p < 0.05) PUFA and subsequent significant increases in the saturated fatty acids, 16:0 and 18:0 (p < 0.05). These changes in lipid quantity and quality indicate possible oxidation and preferential digestion of zooxanthellar membranes. Stress experiments were repeated in M. annularis using VacutainerRTM blood collection tubes to collect micro-tissue samples without destroying skeleton of the sample colonies. A significant decrease in storage: structural lipid ratio after sedimentation was also detected using the micro-tissue technique. This study indicates that the relative abundance of lipid subclass components can indicate sub-lethal environmental stress, on short time scales, in M. annularis and M. faveolata. Furthermore, micro-tissue collection techniques permit repeated monitoring coral colonies to assess the manifestation of stress from first detection of impact at the cellular level to changes in community to changes in community structure detectable over longer time scales.


Molecular Phylogeny Of Lake Baikal Amphipods, Kenneth S. Macdonald Jan 1999

Molecular Phylogeny Of Lake Baikal Amphipods, Kenneth S. Macdonald

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Indo-Pacific Population Structure Of The Black Marlin, Makaira Indica, Inferred From Molecular Markers, Brett Falterman Jan 1999

Indo-Pacific Population Structure Of The Black Marlin, Makaira Indica, Inferred From Molecular Markers, Brett Falterman

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


32p-Postlabeling Analysis Of Aromatic Dna Adducts In Hemopoietic Tissues And Blood Of The Mummichog Fundulus Heteroclitus, Wendy L. Rose Jan 1999

32p-Postlabeling Analysis Of Aromatic Dna Adducts In Hemopoietic Tissues And Blood Of The Mummichog Fundulus Heteroclitus, Wendy L. Rose

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Functional And Molecular Analysis Of Antibody Affinity Maturation In Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), Haili Zhang Jan 1999

Functional And Molecular Analysis Of Antibody Affinity Maturation In Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), Haili Zhang

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Genetic And Molecular Characterization Of The Rev Protein Of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus , Michael Andrew Belshan Jan 1999

Genetic And Molecular Characterization Of The Rev Protein Of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus , Michael Andrew Belshan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Members of the lentivirus subfamily of retroviruses are characterized as causing slow, chronic disease. Atypical of other lentiviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1, equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) may produce a rapid, variable disease course in horses. Infected horses may undergo an, acute episode of disease involving viremia, fever, and thrombocytopenia. Following this acute period, horses may resolve to an inapparent infection or suffer a chronic period of additional cycles of viremia, fever, and thrombocytopenia. Horses which survive clinical episodes usually become inapparent carriers of the virus for life. Numerous virus and host factors contribute to the phenotypic ...


Molecular Characterization Of Myb-Homologous Transcriptional Factors Of The Flavonoid Pathway In Zea Mays , Peifen Zhang Jan 1999

Molecular Characterization Of Myb-Homologous Transcriptional Factors Of The Flavonoid Pathway In Zea Mays , Peifen Zhang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Structural genes encoding enzymes that catalyze each step of flavonoid synthesis are temporally and spatially regulated. It has been shown that specific anthocyanin pigmentation patterns in maize are achieved by the tissue-specific expression of regulatory genes. Moreover, this tissue-specific regulation is a consequence of the generation of different alleles or duplicated copies of regulatory genes during evolution;In contrast, the myb-homologous P1 gene was the only known regulatory gene required for phlobaphene biosynthesis. The isolation and characterization of the P2 gene, reported here, provides direct molecular evidence that the P region contains duplicated genes. Furthermore, the duplicated P1 (herein, P1-rr ...


Molecular And Genetic Analysis Of Jil-1, A Chromatin Associated Protein Kinase Implicated In Transcriptional Regulation In Drosophila , Ye Jin Jan 1999

Molecular And Genetic Analysis Of Jil-1, A Chromatin Associated Protein Kinase Implicated In Transcriptional Regulation In Drosophila , Ye Jin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Chromatin remodeling is an essential step for many chromatin-related fundamental cellular processes, such as gene replication, transcription, recombination and gene silencing. Two classes of protein complexes contribute to chromatin remodeling: protein complexes with ATPase activity and protein complexes capable of enzymatic modifications of chromosomal proteins, especially histones. Compared to well-studied histone acetylation which has been directly linked to gene transcription, the role of histone phosphorylation in chromatin remodeling for gene transcription is still poorly understood although there is some correlation between histone phosphorylation and gene transcription;A novel nuclear tandem protein kinase JIL-1 was cloned and identified in Kristen Johansen ...


Fatty Acid Modification Of Cells In Culture By Overexpression Of Exogenous Desaturases , Travis Jay Knight Jan 1999

Fatty Acid Modification Of Cells In Culture By Overexpression Of Exogenous Desaturases , Travis Jay Knight

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

COS-1 cells were transfected transiently with expression vectors encoding stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase (SACPD) from castor bean, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) from mice, and a control vector containing SACPD cDNA in reverse orientation. The hypothesis was that both exogenous desaturases would be active in COS-1 cells, thereby increasing the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids produced by the cells. Messenger RNA and anti-myc immunoreactive proteins were detected at 12 and 24 hours post-transfection respectively and increased through 48 hours post-transfection. When acetate was used as the fatty acid precursor in cultures for a 24-hour period starting 24 hours post-transfection, the ratio of monounsaturated to ...


Construction Of An Escherichia Coli Lac Repressor-Based System To Study Human Cytomegalovirus Gene Expression, Laura Fernanda Cageao-Luchetti Jan 1999

Construction Of An Escherichia Coli Lac Repressor-Based System To Study Human Cytomegalovirus Gene Expression, Laura Fernanda Cageao-Luchetti

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

An Escherichia coli lac repressor-based system was developed to study the roles of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genes during viral replication. To this end, a recombinant HCMV expressing the lac repressor was generated (RVlac), and an HCMV-specific promoter was targeted for conditional expression by inserting the lac operator sequence. The promoter of a nonessential gene was chosen in order to be able to assess parameters of repression and derepression of the operator-containing promoter in the endogenous locus, without having virus growth dependent on the specific inducer isopropylthiogalactoside (IPTG). The feasibility of this approach to conditionally express an HCMV promoter was ...


Novel G-Dna Binding Proteins From The Ciliate Tetrahymena Thermophila: Purification, Characterization, Cloning And Functional Analyses , Quan Lu Jan 1999

Novel G-Dna Binding Proteins From The Ciliate Tetrahymena Thermophila: Purification, Characterization, Cloning And Functional Analyses , Quan Lu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

G-DNA is a family of novel four-stranded DNA structures characterized by motifs called G-quartets. Evidence is growing to suggest that G-DNA exists and plays biological roles in vivo. In order to further elucidate the functions of G-DNA, we have studied proteins that specifically bind to the DNA structure;Two G-DNA binding activities, TGPI and TGP3, were purified from the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Based on the peptide sequences obtained from direct internal peptide sequencing, the cDNAs coding for the genes were cloned. Deduced protein sequences showed that TGP1 and TGP3 are novel proteins but share significant homology with each other. Furthermore ...


Replication Of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus Rna And Transcriptional Control Of Gene Expression , Guennadi Koev Jan 1999

Replication Of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus Rna And Transcriptional Control Of Gene Expression , Guennadi Koev

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) is an important pathogen of cereal crops. It has a single-stranded positive sense genomic RNA (gRNA), 5.7 kilobases. During infection of a plant cell, BYDV generates a nested set of three subgenomic mRNAs (sgRNAs) for expression of its 3'-proximal genes. The goal of this study was to map and characterize cis-acting RNA signals involved in transcription and replication of BYDV RNA. Three sgRNA promoters and the 3' origin of replication were characterized. The sgRNA1 promoter was mapped to a 98 nt region that contains two stem-loop structures. A combination of primary and secondary ...