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Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Mechanisms And Molecular Biology Of Major Tumor Suppressors, Brienne E. Engel Sep 2014

Mechanisms And Molecular Biology Of Major Tumor Suppressors, Brienne E. Engel

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is devoted to the study of the molecular biology of major tumor suppressors, defined as those that prevent the cellular processes identified as the hallmarks of cancer. Specifically, the major tumor suppressors pRb and STK11 are explored in the context of osteosarcoma and lung cancer, respectively.

RB1 was the first tumor suppressor gene discovered. Over four decades of work have revealed that the Rb protein (pRb) is a master regulator of biological pathways influencing virtually every aspect of intrinsic cell fate including cell growth, cell-cycle checkpoints, differentiation, senescence, self-renewal, replication, genomic stability and apoptosis. While these many processes ...


Role And Regulation Of Snon/Skil And Plscr1 Located At 3q26.2 And 3q23, Respectively, In Ovarian Cancer Pathophysiology, Madhav Karthik Kodigepalli Sep 2014

Role And Regulation Of Snon/Skil And Plscr1 Located At 3q26.2 And 3q23, Respectively, In Ovarian Cancer Pathophysiology, Madhav Karthik Kodigepalli

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ovarian cancer is one of the most common causes of gynecological cancer related deaths in women. In 2014, the estimated number of deaths due to ovarian cancer is 14,270 with occurrence of over 22, 240 new cases (National Cancer Institute, http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/ovary.html). Despite improvement in treatment strategies, the 5-year survival rate is still below 50% mainly due to chemoresistance and relapse. Amplification of chromosomal region 3q26 is a common characteristic in various epithelial cancers including ovarian cancer. This region harbors various oncogenes including the TGFβ signaling mediators EVI1 and SnoN/SkiL, PKCι and ...


Genetic Basis For The Virulence Of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli Strain Tw14359, Jason Kyle Morgan May 2014

Genetic Basis For The Virulence Of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli Strain Tw14359, Jason Kyle Morgan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a virulent pathotype of E. coli that is associated with major outbreaks of hemorrhagic colitis and the life-threatening kidney disease hemolytic uremic syndrome. For successful host colonization and attachment to the intestinal mucosa, EHEC requires the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island, which encodes a type III secretion system (TTSS) responsible for secreting and translocating effector proteins into host colonocytes. Regulation of the LEE is primarily directed through the first operon, LEE1, encoding the locus encoded regulator (Ler), and occurs through the direct and indirect action of several regulators. The 2006 U.S. spinach ...


Structure-Based Design Of Novel Inhibitors And Ultra High Resolution Analysis Of Ctx-M Beta-Lactamase, Derek Allen Nichols May 2014

Structure-Based Design Of Novel Inhibitors And Ultra High Resolution Analysis Of Ctx-M Beta-Lactamase, Derek Allen Nichols

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The emergence of CTX-M class-A extended-spectrum β-lactamases, which confer resistance to second and third-generation cephalosporins, poses a serious health threat to the public. CTX-M β-lactamases use a catalytic serine to hydrolyze the β-lactam ring. Specifically, the hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by CTX-M β-lactamase proceeds through a pre-covalent complex, a high-energy tetrahedral acylation intermediate, a low-energy acyl-enzyme complex, a high-energy tetrahedral deacylation intermediate after attack via a catalytic water, and lastly, the hydrolyzed β-lactam ring product which is released from the enzyme complex. The crystallographic structure of CTX-M at sub-angstrom resolution has enabled us to study enzyme catalysis as well as perform ...


Identification And Characterization Of A Novel Structural Protein Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, The Replicase Nonstructural Protein 2, Matthew Allan Kappes Jan 2014

Identification And Characterization Of A Novel Structural Protein Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, The Replicase Nonstructural Protein 2, Matthew Allan Kappes

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a rapidly mutating pathogen eliciting respiratory and reproductive disease of high economic consequence. The PRRSV non-structural protein 2 (nsp2) is a large multifunctional protein encoded by the most genetically diverse region of the genome - the selective pressure potentiating mutation within this region is unknown. Here we report the identification of a unique function of nsp2 as a structural component of the PRRSV virion; the first PRRSV structural protein identified which is not expressed from a sub-genomic RNA or regulated via the discontinuous transcription pathway. Through the use of a set of custom ...


Aphid Small Rnas And Viruses, Diveena Vijayendran Jan 2014

Aphid Small Rnas And Viruses, Diveena Vijayendran

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Aphids are important agricultural pests with about 250 species known to cause damage by feeding on plant phloem and transmitting plant viruses. Current management relies primarily on the application of chemical insecticides, which can be deleterious to the environment, and the use of aphid resistant cultivars hampered by the presence of resistant aphid biotypes. We aim to develop novel biotechnology based approaches to better manage pestiferous aphids. To this end, we (i) identified and characterized aphid viruses, and (ii) analyzed a class of small RNA, microRNAs specific to aphids. We used transcriptome and small RNA sequencing datasets to identify viruses ...


Development Of An In Vitro Model And Fluorescent Protein Expression System For The Study Of Highly Abortigenic Campylobacter Jejuni, Moria Ann Borys Jan 2014

Development Of An In Vitro Model And Fluorescent Protein Expression System For The Study Of Highly Abortigenic Campylobacter Jejuni, Moria Ann Borys

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of sheep abortions worldwide; Campylobacter fetus ssp. fetus has historically been the major culprit. Increasingly, however, C. jejuni has been isolated from cases of sheep abortion, and it has now replaced C. fetus ssp. fetus as the predominant cause of Campylobacter-related ovine abortion in the United States. Emergence of a single tetracycline resistant clone (clone SA) has been implicated as the primary reason for this shift. Virulence factors for clone SA have still not been completely elucidated, and it is not known how this bacterium reaches the uterine and placental tissue from the ...