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Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Prokineticin-2: A Novel Anti-Apoptotic And Anti-Inflammatory Signaling Protein In Parkinson’S Disease, Matthew Neal Jan 2016

Prokineticin-2: A Novel Anti-Apoptotic And Anti-Inflammatory Signaling Protein In Parkinson’S Disease, Matthew Neal

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The mechanisms behind the development and progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD) are still not fully understood. Several pathophysiological mechanisms have been implicated in the progression of the disease including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, protein aggregation, and neuroinflammation. Since current therapeutic options for PD treat only the symptoms without influencing disease progression, recent translational studies have focused on identifying factors that protect against putative pathophysiological mechanisms of PD. We show herein, that the chemokine-like signaling protein, Prokineticin-2 (PK2), is expressed and secreted at higher levels in dopaminergic neurons during the acute phase of inflammatory or neurotoxic stress. Furthermore, we ...


The Identification Of Effectors Of Retinal Cell Fate Determination Through Single Cell Transcriptomics, Jillian Joanne Goetz Jan 2015

The Identification Of Effectors Of Retinal Cell Fate Determination Through Single Cell Transcriptomics, Jillian Joanne Goetz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The vertebrate retina is an exquisite model for neurogenesis, with its common pool of retinal progenitors differentiating into six neuronal cell types and one glial variety, each of which interconnects to form a simply organized yet complexly functioning sensory tissue. Our long-term aim is to determine the cell-autonomous genetic programs that drive retinogenesis, but identifying these signals is complicated by many factors. First, retinal progenitor cells generate the various retinal cell types at distinct but overlapping time points, potentially obscuring the progression of cell-intrinsic signals over time. Second, signals that drive the development of rare, but functionally critical, neuronal subtypes ...


A Single Molecular Study Of The Regulation Of Snare-Mediated Membrane Fusion, Jaekyun Song Jan 2014

A Single Molecular Study Of The Regulation Of Snare-Mediated Membrane Fusion, Jaekyun Song

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The presynaptic membrane fusion is mediated by a protein set called SNARE (Soluble NSF Attachment protein REceptor) proteins. SNARE proteins form a ternary SNARE-complex that comprises minimal machinery for membrane fusion; the complex consists of three SNARE proteins: Syntaxin 1, SNAP-25 and Vamp 2, also called Synaptobrevin 2. The SNARE complex is a four-helix coiled coil with four SNARE motifs; two come from SNARE-25 and one each from Syntaxin 1 and Vamp 2. It is believed that a regulatory protein Complexin binds tightly to the SNARE complex and stabilizes the complex, preventing it from driving toward fusion. However, the detailed ...


Transcriptional Regulation Of Proapoptotic Kinase Pkcî´ Expression In Dopaminergic Neurons: Relevance To Gene-Gene And Gene-Environment Interactions In Neurodegeneration, Huajun Jin Jan 2010

Transcriptional Regulation Of Proapoptotic Kinase Pkcî´ Expression In Dopaminergic Neurons: Relevance To Gene-Gene And Gene-Environment Interactions In Neurodegeneration, Huajun Jin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

We investigated the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of the PKCδ gene. By deletion analysis of the ~1.4 kb (-1448 to +1, relative to transcription start site) 5'-flanking sequence of the mouse PKCδ gene, we have identified a basal promoter region, nucleotide -148 to +1, required for sufficient PKCδ transcription in NIE115, MN9D, and N2a cells. We further identified two NFκB binding sites (κB 1, κB 2) as well as a NERF1a site within the basal promoter as key regulatory elements in the mouse PKCδ TATA-less promoter. Subsequent functional studies using site-directed mutation analysis revealed that κB 1, but ...