Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Molecular Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Hepatic Nutrient And Hormonal Regulation Of The Pancreatic-Derived Factor (Pander) Promoter, Whitney Ratliff Nov 2015

Hepatic Nutrient And Hormonal Regulation Of The Pancreatic-Derived Factor (Pander) Promoter, Whitney Ratliff

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

PANcreatic-DERived factor (PANDER, FAM3B) has been shown to regulate glycemic levels via interactions with both pancreatic islets and the liver. Although PANDER is predominantly expressed from the endocrine pancreas, recent work has provided sufficient evidence that the liver may also be an additional tissue source of PANDER production. At physiological levels, PANDER is capable of disrupting insulin signaling and promoting increased hepatic glucose production. As shown in some animal models, strong expression of PANDER, induced by viral delivery within the liver, induces hepatic steatosis. However, no studies to date have explicitly characterized the transcriptional regulation of PANDER from the liver ...


Characterization And Diurnal Measurement Of Oral Inflammation In Association With Glycemic Control, Periodontal Status, & Glucose Stimulation, Melanie N. Kuehl Oct 2015

Characterization And Diurnal Measurement Of Oral Inflammation In Association With Glycemic Control, Periodontal Status, & Glucose Stimulation, Melanie N. Kuehl

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Diabetes has afflicted 8.3%, approximately 25.8 million, of the United States population and is the seventh leading cause of death [1]. Type I diabetes (T1D) accounts for 5 to 10% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes in the United States [2]. If present trends continue, the rate of T1D incidence among children under the age of 14 will increase by 3% globally [3]. T1D is an autoimmune disorder in which the β-cells of the pancreatic islets are destroyed, leading to high blood sugar. Hyperglycemia and loss of immunological tolerance to self-antigens are common associations of T1D [4]. Periodontal ...


Function Of Long Noncoding Rnas In Breast Cancer, Edward J. Richards Sep 2015

Function Of Long Noncoding Rnas In Breast Cancer, Edward J. Richards

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Breast cancer is a disease that will be diagnosed in about 1 in 10 women throughout their lifetime. The majority of breast cancers are originated from the epithelial cells of the mammary ducts, and this occurrence can be due to several factors including hereditary and acquired mutation. There are several major breast cancer subtypes, including estrogen receptor-α (ERα)-positive, HER2-enriched and triple-negative (TNBC). Patients diagnosed with ER+ tumors are generally treated with estrogen blockers (e.g., tamoxifen, letrozole and fulvestrant). Patients with HER2+ tumors are commonly administered with drugs that block HER2 signaling (e.g., trastuzumab) or inhibit HER2’s ...


Promoting Genome Stability Via Multiple Dna Repair Pathways, Scott Cukras Feb 2015

Promoting Genome Stability Via Multiple Dna Repair Pathways, Scott Cukras

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Maintaining genome integrity is indispensible for cells to prevent and limit accruement of deleterious mutations and to promote viable cell growth and proliferation. Cells possess a myriad of mechanisms to detect, prevent and repair incurred cellular damage. Here we discuss various proteins and their accompanying cellular pathways that promote genome stability. We first investigate the NEDD8 protein and its role in promoting homologous recombination repair via multiple Cullin E3 ubiquitin ligases. We provide specific mechanisms through which, UBE2M, an E2 conjugating enzyme, neddylates various Cullin ligases to render them catalytically active to degrade their substrates by the proteasome. We show ...


Strategies For Preventing Age And Neurodegenerative Disease-Associated Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Vedad Delic Jan 2015

Strategies For Preventing Age And Neurodegenerative Disease-Associated Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Vedad Delic

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a pivotal role in the development of aging phenotypes and aging-associated neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Strategies that restore mitochondrial dysfunction may rescue the deficits of central metabolism in these disorders and improve cell survival. For example, we found that modulating the mTOR signaling pathway in a tissue culture model of aging-induced mitochondrial DNA mutation enhanced mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased oxygen consumption. Our previous melatonin studies also led us to hypothesize that caloric restriction and the hormone melatonin would reverse brain mitochondrial dysfunction ...


High-Throughput Screening Of Age-Related Changes In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Neil Copes Jan 2015

High-Throughput Screening Of Age-Related Changes In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Neil Copes

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This project was developed to identify novel methods for high-throughput culturing and screening of C. elegans to investigate age-related metabolic changes and to survey the proteomic and metabolomic factors associated with age-related changes. To accomplish these goals we developed a novel way to grow C. elegans in liquid culture in 96-well microplates for several weeks without suffering significant fluid loss due to evaporation and without needing to shake or unseal the plates for aeration. We also developed methods for assaying the total volume of live C. elegans in microplate cultures using a fluorescence microplate reader and for performing RNAi experiments ...


Genomic Aberrations At The 3q And 14q Loci: Investigation Of Key Players In Ovarian And Renal Cancer Biology, Punashi Dutta Jan 2015

Genomic Aberrations At The 3q And 14q Loci: Investigation Of Key Players In Ovarian And Renal Cancer Biology, Punashi Dutta

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Genomic aberrations are primary contributors to the pathophysiology of cancer [11]. Dysregulated expression of genes located within these aberrations are important predictors of chemoresistance, disease prognosis, and patient outcome [12]. This dissertation is focused on understanding the regulation and/or functions of specific genes located at dysregulated genomic regions such as 3q26 and 14q32 in the biology of ovarian and renal cancer, respectively.

Serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) manifest amplification at the 3q26.2 locus [2], an observation consistent with the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) [13]. The most amplified gene in this region is EVI1 which has been extensively studied ...


The Effects Of Supplemented Metabolites On Lifespan And Stress Response Pathways In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Clare B. Edwards Jan 2015

The Effects Of Supplemented Metabolites On Lifespan And Stress Response Pathways In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Clare B. Edwards

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Understanding how metabolites contribute to anaplerosis, antioxidant effects, and hormetic pathways during aging is fundamental to creating supplements and dietary habits that may decrease age-associated disease and decline, thus improving the quality of life in old age. In order to uncover metabolic pathways that delay aging, the effects of large sets of metabolites associated with mitochondrial function on lifespan were investigated.

Malate, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolite, increased lifespan and thermotolerance in C. elegans. Addition of fumarate and succinate also extended lifespan and all three metabolites activated nuclear translocation of the cytoprotective DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor and protected from ...


Modeling Pediatric Brain And Central Nervous System Cancer In Zebrafish, Staci Lyn Solin Jan 2015

Modeling Pediatric Brain And Central Nervous System Cancer In Zebrafish, Staci Lyn Solin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Brain and central nervous system (CNS) cancers are the leading cause of cancer-related death in children (Ostrom QT et al., 2015). Low-grade brain and CNS tumors that require minimal surgical resection due to their location in critical regions are associated with long-term morbidity throughout the life of the child (Armstrong GT et al., 2011). Children diagnosed with high-grade, aggressive brain and CNS tumors generally have a poor outcome and suffer significant deficits in neurological and neuroendocrine function as a result of intensive therapy (Fangusaro J et al., 2012). Effective, targeted therapeutics for the treatment of pediatric brain and CNS cancer ...


Regulation And Targeting Of The Fancd2 Activation In Dna Repair, Valentina Celeste Caceres Jan 2015

Regulation And Targeting Of The Fancd2 Activation In Dna Repair, Valentina Celeste Caceres

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genome instability syndrome that is clinically manifested by bone marrow failure, congenital defects, and elevated cancer susceptibility. The FA pathway is known to regulate the repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks in part through DNA homologous recombination (HR) repair. Up to today 16 FA proteins have been discovered that may participate in the common pathway. Cells that have mutations in the FA genes are hypersensitive to DNA damaging agents and display chromosome instability. A key regulatory event in the FA pathway is monoubiquitination of FANCD2-FANCI heterodimer that is mediated by a multi-component E3 ubiquitin ligase complex ...


Molecular Characterization Of Human, Bovine, And Dolphin Parainfluenza Viruses: Viral Genome Sequencing And Epithelial Cell Signaling Responses Following In Vitro Infection, Kirsten Charlotte Eberle Jan 2015

Molecular Characterization Of Human, Bovine, And Dolphin Parainfluenza Viruses: Viral Genome Sequencing And Epithelial Cell Signaling Responses Following In Vitro Infection, Kirsten Charlotte Eberle

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation aims at examining immunological response(s) to PIV-3 infection using in vitro cell culture systems. Based on previous publications, TtPIV-1 was found to be similar to, but distinct from, both human and bovine PIV-3 isolates. These initial findings were based only upon partial sequences of the F and HN viral genes. In Chapter 2 TtPIV-1 is further characterized on cytokine production, viral growth over time, and full genome sequencing as compared to BPIV-3 and HPIV-3. Chapter 3 is aimed at examining the type III IFN response during TtPIV-1, BPIV-3, and HPIV-3 infection. Because paramyxoviruses are known to affect ...