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Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Protein Body Formation In Stable Transgenic Plants Of Nicotiana Tabacum Expressing Elastin-Like Polypeptide And Hydrophobin Fusion Proteins, Sonia P. Gutierrez Aug 2012

Protein Body Formation In Stable Transgenic Plants Of Nicotiana Tabacum Expressing Elastin-Like Polypeptide And Hydrophobin Fusion Proteins, Sonia P. Gutierrez

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Plants are recognized as an efficient and inexpensive system to produce valuable recombinant proteins. However, the use of plants still faces two main limitations: the low accumulation levels of some recombinant proteins and the lack of efficient protein purification methods. Two fusion partners, elastin-like polypeptides (ELP) and hydrophobin I (HFBI) were found to increase the accumulation of recombinant proteins and induce the formation of protein bodies (PBs) when targeted to the ER in transient expression assays. In this study I examined the effect of these tags in stable transgenic plants of two Nicotiana tabacum cultivars when fused to green fluorescent ...


Human Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter Subtype 1: Structure-Function Analysis Using Cysteine Mutagenesis And Thiol Modifying Techniques, Jamie Park Aug 2012

Human Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter Subtype 1: Structure-Function Analysis Using Cysteine Mutagenesis And Thiol Modifying Techniques, Jamie Park

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 is the main mediator of bi-directional nucleoside flux and is found ubiquitously. Inhibitor and substrate interactions with ENT1 are known to be affected by cysteine-modifying reagents. Our aim was to investigate the importance of cysteine residues in hENT1 function and identify which residues were sensitive to thiol modification for further application of cysteine scanning mutagenesis on extracellular loop 5. Transporter function was assessed by the binding of [3H]NBMPR and the cellular uptake of [3H]2-chloroadenosine. Treatment of hENT1 with the neutral sulfhydryl-modifier methyl methanethiosulfonate (MMTS) enhanced [3H]NBMPR binding but decreased ...


Identification And Characterization Of The Arabidopsis Homolog Of The Yeast Trex-2 Complex, Gang Tian May 2012

Identification And Characterization Of The Arabidopsis Homolog Of The Yeast Trex-2 Complex, Gang Tian

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are vital to nuclear-cytoplasmic communication in eukaryotes. The yeast Thp1-Sac3-Cdc31-Sus1 complex, also known as the TREX-2 complex, is anchored to the NPC via the nucleoporin Nup1, and is essential for mRNA export. In this study, the Arabidopsis homolog of the yeast TREX-2 complex was discovered. Physical and functional evidence support the identification of the Arabidopsis orthologs of the yeast Thp1 and Nup1. Of three Sac3 Arabidopsis homologs, two are putative TREX-2 components. Surprisingly, none are required for mRNA export as is the yeast Sac3. Physical association with TREX-2 was observed for the two Cdc31 homologs, but ...


Structural Motifs Of Novel Metallothionein Proteins, Duncan E K Sutherland Apr 2012

Structural Motifs Of Novel Metallothionein Proteins, Duncan E K Sutherland

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Metallothioneins (MT) are a family of small cysteine rich proteins, which have been implicated in toxic metal detoxification, protection against oxidative stress, and as a metallochaperone. The most well studied member of the family is the mammalian MT, which consists of two domains: a β-domain with 9 cysteine residues, which sequesters 3 Cd2+/Zn2+, and an α-domain with 11 cysteine residues, which sequesters 4 Cd2+/Zn2+. The exact functions of MT are unknown but must relate to its metalation status. Several areas that could lead to the assignment of function include 1) the determination of the ...


Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Analysis Of The Matrix Microenvironment In Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture, Christopher Hughes Apr 2012

Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Analysis Of The Matrix Microenvironment In Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture, Christopher Hughes

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The stem cell microenvironment contains soluble factors, support cells, and components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that combine to effect cellular behavior. Mass spectrometry based proteomics offers the opportunity to directly assay components of extracellular microenvironments, thereby providing a sensitive means for obtaining insight into the stem cell niche. In this study we present the generation and analysis of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) matrix microenvironments using an MS-based proteomics approach.

One of the primary limitations in the proteomics analysis of hESCs and hiPSCs is the reproducible generation of sufficient cell numbers amenable ...


Regulation Of The Bacterial Transposon Tn5, Crystal R. Mclellan Feb 2012

Regulation Of The Bacterial Transposon Tn5, Crystal R. Mclellan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Transposons play an integral role in bacterial adaptation, therefore it is important to understand the chemical steps and regulatory factors that govern their mobility. The properties that drive insertion of transposons into subsequent DNA sites have been studied for few elements. The transposon Tn5 in particular has few defined insertion sites and little is known about how its targets are selected. An objective of this thesis was to determine the molecular details of target insertion in Tn5 transposition in vitro. To this end, I assessed whether Tn5 could preferentially insert into short oligonucleotide substrates. I detected a Tn5 transpososome complex ...


Regulation Of G Protein Signaling By Goloco Motif Containing Proteins, Peishen Zhao Jul 2011

Regulation Of G Protein Signaling By Goloco Motif Containing Proteins, Peishen Zhao

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Signal transduction via heterotrimeric G proteins in response to transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors plays a central aspect in how cells integrate extracellular stimuli and produce biological responses. In addition to receptor-mediated activation of heterotrimeric G proteins, during the last few decades, accessory proteins have been found to regulate G protein activity via different mechanisms. Several proteins have been identified that contain multiple G protein regulatory domains. Using various molecular and biochemical approaches, we have characterized the effects of two such proteins, G18 and RGS14, on G protein activity. Both proteins contain a second G protein binding domain in addition to ...


Transactivation By Human Adenovirus Early Region 1a-Conserved Region Three, Jailal Ng Ablack May 2011

Transactivation By Human Adenovirus Early Region 1a-Conserved Region Three, Jailal Ng Ablack

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

One of the critical functions of human adenovirus (hAd) early region 1A (E1A) protein is to activate transcription of the early viral genes. The largest isoform of E1A contains a unique region termed conserved region 3 (CR3), which includes a Cysteine-4 (C4) zinc finger domain. This region activates viral gene expression by interacting with and recruiting cellular transcription machinery to the regulatory regions of early viral genes. Although this process has been studied at length with hAd type 5 E1A, far less is known about how the E1A proteins from other hAd types activate transcription. There are dramatic differences in ...


The Hiv-1 Tat Protein And Adverse Drug Reactions: A Model System Utilizing Jurkat T Cells And Sulphamethoxazole-Hydroxylamine, Kaothara Adeyanju Feb 2011

The Hiv-1 Tat Protein And Adverse Drug Reactions: A Model System Utilizing Jurkat T Cells And Sulphamethoxazole-Hydroxylamine, Kaothara Adeyanju

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In 2009 approximately 2.6 million people became infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). In addition to the estimated 33.3 million people currently living with the virus, this makes HIV/ AIDS an epidemic of unprecedented scale in modern times. Treatment of HIV infection requires antiretroviral agents as well as a number of other drugs such as antimicrobials. Hypersensitivity adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to a variety of drugs are common in HIV-infected individuals, but the antimicrobial Sulphamethoxazole remains a major culprit. Hypersensitivity ADRs cause significant morbidity, with the skin and liver most commonly affected and are among the top ...


Identification Of Regions Responsible For The Open Conformation Of S100a10 Using Chimaeric S100a11/S100a10 Proteins, Liliana Santamaria-Kisiel Dec 2010

Identification Of Regions Responsible For The Open Conformation Of S100a10 Using Chimaeric S100a11/S100a10 Proteins, Liliana Santamaria-Kisiel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

S100A11 is a dimeric, EF-hand calcium-binding protein. Calcium binding to S100A11 results in a large conformational change that uncovers a broad hydrophobic surface used to interact with phospholipid-binding proteins (annexins A1 and A2), and facilitate membrane vesiculation events. In contrast to other S100 proteins, S100A10 is unable to bind calcium due to deletion and substitution of calcium-ligating residues. Despite this, calcium-free S100A10 assumes an “open” conformation that is very similar to S100A11 in its calcium-bound state (Ca2+-S100A11). To understand how S100A10 is able to adopt an open conformation in the absence of calcium, seven chimeric proteins were constructed where ...