Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Molecular Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 31 - 60 of 70

Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Planting The Chalcone Reductase Family Tree: Identification And Characterization Of Chalcone Reductase Genes In Soybean, Caroline Julia Sepiol Aug 2015

Planting The Chalcone Reductase Family Tree: Identification And Characterization Of Chalcone Reductase Genes In Soybean, Caroline Julia Sepiol

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr) is an important crop grown in Canada, generating $2.4 billion in sales. Though this number may be promising, soybean farmers lose about $50 million worth of yield annually due to root and stem rot disease caused by Phytophthora sojae. Many strategies have been developed to combat the infection; however, these methods are prohibitively expensive. A ‘cost effective’ approach to this problem is to select a trait naturally found in soybean that can increase resistance. One such trait is the increased production of root glyceollins. One of the key enzymes exclusively involved in glyceollin synthesis ...


Analyzing A-Series Gangliosides In Neurons Following Exposure To Glutamate, Dae Hee Park Aug 2015

Analyzing A-Series Gangliosides In Neurons Following Exposure To Glutamate, Dae Hee Park

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Neurons within different brain regions have varying levels of vulnerability to external stress and therefore respond differently to injury. A potential reason to explain this may lie within a key lipid class of the cell’s plasma membrane called gangliosides. These glycosphingolipid species have been shown to play various roles in the maintenance of neuronal viability. The purpose of this study is to use electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) technique and immunohistochemistry to evaluate the temporal changes in the expression profiles of various ganglioside species during the course of neurodegeneration in rat primary cortical neurons exposed to glutamate toxicity. Primary ...


The Epigenetic Regulators Atrx And Ctcf Are Required For Mouse Neuroprogenitor Cell Survival And Brain Development, Lauren Ashley Watson Apr 2015

The Epigenetic Regulators Atrx And Ctcf Are Required For Mouse Neuroprogenitor Cell Survival And Brain Development, Lauren Ashley Watson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Emerging evidence implicates the regulation of higher-order chromatin structure in brain development, maturation, and function. Human mutations in two important regulators of chromatin structure, ATRX and CTCF, cause microcephaly and intellectual disability and have been identified in several cancers, suggesting an important role for these proteins in the developing brain and to suppress tumorigenesis. This thesis demonstrates that chromatin structure is critical to the differentiation and survival of neural progenitor cells, and explores the mechanisms of ATRX and CTCF function in brain development. The first chapter identifies that Atrx deficiency induces replicative DNA damage at telomeres and pericentromeric heterochromatin, and ...


Translesion Synthesis And Mutations: On The Mutagenic Properties Of The Two Dna Lesions, 8-Oxo-G And Pt-Gg, And The Functions Of Y-Family Dna Polymerases And Rev3l On The Bypass Of Each Of The Dna Lesions In Mammalian Cells, Lizhen Guo Apr 2015

Translesion Synthesis And Mutations: On The Mutagenic Properties Of The Two Dna Lesions, 8-Oxo-G And Pt-Gg, And The Functions Of Y-Family Dna Polymerases And Rev3l On The Bypass Of Each Of The Dna Lesions In Mammalian Cells, Lizhen Guo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

I studied the capabilities of the two DNA lesions 8-oxo-guanine and cisplatin intrastrand crosslinked 1,2-d(GpG) or Pt-GG to cause mutations in mammalian cells. Using isogenic cell lines generated from mice with selective gene knockouts of distinct DNA polymerases as models, I deduced the biological functions of the translesion DNA polymerases Pol eta, Pol kappa, Pol iota, Rev1 and Rev3L on bypassing each of the lesions 8-oxo-G and Pt-GG. My study takes advantage of the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology to determine mutagenic effects of the DNA lesions in vivo and effects of translesion DNA polymerases on bypassing the ...


Novel Mechanisms In The Sorting Of Proglucagon To The Secretory Granules Of The Regulated Secretory Pathway, Leonard M. Guizzetti Dec 2014

Novel Mechanisms In The Sorting Of Proglucagon To The Secretory Granules Of The Regulated Secretory Pathway, Leonard M. Guizzetti

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The prohormone proglucagon encodes for multiple peptide hormones, including glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and GLP-2, produced through tissue-specific processing by prohormone convertase (PC) 1/3 and PC2. In alpha cells, PC2 yields glucagon, the major counter-regulatory hormone to insulin, which together, control glucose homeostasis. In contrast, GLP-1 and GLP2 are mainly produced in intestinal L-cells by PC1/3. GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion following a meal, and therefore has opposing function to glucagon regulating glucose homeostasis; in contrast, GLP-2 enhances gut nutrient absorption. Efficient sorting of proglucagon to secretory granules is required for nutrient-regulated secretion. The aim of this thesis is ...


The Role Of The Ku70 Vwa Domain In The Response To Dna Double Strand Breaks, Victoria L. Fell Nov 2014

The Role Of The Ku70 Vwa Domain In The Response To Dna Double Strand Breaks, Victoria L. Fell

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Ku is an abundant, highly conserved DNA binding protein found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes that plays essential roles in the maintenance of genome integrity. In eukaryotes, Ku is a heterodimer comprised of two subunits, Ku70 and Ku80, and is best characterized for its central role as the initial DNA end binding factor in the “classical” non-homologous end joining (C-NHEJ) pathway, the main DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway in mammals. At the break, Ku directly and indirectly interacts with several C-NHEJ factors and processing enzymes, serving as the scaffold for the entire DNA repair complex. In this work we ...


Post-Translational Control Of Retinoblastoma Protein Phosphorylation, Paul M. Stafford Sep 2014

Post-Translational Control Of Retinoblastoma Protein Phosphorylation, Paul M. Stafford

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRB) functions through multiple mechanisms to serve as a tumor suppressor. pRB has been well characterized to be inactivated through phosphorylation by CDKs. pRB dephosphorylation and activation is a much less characterized aspect of pRB function. In this thesis, I detail work to study the post translational control of pRB phosphorylation. Here I present work detailing efforts to generate a gene targeted mouse which disrupts PP1 binding to the C-terminus of pRB, allowing for detailed study of the mechanisms of pRB dephosphorylation. This work also details an examination of acetylation in the C-terminus of pRB ...


Regulation Of Saga By The N-Terminus Of Spt7 In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Dominik Dobransky Aug 2014

Regulation Of Saga By The N-Terminus Of Spt7 In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Dominik Dobransky

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Spt7 is a 1,332 residue protein critical for maintaining structural integrity of the SAGA complex. I demonstrated that the extreme N-terminus of Spt7 plays an important role in SAGA function. Deletion of the first 73 (Spt773-1332) and 121 (Spt7121-1332) N- terminal residues resulted in slow growth, decreased transcriptional activation at PHO5 and INO1, and a partial decrease in acetylation at lysine 18 of histone H3 at PHO5. The Spt7121-1332 mutant did not affect Spt7’s association with Gcn5 or Tra1, or its localization within the cell. Mutation of the first four positively charged residues to glutamine ...


The Role Of The Pre-Sensor 1 Β Hairpin In Minichromosome Maintenance 2-7 Function, Simon K. W. Lam Aug 2014

The Role Of The Pre-Sensor 1 Β Hairpin In Minichromosome Maintenance 2-7 Function, Simon K. W. Lam

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The pre-sensor 1 (PS1) hairpin is found in helicases of the AAA+ family (ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities) of proteins and is implicated in DNA translocation during DNA unwinding. To determine whether the PS1 b hairpin is required in the eukaryotic replicative helicase, Mcm2-7 (also comprised of AAA+ proteins), we mutated the conserved lysine residue in the PS1 hairpin in each of the S. cerevisiae Mcm subunits to alanine. Only the PS1 hairpin of Mcm3 was essential for viability, while mutation of the PS1 hairpin in the remaining Mcm subunits resulted in minimal phenotypes, with the exception ...


Elucidating The Signalling Pathway Of Mer Tyrosine Kinase Receptor In Efferocytosis, Ekenedelichukwu Azu Aug 2014

Elucidating The Signalling Pathway Of Mer Tyrosine Kinase Receptor In Efferocytosis, Ekenedelichukwu Azu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Efferocytosis is the clearance of apoptotic cells and is necessary for homeostasis. Mer Tyrosine Kinase (MerTK) is a crucial efferocytic receptor whose loss is associated with chronic inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity. While previous studies have shown that MerTK mediates efferocytosis through a unique mechanism that requires integrins, MerTK signalling pathway remains unknown. Given this unusual internalization mechanism, I hypothesized that MerTK signals and engages integrins through a novel signalling pathway different from that used by other phagocytic receptors. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the signalling pathways activated by MerTK, utilizing conventional cell biology and pharmacological approaches.

I found that ...


Sirna Targeting Of Thymidylate Synthase, Thymidine Kinase 1 And Thymidine Kinase 2 As An Anticancer Therapy: A Combinatorial Rnai Approach, Christine Di Cresce Apr 2014

Sirna Targeting Of Thymidylate Synthase, Thymidine Kinase 1 And Thymidine Kinase 2 As An Anticancer Therapy: A Combinatorial Rnai Approach, Christine Di Cresce

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Thymidylate synthase (TS) is the only de novo source of thymidylate (dTMP) for DNA synthesis and repair. Drugs targeting TS protein are a mainstay in cancer treatment but off-target effects and toxicity limit their use. Cytosolic thymidine kinase (TK1) and mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) contribute to an alternative dTMP-producing pathway, by salvaging thymidine from the tumour milieu, and may modulate resistance to TS-targeting drugs. We have previously shown that TS antisense molecules (oligodeoxynucleotides, ODNs, and small interfering siRNA, siRNA) sensitize tumour cells, both in vitro and in vivo, to TS targeting drugs. As both TS and TKs contribute to cellular ...


Characterizing The Human Vaginal Microbiome Using High-Throughput Sequencing, Jean Megan E. Macklaim Dec 2013

Characterizing The Human Vaginal Microbiome Using High-Throughput Sequencing, Jean Megan E. Macklaim

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The human vaginal microbiome undoubtedly has a significant role in reproductive health and for protection from infectious organisms. Recent efforts to characterize the bacterial species of the vagina using molecular techniques have uncovered an unexpected diversity. Using high-throughput sequencing I sought to describe the structure and function of the vaginal microbiome under different physiological states including healthy, bacterial vaginosis (BV), post-menopausal vaginal atrophy, and acute vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC).

Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that healthy, asymptomatic women most often have vaginal biotas dominated by Lactobacillus iners or L. crispatus. In contrast, BV is a heterogeneous, highly diversified condition with ...


Exploring The Structure And Biochemistry Of Oxidation-Mediated Inhibitation Of The Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase Pin1, Brendan T. Innes Dec 2013

Exploring The Structure And Biochemistry Of Oxidation-Mediated Inhibitation Of The Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase Pin1, Brendan T. Innes

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pin1 is a phosphorylation-dependent peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that has been shown to be neuroprotective in aging-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is not active in AD brain, and a recent proteomic screen of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) brain samples revealed that Pin1 is oxidized in the brains of these pre-AD patients. This suggests that this oxidation may be the cause of the loss of the neuroprotective Pin1 function in AD. The Pin1 active site contains a functionally critical cysteine residue (Cys113) with a low predicted pKa, making it highly susceptible to oxidation. We hypothesize that Pin1 ...


Uncovering The Molecular Link Between Mir156.Spl15 And Carotenoid Accumulation In Arabidopsis, Davood Emami Meybodi Oct 2013

Uncovering The Molecular Link Between Mir156.Spl15 And Carotenoid Accumulation In Arabidopsis, Davood Emami Meybodi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenases (CCDs) are an enzyme family that cleaves specific double bonds in carotenoids. MicroR156 in Arabidopsis regulates a network of genes by repressing 10 SPL genes, among which, SPL15 was found to regulate shoot branching and carotenoid accumulation. The expression of CCD1, CCD4, CCD7, CCD8, NCED2, NCED3, NCED5, NCED6, NCED9 and SPL15 was evaluated in siliques at 10 days post anthesis and in 10-day-old roots in Arabidopsis wild type, sk156 (miR156 overexpression mutant), RS105 (miR156 overexpression line), spl15 (SPL15 knockout mutant) and two 35S:SPL15 lines. Results showed that most of CCD/NCED genes were affected ...


Fabricating Cost-Effective Nanostructures For Biomedical Applications, Erden Ertorer Sep 2013

Fabricating Cost-Effective Nanostructures For Biomedical Applications, Erden Ertorer

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this thesis we described inexpensive alternatives to fabricate nanostructures on planar substrates and provided example applications to discuss the efficiency of fabricated nanostructures.

The first method we described is forming large area systematically changing multi-shape nanoscale structures on a chip by laser interference lithography. We analyzed the fabricated structures at different substrate positions with respect to exposure time, exposure angle and associated light intensity profile. We presented experimental details related to the fabrication of symmetric and biaxial periodic nanostructures on photoresist, silicon surfaces, and ion-milled glass substrates. Behavior of osteoblasts and osteoclasts on the nanostructures was investigated. These results ...


Absence Of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Atppc3 Increases Sensitivity Of Arabidopsis Thaliana To Cadmium, Ian R. Willick Jul 2013

Absence Of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Atppc3 Increases Sensitivity Of Arabidopsis Thaliana To Cadmium, Ian R. Willick

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and PEPC kinase (PPCK) catalyze a reaction feeding into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, increasing the production of metal-chelating organic acids. Little research has been conducted on PEPC isoenzymes in Cd-stressed plants. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) wild-type and AtPPC1 – AtPPC3 mutants, each lacking one of three PEPC isoenzymes, grown in 0, 1, or 5 µM CdCl2 were smaller and had increased AtPPC1 – AtPPC3 and AtPPCK1 – AtPPCK2 transcript abundance, relative phosphorylation, and PEPC activity, more so in roots than shoots. Concentrations of oxaloacetate, citrate and total organic acids increased with greater CdCl2 concentrations. The absence of AtPPC3 ...


Molecular Mechanisms Underlying The Early Life Programming Of The Liver, Gurjeev Sohi Jul 2013

Molecular Mechanisms Underlying The Early Life Programming Of The Liver, Gurjeev Sohi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Clinical studies have demonstrated that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) offspring, faced with a nutritional mismatch postpartum, have an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome. The maternal protein restriction (MPR) rat model has been extensively studied to investigate the adverse effects of a nutritional mismatch in postnatal life of IUGR offspring. Previous studies have demonstrated that MPR leads to impaired function of the liver, an important metabolic organ. However the underlying mechanisms which predispose these offspring to the metabolic syndrome remain elusive. In the following studies, low protein diet during pregnancy and lactation led to IUGR offspring with decreased liver ...


Identification Of Cyclophilin Gene Family In Soybean And Characterization Of Gmcyp1, Hemanta Raj Mainali Jul 2013

Identification Of Cyclophilin Gene Family In Soybean And Characterization Of Gmcyp1, Hemanta Raj Mainali

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

I identified members of the Cyclophilin (CYP) gene family in soybean (Glycine max) and characterized the GmCYP1, one of the members of soybean CYP. CYPs belong to the immunophilin superfamily with peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity. PPIase catalyzes the interconversion of the cis- and trans-rotamers of the peptidyl-prolyl amide bond of peptides. After extensive data mining, I identified 62 different CYP genes in soybean (GmCYP1 to GmCYP62), of which 8 are multi-domain proteins and 54 are single domain proteins. At least 25% of the GmCYP genes are expressed in soybean. GmCYP1 localizes to the nucleus and the cytoplasm and ...


Human Adenovirus E1a Binds And Retasks Cellular Hbre1, Blocking Interferon Signalling And Activating Virus Early Gene Transcription, Gregory J. Fonseca Jun 2013

Human Adenovirus E1a Binds And Retasks Cellular Hbre1, Blocking Interferon Signalling And Activating Virus Early Gene Transcription, Gregory J. Fonseca

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Upon infection, human adenovirus (HAdV) must block interferon signaling and activate the expression of its early genes to reprogram the cellular environment to support virus replication. During the initial phase of infection, these processes are orchestrated by the first HAdV gene expressed during infection, early region 1A (E1A). E1A binds and appropriates components of the cellular transcriptional machinery to modulate cellular gene transcription and activate viral early genes transcription. We have identified hBre1/RNF20 as a novel target of E1A. hBre1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase which acts with the Ube2b E2 conjugase and accessory factors RNF40 and WAC1 to ...


Regulation Of Lipid Homeostasis, Inflammatory Signalling And Atherosclerosis By The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta, Lazar A. Bojic Jun 2013

Regulation Of Lipid Homeostasis, Inflammatory Signalling And Atherosclerosis By The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta, Lazar A. Bojic

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that has been implicated in metabolic and inflammatory regulation. The molecular and physiological mechanisms by which PPARδ activation regulates lipid metabolism, inflammatory signaling and protection from atherosclerosis in states of metabolic disturbance such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, were investigated in a series of in vitro and in vivo studies. In vitro experiments demonstrated that PPARδ activation inhibits atherogenic lipoprotein-induced lipid accumulation and the associated proinflammatory responses. The primary mechanisms for these effects were increased fatty acid β-oxidation, decreased lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, reduced MAPK signaling and improved insulin ...


Metabolism And Transcriptional Responses To Asparagine In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Qianyi Zhang Apr 2013

Metabolism And Transcriptional Responses To Asparagine In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Qianyi Zhang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Asparagine aminotransferase transforms asparagine into α-ketosuccinamate, which is further deamidated by an ω-amidase. Serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase, encoded by AGT1 in Arabidopsis, was identified as asparagine aminotransferase. In the roots of 10-day-old Arabidopsis seedlings treated with 20 mM asparagine, AGT1 transcript levels increased by 2-fold while ω-amidase transcripts were decreased by 30%. Recombinant AGT1 had a substrate preference for asparagine when compared with alanine and serine as amino group donors. An ω-amidase candidate gene, AT5G12040, was identified based on amino acid sequence identity with mammalian gene Nitrilase 2. RT-PCR of a T-DNA insertion mutant line showed that ω-amidase expression was abolished ...


Cellular Adaptation Of Macrophages To Anthrax Lethal Toxin-Induced Pyroptosis Via Epigenetic Mechanisms, Chae Young Han Apr 2013

Cellular Adaptation Of Macrophages To Anthrax Lethal Toxin-Induced Pyroptosis Via Epigenetic Mechanisms, Chae Young Han

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cellular adaptation to microbial stresses has been demonstrated in several cell types. Macrophages (MФ) are sentinel immune cells fending off invading microbes. Anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) is a key virulence factor released by Bacillus anthracis that causes rapid cell death, pyroptosis. A small number of RAW246.7 macrophages (~4%) exposed to a non-lethal dose of LeTx become resistant to LeTx-induced pyroptosis for ~ 4 weeks, termed “toxin-induced resistance (TIR)”. Here, I showed that high levels of DNA methyl transferase1 (DNMT1) expression were maintained although global genomic methylation levels were not high in TIR. TIR cells treated with the DNMT inhibitor 5-azacitidine ...


Dna Hydrolysis And Genome Editing Applications Of Giy-Yig Family Homing Endonucleases, Benjamin P. Kleinstiver Apr 2013

Dna Hydrolysis And Genome Editing Applications Of Giy-Yig Family Homing Endonucleases, Benjamin P. Kleinstiver

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The ability to manipulate complex genomes in a precise manner is essential for studying biological processes in model systems, engineering plant strains for agriculture, or advancing human cellular therapies to treat diseases. Genomic alterations are most efficient when a double-strand DNA break is introduced at the loci where the modification is desired. Different classes of naturally occurring DNA endonucleases, including homing endonucleases, have therefore been explored as candidates for genome modification studies as they target long stretches of DNA. Homing endonucleases are mobile genetic elements whose biological role is to introduce site-specific double-strand breaks into naïve genomes, ultimately resulting in ...


Transcriptional Regulation By The Oncogenic Znf217/Corest Complex, Gobi Thillainadesan Apr 2013

Transcriptional Regulation By The Oncogenic Znf217/Corest Complex, Gobi Thillainadesan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The ZNF217 transcription factor is an oncogene found within the 20q13 amplicon and is amplified and overexpressed in many cancers including breast and ovarian. Overexpression of ZNF217 leads to increased cell proliferation, survival, and causes resistance to TGFβ's anti-proliferative effects.

ZNF217 is a core constituent of a transcriptional complex that includes CoREST, HDAC1/2, LSD1, and the CtBP1/2. In this study, I have combined genome-wide biochemical approaches to identify genes directly regulated by ZNF217. I have identified the tumor suppressor and cell cycle inhibitor, p15ink4b, as a direct target of the ZNF217 complex and demonstrated that ZNF217 ...


The Effect Of Glycan Linked To Cationic Peanut Peroxidase On Its Activity, Maha M. Al-Subaie Mar 2013

The Effect Of Glycan Linked To Cationic Peanut Peroxidase On Its Activity, Maha M. Al-Subaie

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The roles of heme-, calcium- and glycan moieties on the peanut peroxidase enzyme activity have been previously studied. While the 3-D protein structure is known and some information about the glycan chain is known, due to uneven distribution of the 5 glycans, only a partial understanding of the furthest sugar groups on the 16 glycan chain was available. Now, having used gel-filtration column chromatography followed by lectin affinity column work, I showed that there is a rich array of galactose there. Moreover, I determined that not too many of the sugars are removed in the culture period of 14 days ...


Functional Genomic Investigation Of Aromatic Aminotransferases Involved In Ephedrine Alkaloid Biosynthesis In Ephedra Sinica (Stapf), Korey G. Kilpatrick Dec 2012

Functional Genomic Investigation Of Aromatic Aminotransferases Involved In Ephedrine Alkaloid Biosynthesis In Ephedra Sinica (Stapf), Korey G. Kilpatrick

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Ephedra sinica (Ephedraceae) is a broom-like shrub cultivated in arid regions of China, Korea and Japan. This medicinal plant accumulates large amounts of the ephedrine alkaloids, including (S)-cathinone, (1R,2S)-norephedrine, (1R,2S)-ephedrine and (1S,2S)-pseudoephedrine in its aerial tissues. These analogues of amphetamine mimic adrenaline and stimulate the sympathetic nervous system. While much is known about their pharmacological properties, the biological mechanisms by which they are synthesized remains largely unknown. A functional genomics platform was established in order to investigate alkaloid biosynthesis. RNA was extracted from Ephedra sinica stems and ...


Involvement Of Interleukin-33/St2 In Myocardial Dysfunction In Murine Model Of Sepsis, Yoonmi Choe Dec 2012

Involvement Of Interleukin-33/St2 In Myocardial Dysfunction In Murine Model Of Sepsis, Yoonmi Choe

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The disruption of myocardial extracellular matrix (ECM) has been implicated in myocardial dysfunction during sepsis. However, the underlying mechanism(s) are not clear. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a cytokine which regulates collagen synthesis in various cardiac pathologies. The purpose of the present study is to test whether IL-33 contributes to sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction through regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). The in vivo, feces-induced peritonitis (FIP) in mice and in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatments to isolated cardiomyocytes were used. In FIP mice, myocardial IL-33 and MMP-9 expression were increased and myocardial contractility was decreased. Myocardial function in FIP mice was improved when ...


Characterization Of A Tumour Suppressor Function Of Ranbpm, Elnaz Atabakhsh Nov 2012

Characterization Of A Tumour Suppressor Function Of Ranbpm, Elnaz Atabakhsh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Ran-binding protein M (RanBPM) is an evolutionarily conserved nucleocytosolic protein that has been proposed to regulate various cellular processes, including protein stability, gene expression, receptor-mediated signalling pathways, cell adhesion, development, and apoptosis. Despite the multitude of functions attributed to RanBPM however, little is known regarding the precise mechanisms by which RanBPM executes these cellular roles. In this work, we seek to address this matter by describing functions for RanBPM in the regulation of apoptotic and pro-survival signalling pathways, and in cellular transformation.

We first identify RanBPM as a pro-apoptotic protein that regulates the activation of the intrinsic apoptotic signalling pathway ...


Characterization Of Cardiomyopathy In A Mouse Model Of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (Dmd) Using Echocardiography, Dce-Ct, And Pet-Fdg, Seyed Hamed Moazami Nov 2012

Characterization Of Cardiomyopathy In A Mouse Model Of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (Dmd) Using Echocardiography, Dce-Ct, And Pet-Fdg, Seyed Hamed Moazami

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive neuromuscular disease that is the result of a loss of functional dystrophin, which causes cardiomyocyte fibrosis and death, leading to cardiomyopathy. In this thesis, I have utilized dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT), positron emission tomography-fluorodeoxyglucose (PET-FDG), echocardiography, and traditional histology to longitudinally assess disease progression and degree of cardiomyopathy in a murine model of DMD (mdx:utrn-/-). No significant changes were observed in the blood flow, blood volume, or cardiac volume measured via DCE-CT, nor in standard uptake value (SUV) of glucose as measured by PET-FDG in the left myocardium between and ...


Involvement Of Hexokinase1 In Plant Growth Promotion As Mediated By Burkholderia Phytofimans, Jae Min Park Aug 2012

Involvement Of Hexokinase1 In Plant Growth Promotion As Mediated By Burkholderia Phytofimans, Jae Min Park

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN consistently enhanced the growth of potato plants in vitro. The role of hexokinase1 in glucose phosphorylation was investigated in plants with PsJN. Increased hexokinase1 activity only in roots of PsJN-treated plants cultivar Kennebec suggests that hexokinase1 is associated with plant root and stem growth.

Plant growth with PsJN was determined when plants were grown with different sugars at various concentrations. PsJN-treated plants expressed diverse forms of growth promotion. When growth promotion did occur, hexokinase1 activity also increased. Growth promotion and hexokinase1 activity appear to be correlated to the enzyme to recognize the substrate for catalytic activity ...